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Overview of the Lobbying Practice

Discuss about te Lobbying Study Relevance to European Integration.

Lobbying creates an opportunity for an individual to express themselves, through lobbying the voice and demands of people can be heard, and their desires will be well known by the concerned party whom they are addressing their grievances. In Europe, lobbying was of much importance as it influenced the targeted public administration system thus leading to the growth of the economy thus enabling Europe to integrate (Univ 2014).

The verb lobbying was derived from the term ‘lobby' as a strong position. The phrase is over and over again linked to municipal affairs administration, benefit and opinionated activities. Lobbying is decisively entrenched in the Anglo-Saxon political planet and is regarded as apprehensive to other cultures (Wagner 2011). Some scholars define lobbying as an attempt people or cooperation makes to influence others (Oregon 2010). In law, lobbying can be defined as a lawmaking accomplishment that occurs through an oral or even a hand or typed conversation that has been written by congressional officials.   Lobbying is often meant to solicit other people. In some circumstances, lobbying can be described as a process of    influencing legislative action or even the process whereby some individuals often do anything of their will and ability so as to get hold of the proper will of lawmaking officials. This paper is meant to help us understand the importance of studying lobbying, provide an overview of European integration and relate an individual understanding of lobbying to European integration.

More often, groups involved in lobbying can be subdividing into various categories. Some of the Businesses that lobbies include; small medium size enterprises (SME's), trade unions, multinational companies and professions (Bernhagen and Marshall 2015). European Union (EU), interest groups started the act of lobbying during the beginning of the process of European integration. The pressure groups in Europe began by investing their resources in lobbying activities following the widespread gospel of lobbying. The EU was forced to develop wide regulations that were meant for influencing various businesses and also the community interests and desires. The regulations and policy developed by the EU would influence EU member state citizens and impacts on their impact both in the general environment and in individual cases.

Lobbying is perceived as a legal practice in democratic societies. In some states such as Europe, lobbying practice is governed by centralized and regional acts. Nevertheless, final lobbying decision is often made by lobbying officials. The action of lobbyists' official to make final decisions on behalf of individuals may or might fail to have an impact on what they are advocating for. Usually, the phrase lobbying over and over again interconnected to bribery. Lobbying is regarded as bribery if it is a subject of a fine line. Bribery is an action that occurs when an individual gives tokens to officials or concerned parties in return of favor. It is, however, ironical that bribery is considered illegal whereas lobbying is an acceptable legal practice (Teachout 2014). Lobbyists' officials in states like Europe are often required by the government to register the lobbying business to the senate secretary (Sahajwani 2012). Bribery acts are however viewed as a transformation process for the traditional societal social order systems and societal hierarchy that twists the values and principles of the society. Bribery is a bad judgment as it gives an unfair advantage to the person giving out bribes. Persistence and uncontrolled practice of bribery erode societal values and cause disfavor to vulnerable community members (Sahajwani 2012).

Brief Summary on European Integration

European integration is an industrialized, social and politicized integration process. European integration can also be defined as a legal, economic and cultural integration progression of either the whole or some parts of Europe (Niemann and Ioannou 2015). European integration has been caused by human migration, growth in technology and trading of goods. Europe registers a high number of migrations every year (Balthazar et al. 2014). Movements in Europe have influenced European labor industries employment opportunities, unemployment, trade orientation, import and export and competition (Vinokurov 2016). Effects of globalization have led to the growth of technology which has in turn affected the economic integrations process in Europe (De, Gesthuizen and Wolbers 2014). Trading of goods in Europe has enabled its economic integration due to market diversity. European markets have diversified trade in the state so as to accommodate and connect the entire state to the global market. Thus, the trading of goods in Europe has greatly influenced the successful achievement of its integration process. All that above factors that caused European integration led to the formation of European unions and development of the union policies which in turn led to the European integration process.

Through the study of lobbying more than two hundred companies were able to build up direct lobbying capacities in Brussels, this occurred between the year 1984 and 1994 (Tsvetanov 2016). Political activities in Europe had a shift from a national to a European institutionalized channel. For example; the general trend of European integration to date is that of firms and cooperatives representation of individuals at the national government, in the European Parliament and at the national associations. European Parliament was developed so as to assist people in representing their lobbying cases rather than using professional lobbyists and the national associations to act as lobbying advocate for people. Over time as lobbying studies continued to be enhanced businesses realized that all channels for lobbying were of great significance as they advocated for lobbying involvement at the national, regional and all the EU institutions thus leading to a more efficient policy development of the lobbying process (Berkhout et al. 2015).

