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evaluate and choose appropriate software design patterns to compose the design of a software system










What is the importance of security?

Does the need of secure information flow require?

How much security is to be considered?

Secure the data exists in the system.

Does not allow any unauthorized person to enter into the system

Prevent data from being stolen when communication is done through open area network

The system will be costlier with higher security implementation

The systems will require more checks and verifications from user

The system will prevent any user to access the data of another user if he/she does not have that power.

Security is essential for better data transfer.

The implementation of authentication and authorization allows the system to protect the integrity of the operations

Implementing authorization and authentication for user access management.

Using encryption method for secure data transfer between the systems.



What transactions will be monitored?

What fields and characteristics will be kept?

Entire data coming from patient monitoring device will be stored.

Due to large amount of data, the system will face issues in functioning.

With increase in the user, the infrastructure and hardware need to be upgraded.

The stored data may cause issue in security of the system.

The patient and doctors can easily see their health condition in rea time

The doctors and patient need to track patient health condition periodically to see any change in health.

Critical health issues can be mitigated by early identification


Temporary mobile device log file



How much time the system takes to track the health condition and show it on the patient’s mobile device?

With increasing the system performance, the cost of the project will increase

The patients and doctors will be able track data faster

The system should show the user health records within maximum five seconds of request

The system can be created using Node.js

The hardware can be more powerful than generic systems



How many users the system can support?

How many devices can be tracked by the mobile application simultaneously?

The project cost will increase with system capability

Strong database will be needed to store the huge amount of data

Less data loss due to higher capacity

The system is like to have half a million devices connected to it.

Buy better storage media.

Disaster recovery plan

Back/Recovery plan



Will the system collect data 24*7?

Will the system collect data automatically?

How much time will take to recover a lost data?

The system will be costly due its availability all the time

The patients and doctors will be able to see the health-related data at any time

The system will inform if any major heart attack or similar health issue is about to happen or not. This will be very beneficial for urgent situations

The system will be available 24*7. If the user goes to sleep, the system will stop sending real time data to the mobile application.

The user will wait for five seconds to see the health data recording during patient sleeping

The system should be used to track the patient health and identity any critical attack, about to happen



Is a failsafe required?

How long the system server can be down?

Is it necessary to check and verify the inputted data?

Additional or improved hardware and software needed to increase reliability

The downtime must be as less as possible

An additional powers source is required to make sure that system will run even after electrical issues in the server premises

Install UPS it similar secondary power source



Is it essential to have accurate data?

The time and cost of implementing the system will increase

The reliability of the system will improve

The patient health is depended on the data present at the database

The system will not be able to improve the health condition of the patent if all the data are not accurate

The system will be implemented with various security checks and verification process to ensure data integrity



Is data recovery to be done regularly?

Adding the feature of data recovery will increase the cost of project

The database can easily get the lost data

The system downtime will be reduced hugely

The data will be copied into the data restore/recovery server



What operating systems the system will support?

The cost of the project will hugely increase with the system compatibility

The system will allow the users to restore the data if the change device (from iOS to Android or vice-versa)

The system will be developed for android and iOS devices.  

The system will use the third-party software as payment portal



What will be the architecture standard?

Time and Constraint will increase with better standard architecture

The software elements will be usable for longer time

The system should be working on the networked environment

System need to communicate to the server



What are the usability requirements?

Time and cost will increase with complexity

The patient and doctor will be able to use the system easily

The system will be easily accessible

Consistency between data collection process



Is documentation required?

Cost and time increase with documentation

Provide support to system users

The users can easily understand how to use the system

Hardcopy and soft copy of the system functions and how to use the system


Purpose: This document is written for describing the decisions, philosophy, important entities, justifications, constraints and other possible principal parts of Sandia Medical Devices System that form the system design and development.

Architectural Goals and Philosophy: The primary goals of the proposed system are the usability and availability. The system should not be designed through only focusing on the patient requirements but also considering the doctor requirements. Fast and real time data transfer is another goal of the system project.

