1. Give a brief overview of subject mentioned in the chapter title.
2. Give a clear reflection about the importance of the chapter in becoming a teacher/leader.
3. Give a clear explanation of how the chapter does or does not provide helpful information in becoming a teacher/leader.
4. Evidence of two responses to postings of other students within the course.
Chapter 6 describes the performance objectives of three domain; affective domain, cognitive domain and psychomotor domain. On the other hand, this chapter provides proper aims and objectives of curriculum development for an educational program. This chapter has provided different case studies to understand the aims, objective of the curriculum development. The importance of taxonomy for the teachers in order to build effective objectives for the purpose of education has been described in this chapter.
Chapter 7 describes the importance of activities and content selection for the teachers in order to draw an effective curriculum development program. This chapter defines the difference between knowledge and content. Therefore, the necessity of these differences helps to understand the making of curriculum development within the education program.
Chapter 8 describes the need of changes within an educational organization. This chapter describes that teacher should be involved in the process of professional development, effective utilization of power etc. This chapter also has described the future of leadership mechanism within the educational sector.
Chapter 9 describes the importance of evaluation and the significance of curriculum within the educational sector. It helps to describe the reform as well as transformation of schools in accordance with the requirements of children and teachers also. This chapter also has described the significance of evaluation within the aspect of teachers.
Chapter 10: This chapter describes the daily lesson planning and implementation of lesson plans for the teachers and students of the education setting. This chapter also describes the different techniques of involving different students within the projects, textbook presentation and other activities. This chapter also provides the effective relationship between instructive technique and curriculum development process for the students of the school.
Chapter 11: This chapter provides the future trends and development of the curriculum development techniques. Trends of reforming different subjects have also been discussed within this chapter. Different types of assessment techniques have been discussed in this chapter.
Curriculum development is very important as well as essential element for the future development of the students of school level. However, this chapter provides detail background of the aims as well as objective of curriculum development for the students and teachers. Curriculum developers are those who create curriculum development program for the students. These curriculum developers are involved within the group of teachers, instructional supervisors and administrators (Bereiter, 1986). These people are very much responsible for the future achievement of the students. Therefore, the teacher should know the aims, objective and purpose of curriculum development that will help their students for the further development.
On the other hand, chapter seven provides the difference of contents for improving the curriculum for the students of the organization. This should be known by every teacher to select the best contents for the students. However, the teacher should know the five important factors for selecting the effective content for the students. The teacher should know the needs and requirements of students in accordance with the social self-needed of the students (Fox, Lonne & McDonald, 2001). On the other hand, this chapter has provided the requirements of knowledge for the future career option of the student. Many often, it can be heard that, different schools fail to teach the students for doing masters in their particular field of study. Subject centered curriculum has been developed since many years and it has affected negatively upon the students. Therefore, it can be stated that educational curriculum should be based upon the knowledge-based curriculum. Teacher should provide effective knowledge about the particular subject. The teacher should provide knowledge based example of every practical situation.
However, chapter eight has described about the changes between different set up of school. More schools have faced issues while considering the curriculum for the development of the students within the set up of school (Henson,2001).
As a teacher, I should provide an effective curriculum for the students that can match with the proper materials of study within the school.
Chapter 9 describes the evaluation process of curriculum and instruction towards the process of learning within the students and teachers. The reformation of education has been described within this chapter. The reformation process is very necessary for the development of the student within the future development. The purpose of assessment has been discussed in this chapter. Therefore, the teacher should know the process of assessment for the future development of the student within the educational setting (Ihde, 2000).
As a teacher, I would rather provide a valuable process of assessment for the educational purpose. Assessment is very necessary for the effective purpose of the education.
Chapter 10 describes the process of planning as well as converting curriculum within the instruction. However, this chapter helps to discuss the planning procedure of long-term planning and daily planning of lesson for the teachers. However, this chapter is essential for the teacher in order to provide effective planning of the curriculum for the student. Long term planning is essential for the teacher to develop curriculum for the students. Development of learning unit plan is also essential for the teachers (Ryan &Tilbury, 2013). However, this chapter discusses about the philosophy of life of the teachers.
This chapter is helpful for the teachers in order to develop the learning about the philosophy and goals of the life. Daily lesson planning is very essential for the teacher. Therefore, the teacher should know the effectiveness of daily lesson planning for the development of curriculum for the students (Westbury, 1980).
Chapter 11 has described the current and future trends of the curriculum development for the students. This chapter is essential for the teachers as it describes new trends of curriculum development. Teacher should focus upon different types of curriculum development of different schools within the world. However, this is very necessary for the teachers to enhance as well as improve the curriculum of his/her own school in accordance with the different schools of competitive sector.