Despite the legislative changes made by the EU government regarding lobbying the European Commission still holds onto the principal focus of lobbying to  be associated to lobbying actions in Brussels through trade links and also directly. The European Commission is still assumed to be the leading policy entrepreneur as its holds the responsibility of demanding behavioral procedures of both national and citizen participation. This is made possible through holding strategy meetings and conferences.  The actions of the European Commission to create citizens lobbying awareness through conferences and meetings have enabled people to acquire more knowledge on lobbying (Linde et al. 2015). The most significant development in lobbying in Europe states especially in Brussels has been possible due to the materialization of professionally educated lobbying pluralist bargains. The acknowledgment of the elite pluralism has raised the necessary lobbying developments in lobbying for over twenty years (Griffen 2015). Lobbying study has thus enabled the European citizens to acquire more knowledge regarding their resources within the government and how different firms and companies apply the lobbying practice. Lobbying study has thus promoted both social and economic integration in Europe. Through training, conferences, and meetings people can fully integrate as they will be able to advocate for their lobbying rights whenever they feel that it is not being practiced well or as they desire.  Lobbying awareness creation has promoted economic development in Europe has companies and firms have been able to apply lobbying practices thus leading to gaining of more income which in turn boosts a country economy through revenue payments to the governments. Revenue paid to the government can be used to develop the government projects thus leading to economic integration (Grant 2016).

Contributions of Lobbying Study to European Integration

Lobbying awareness creation has resulted in the emergence of a more and more jam-packed and aggressive lobbying environments. Lobbying ideology has been taken in by people, organizations, and institutions both from the public and private interests.  Individuals concerns and development of interest in lobbying has enabled an evolution in the lobbying system which has contributed to the development of new lobbying strategies, influenced cooperative actions arrangements and encouraged the development of complex of political advocacy alliances. For example; the European Commission has evolved many bodies to advocate for the lobbying rights of individuals. One of the most public commissions known in   Europe for advocacy of citizens lobbying rights is the European Parliament (EP). Other bodies have also emerged to help in advocating for lobbying rights of European citizens especially the vulnerable. Advocating for people rights within a community often promotes economic, social and political integration (Liedong 2015). Europe has thus been able to achieve integration through social, political and economic lobbying advocacies which enable people to grow their trust in the government of the day. Given that, EU interests have full-grown into complicated interlocutors that regularly creates more understanding of inter-institutional conflicts other than the functionaries of lobbying.

EU interests in lobbying studies have led to improved access to and enhanced a more understanding of multilevel administrative structure a lobby progressions with numerous political advocacy concerns. Even though this seems unpredictable, sudden lobbying increase has provided an opportunity for legality within the European integration programs.  Through lobbying awareness in education and training programs, much emphasis has been placed on openness and transparency especially in the approach to EU-policy-making structures.EU policy making structures has, in turn, exerted more pressure in the creation of rules and regulations among the interests of lobbying representations.  Nevertheless, it is important for lawmakers and academicians to observe people benefit through their contributions throughout the policy-making process, such decisions should be influenced by multilevel and institutional lobbying interests. Studying of lobbying has enabled the EU to manage and regulate the continuously expanding number of individuals who keeps developing interests on acquiring more information concerning lobbying and its contributions of lobbying to the European  Union public guiding principle processes in a more constructive and positive process (Klüver 2013  ). However, there is still concern on whether the selected interest groups representing citizens in advocating for lobbying policy making procedures has a sets strategy of monitoring and regulating people access to policy process without necessarily having to constrain the exchange of information and political trust (Berry 2015).  Lobbying enabled Europe to acquire integration through transparency thus encouraging more foreign investor's increase in Europe. The idea of the government choosing representatives to represent people ideas have given Europe mileage towards achieving integration as only qualified personnel are called in policy making process. Thus it's easy for trained personnel to formulate policies that will benefit both the local and international states.

The lobbying practice is necessarily intended to support and foster open admittance to the government. It permits the community an opportunity for providing information and also gives their contributions to the state, especially in instances where the impacts of the amended law on every person. Lobbying has no bureaucrat term. However, lobbyist specialists perform the responsibility of engaging, information sharing and involving interested community members in a participatory communication approach. The main aim of lobbyists in reaching out to the community is to make sure that people are well equipped with knowledge that will enable them to make appropriate decisions regarding lobbying practice. Such lobbyists' training enhances the development of individual social and political rights as citizens can make their rightfully perceived decisions. When people are allowed to make decisions on matters affecting themselves, peace is likely to prevail. Peace will promote political stability and progressive economic development of a country thus leading to a state integration.  Political and economic stability brought about y citizens having access to appropriate and sufficient lobbying information has significantly contributed to European integration.

Lobbying among different policy making levels implies that the parties concerned with lobbying have to set their target geared towards individual authorities.  Targeting appropriate authorities by lobbying agents will enable a firm or cooperative achieve success as they are assured of attaining effective lobbying process when they choose an competent authority.  In the United States, the majority of people who practice lobbying are likely to be found in Washington where comprehensive legislation during a decision making process bodies are found. Such organizations include the United States Congress. On the other hand, the European   Union lobbying agents are often more concentrated in Brussels. Brussels is also the location of the European Commission, Brussels also hosts European Parliament. When EU is involved in a lobbying process members often meet in Brussels to look unto it or analyze the lobbying situation and also to conduct other important sessions that appertain to lobbying. Every month, Lobbyists often meet at European Parliament office located in Strasbourg for a conference and at Luxembourg administrative office which is also the location for Europeans members of parliament (Schreuder, 2011). Lobbyists political meetings is a mode of promoting European integration as through the meeting the parliamentarians can discuss lobbying issues affecting the nations and how to overcome such issue as a nation.