To achieve the fast and accurate data routing, the system should not only be equipped with technical advanced hardware but also very efficient coding. The usability is something that connects the user with the system. That is why the system should be equipped with easy to understand graphical user interfaces and easy navigation. The system must be running all the time, that is 24*7 as a patient life depends on the devices. If the system is down and a patient experiences a major attack like heart attack, the situation can be very critical to solve. The system must take input from the patient body and send the data to connected mobile device and server in real time irrespective of time. If there is no internet connection, the system must store the data into local device and send the data later when the internet is active.

Assumptions and Dependencies: The proposed system is heavily depended on the hardware devices such as health input devices, server, data storage, mobile device and many more. The system will be connected to the server through mobile device. This means that if the mobile device is not working, the wearable medical device will be of no use. It has been assumed that wearable device will store the data in the mobile device first and then send the data to the server. Only the frequently accessed data will be saved to the mobile device for long time.

Architecturally Significant Requirements: The patients and doctors must easily access the application installed in the mobile device. The patient can access the reports and health information easily through the device.

The system should be up and running all the time. The device will not store all the data into the mobile if the patient is sleeping. This is because, the user will only see those data after waking up. That is why the essential data will be fetched periodically.

Remote access to the server is the biggest advantage of the proposed system. Internet connection is required to connect the application to the server. Even if net is not available, the mobile device will temporarily store the data until internet is active.

The system must manage the patient health data automatically within the server. The system will store those organized data and allow the mobile device to fetch the data as requested.

The system must alert the doctors and associated mobile numbers, at the time of emergency. If the attack is detected at early stage, the patent will be notified and instructed to follow safe procedure. If the attack is critical, the nearby hospital, doctor and relatives will be informed. The system will also share the location of it for easy navigation to the patient.


Decisions, Constraints and Justification: The interface will be designed based on the operating system of the device. The system will not be developed for web browser. The system will send reports to the mail id of the users on request. The server will handle all the data processing and knowledge generating procedures. For remote access, the system will depend on the mobile device. The user interface for the doctor and patient will be hugely different.

Main constraint of the system is the communication with the server. The server may go down for hours for technical reason or DDoS attack. The data cannot be uploaded to the server if the mobile device is not working. If the device is switched off, the system all the data will be lost.

In order to justify the price of the device, the system has made depended on the mobile device. Making a device that can have its own interface and connection to the server, can cost way more than affordable price range for normal people. The objective of the project is to reach out to as much people as possible.

Architectural Mechanism: The user interface for every device must be consistent. However, few changes can be seen due to the features of that specific mobile OS. The users will only access the authorized data and functions. The user can wipe through the whole application to see different types of data and functions. The owner of the system, the medical centers will have unrestricted access to the system, however they cannot delete or manipulate critical data like patient health, personal details and more.

The application installed within the mobile device will be the medium of communication between wearable device and server. The application will not process any of the raw data as it can cause the application to force the mobile hang. The application will transfer the data from mobile device to server. Only the important data like heart rate, glucose level and few more will be temporarily saved.

The system will be connected to the database. The system will store the data after it has been processed by the server.

Each of the users will have different login id and password. The system will have different authorization level to specify which user has access to which data and functions.

Architectural Style and Technological Framework: The system will be three tire architectural model. The presentation layer will display the information on the screen of mobile evinces. The application layer will be connecting server with mobile device, process data, generate report and many more. The data tire will be used for storing the data in an organized way and retrieving those data as requested by the user.

The functional components of the system are as following:

  1. Hardware:Data storage disks, wearable device, server hardware, firewall
  2. Software:Mobile application, data backup/restore application, antivirus
  • Database:Database Management System, Data rectifier
  1. Network:Communication medium, Bluetooth chips
  2. People: Patients, Doctors, Server Administrator, Client Organization    

Al-Masree, H.K., 2015. Extracting Entity Relationship Diagram (ERD) from relational database schema. International Journal of Database Theory and Application, 8(3), pp.15-26.