The teachers should be able to find the gap in the learning process. Therefore, they should be able to draw a new curriculum for the students within different discipline or subjects. As a teacher, I would rather prefer innovative learning with the help of ICT (Information, communication and technology). I would complete the whole curriculum with the help of effective learning procedure of other countries. I would prefer developed thinking for the students.
Chapter 6 describes the importance of aims, goals and objectives of curriculum development among the students of different schools. This chapter describes that every curriculum developers should know the aims, objectives and goals for developing the effective curriculum. However, this chapter has also described the role of curriculum developers in order to develop curriculum for the students (Lund & Tannehill, 2014). Effectiveness of performance evaluation, valued outcomes and alternative assessment help the educators for determining the satisfaction level among the students.
However, chapter 7 describes the importance of selecting the appropriate content and activities for the students. This chapter has described the actors and arenas of curriculum planning. As discussed by Pinar (2013), curriculum planning can happen within several levels; class room, region, state, school district, nation as well as world. There are some problems regarding the activities and content selection. However, this chapter has explained that several important factors are there for selecting the best content. National goal for the reformation of education, demands of the society, needs of the students, human development and type of knowledge and nature are the important factors those can be helpful for selecting the best content. However, there are some effective relationships between the content, knowledge and information in order to develop curriculum for the students.
Chapter 8 describes the change factors for the organization as well as school for this case. Change is very necessary for removing the stagnant condition of an organization. There are some conditions those can be helpful for achieving any type of change within the organization. However, there are some barriers for the changes within the organization. Changing of organization also requires some effective changes within the behaviors of individual people of the organization (Santos et al. 2012). Traditional classroom based education, perception of teachers; habits of students can be the barriers for the changes of the organization. However, with the help of Herzberg’s Motivation theory, teachers should also be motivated by the organization. Empowerment of teachers is also very necessary purpose for initiating the changes within the organization (Porter et al. 2011).
Chapter 9 describes the common methods of evaluation among the organization. The importance of evaluation is being described within this chapter. There are some common methods for evaluating the aspect of school curriculum. Common methods are involved within the standardized tests, stanine scores, school wide standards, normal distribution curve etc. However, it also describes the common needs for complementary grading system for the educational organization (Kober & Rentner, 2012).
Chapter 10 describes the process of planning and converting curriculum into instruction. There are some strategies of curriculum and instruction for the development of plan. Teachers are often has been neglected from this process. Therefore, teachers should be involved within this process of planning. Long range planning is very essential for the effective development of curriculum within the educational organization. The unit plan and daily lesson planning are very essential for the process of curriculum development (McTighe & Wiggins,2012).
Chapter 11 has described the recent as well as future trends of curriculum development. There are some factors those affect the process of achievement within the curriculum development process of a school. This chapter has described the process of implementing lesson plan in accordance with the time management strategy, learning cycle theory and daily lesson planning.
Bereiter, C. (1986). The Reading Comprehension Lesson: A Commentary on Heap's Ethnomethodological Analysis. Curriculum Inquiry, 16(1), 65.doi:10.2307/1179553
Fox, T., Lonne, B., & McDonald, C. (2001).Curriculum development for professional ethics in Australian human service university programmes.Curriculum Journal, 12(2), 241-259.doi:10.1080/09585170122855
Henson, K. (2001). Curriculum planning. Dubuque, IA: McGraw-Hill.
Ihde, T. (2000). Curriculum Development and Textbook Design for North American Learners of Irish. Language, Culture And Curriculum, 13(1), 1-12.doi:10.1080/07908310008666586
Kober, N., & Rentner, D. S. (2012). Year Two of Implementing the Common Core State Standards: States' Progress and Challenges. Center on Education Policy.
Lund, J., & Tannehill, D. (2014). Standards-based physical education curriculum development. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
McTighe, J., & Wiggins, G. (2012). From Common Core Standards to Curriculum: Five Big Ideas. Privately Published Paper.
Pinar, W. F. (2013). International handbook of curriculum research. Routledge.
Porter, A., McMaken, J., Hwang, J., & Yang, R. (2011). Common core standards the new US intended curriculum. Educational Researcher, 40(3), 103-116.
Ryan, A., &Tilbury, D. (2013). Uncharted waters: voyages for Education for Sustainable Development in the higher education curriculum. Curriculum Journal, 24(2), 272-294.doi:10.1080/09585176.2013.779287
Santos, M., Darling-Hammond, L., & Cheuk, T. (2012). Teacher development to support English language learners in the context of common core state standards. In Understanding Language Conference, Stanford University, California. h ttp://ell. stanford. edu/sites/default/files/pdf/academic-papers/10-Santos% 20LDH% 20Teacher% 20Development% 20FINAL. pdf.
Westbury, I. (1980). The Impact of the Journal of Curriculum Studies: a Citation Analysis. Journal Of Curriculum Studies, 12(2), 149-156.doi:10.1080/0022027800120206
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