Conclusion

Lobbying is the process of exchanging information and creation of communication networks concerning exhaustive knowledge and competencies. People in European States often practice lobbying due to the benefits it impacts on their organizations, firms or even country. Lobbying benefits firms as it provides the companies with opportunities of benefiting from communication right from the policy level (Suder 2011).  The practice of lobbying is also important as it helps organizations within a country to maintain strong networks with appropriate government departments and institution's, this is because the of the effects the public policy formulation and implementations often have on consumers welfare being that it is controlled by the government. The world business interest is at stake. The studying of lobbying is, therefore, important as it will help in transforming an integrating the economic situation of most countries within the globe. Nations often lobby as they have the desire of ensuring that businesses policies bestrode upon the government are predictable and fair and has the potential for benefiting investors in the country.  Lobbying advocates have ensured that the planning objectives for businesses have the ability for creating equal entrepreneurial opportunities for all stakeholders within the marketing triangle. Most firms would practice lobbying for the interest of growing their cooperatives especially in situations where their businesses are at stake. The companies are likely to practice lobbying so as defend their institutions or businesses from collapsing or rather preventing the worse from happening. Most nations are likely to employ a positive motivation effort while handling the lobbying issues.

References

Baltazar-Soares, Biastoch, Harrod, Hanel, Marohn, L., Prigge, E., Evans, D., Bodles, K., Behrens, E., Böning, C.W. and Eizaguirre, C., 2014. Recruitment and population structure of the European eel-shaped by local ocean current dynamics. Current Biology, 24(1), pp.104-108

Berkhout, Carroll,  Braun, Chalmers, Destrooper, Lowery, D., Oates, S. and Rasmussen, A., 2015. Interest organizations across economic sectors: explaining interest group density in the European Union. Journal of European public Policy, 22(4), pp.462-480

Bernhagen, P., Dür, A. and Marshall, D., 2015. Information or context: what accounts for positional proximity between the European Commission and lobbyists?. Journal of European Public Policy, 22(4), pp.570-587

De Lan Berry, J.M., 2015. Lobbying for the people: The public interest groups  political behavior of. Princeton University Press

De Lange, Gesthuizen, and Wolbers, M.H., 2014. Youth labor market integration across Europe: the impact of cyclical, structural, and institutional characteristics. European Societies, 16(2), pp.194-212

Grant, R.M., 2016. Contemporary strategy analysis: Text and Cases edition. John Wiley & Sons

Griffen, A.J., 2015. Listening to the concerns of African American Educational Lobbyists and Their Role in Lobbying for Education (Doctoral dissertation, Texas A&M University)

Klüver, H., 2013. Lobbying in the European Union: interest groups, lobbying coalitions, and policy change. Oxford University Press

Liedong, T.A., Ghobadian, A., Rajwani, T. and O'Regan, N., 2015.  Complementarily trust view: trust and policy influence effects of corporate social responsibility and corporate political activity. Group & Organization Management, 40(3), pp.405-427

Linde, P., Wessels, B., Smallwood, R., Price, L., Norman, M., Wyatt, S. and Sondervan, J., 2015 Feasibility of uutiliziexisting open access networks to support the harmonization of open access.

Niemann, A. and Ioannou, D., 2015. European economic integration in times of crisis: a case of neofunctionalism? Journal of European Public Policy, 22(2), pp.196-218

Oregon Government, 2010. What is Lobbying?, Oregon: Oregon.

Sahajwani, M., 2012. The Differences between Bribery and Lobbying. [Online] Available at: https://www.investopedia.com/financial-edge/0912/the-differences-between-bribery-and-lobbying.aspx [Accessed 3 February 2017].

Suder, G., 2011. Doing Business in Europe. 2nd ed. London: SAGE.

Teachout, Z., 2014. The forgotten law of lobbying. Election Law Journal, 13(1), pp.4-26.

Tsvetanov, E., 2016. Russian Politics or Russian Energy Industry Lobbying: European Union Perspectives. A tale of gas and politics. Journal of Promotional Communications, 3(3)

Univ Kern, K., 2014. Climate governance in the European Union multilevel system: The role of cities. Multilevel environmental governance. Managing water and climate change in Europe and North America, pp.111-130. ersity Press, USA

Vinokurov, E., Balás, P., Emerson, M., Havlik, P., Pereboyev, V., Rovenskaya, E., Stepanova, A., Kofner, J. and Kabat, P., 2016. EU–EAEU in Greater Eurasia: Long-Term Agenda for Economic Cooperation-Workshop Report

Wagner, S. M., 2011. The corporate political activities of multinational enterprises: the automotive industry and environmental regulations in the European Union, Loughborough: Loughborough University.

Wallace, H., Pollack, M.A. and Young, A.R. eds., 2015. Policy-making in the European Union. Oxford

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