Azariadi, D., Tsoutsouras, V., Xydis, S. and Soudris, D., 2016, May. ECG signal analysis and arrhythmia detection on IoT wearable medical devices. In Modern Circuits and Systems Technologies (MOCAST), 2016 5th International Conference on (pp. 1-4). IEEE.

Bahk, J.H., Fang, H., Yazawa, K. and Shakouri, A., 2015. Flexible thermoelectric materials and device optimization for wearable energy harvesting. Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 3(40), pp.10362-10374.

Barokati, N., Wajdi, N. and Barid, M., 2017. Application Design Library With gamification concept. Jurnal Lentera: Kajian Keagamaan, Keilmuan dan Teknologi, 3(1), pp.93-102.

Camara, C., Peris-Lopez, P. and Tapiador, J.E., 2015. Security and privacy issues in implantable medical devices: A comprehensive survey. Journal of biomedical informatics, 55, pp.272-289.

Case, M.A., Burwick, H.A., Volpp, K.G. and Patel, M.S., 2015. Accuracy of smartphone applications and wearable devices for tracking physical activity data. Jama, 313(6), pp.625-626.

Chu, Y.C., Artan, N.S., Czarkowski, D., Chang-Chien, L.R. and Chao, J., 2015. High-efficiency high-current drive power converter IC for wearable medical devices. IEICE Electronics Express, 12(24), pp.20150953-20150953.

Davcev, D., Stojkoska, B., Kalajdziski, S. and Trivodaliev, K., 2016. Project based learning of embedded systems. arXiv preprint arXiv:1606.07498.

Haghi, M., Thurow, K. and Stoll, R., 2017. Wearable devices in medical internet of things: scientific research and commercially available devices. Healthcare informatics research, 23(1), pp.4-15.

Jebraeil, N., Noureddine, A., Doyle, J., Islam, S. and Bashroush, R., 2017, June. gUML: Reasoning about Energy at Design Time by Extending UML Deployment Diagrams with Data Centre Contextual Information. In Services (SERVICES), 2017 IEEE World Congress on (pp. 59-66). IEEE.

Khan, Y., Ostfeld, A.E., Lochner, C.M., Pierre, A. and Arias, A.C., 2016. Monitoring of vital signs with flexible and wearable medical devices. Advanced Materials, 28(22), pp.4373-4395.

Morrison, R.J., Hollister, S.J., Niedner, M.F., Mahani, M.G., Park, A.H., Mehta, D.K., Ohye, R.G. and Green, G.E., 2015. Mitigation of tracheobronchomalacia with 3D-printed personalized medical devices in pediatric patients. Science translational medicine, 7(285), pp.285ra64-285ra64.

Murakami, H., Kawakami, R., Nakae, S., Nakata, Y., Ishikawa-Takata, K., Tanaka, S. and Miyachi, M., 2016. Accuracy of wearable devices for estimating total energy expenditure: comparison with metabolic chamber and doubly labeled water method. JAMA internal medicine, 176(5), pp.702-703.

Patel, M.S., Asch, D.A. and Volpp, K.G., 2015. Wearable devices as facilitators, not drivers, of health behavior change. Jama, 313(5), pp.459-460.

Zhang, L., Shi, L., Zhang, B., Zhao, L., Dong, Y., Liu, J., Lian, Z., Liang, L., Chen, W., Luo, X. and Pei, S., 2017. Probabilistic Entity-Relationship Diagram: A correlation between functional connectivity and spontaneous brain activity during resting state in major depressive disorder. PloS one, 12(6), p.e0178386.

Zhang, M., Raghunathan, A. and Jha, N.K., 2014. Trustworthiness of Medical Devices and Body Area Networks. Proceedings of the IEEE, 102(8), pp.1174-1188.

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