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The Rise of Photovoltaics and Concentrated Solar Power

Photovoltaics (PV), Concentrated Solar Power (CSP), or a mix of the two are all forms of solar power that use the sun's free energy to generate electricity. Using lenses, mirrors, and solar tracking devices, concentrated solar power plants concentrate a huge area from sunlight in a narrow beam. The Photovoltaic cells which are used for photovoltaic effect which is to turn light in electricity. Initially, photovoltaics was utilised only for tiny and medium-sized purposes, such as a calculator generated by single solar cell or even a distant residence powered by the off-grid rooftop PV system (Farjami and Mohamedali, 2017). In1980s, concentrated solar power facilities became commercially viable. Since then, the number of solar PV systems which are grid-connected has increased at a nearly exponential rate as the cost of solar power has decreased. More than a million deployments and many gigawatt-scale solar power plants are and have been being developed worldwide. Solar photovoltaics (PV) have swiftly risen to the status of a low-cost, low-carbon technology. Twenty percent of consumption in global energy would come from the renewable sources like solar under "Net Zero by 2050" scenario of International Energy Agency, which was released in 2021. The country with most solar panels is China. Solar power produced 3.5 percent energy of the world in 2020, compared to less than 3 percent year before. The levelized cost of energy for the generation of solar energy for utility-scale in 2020 was roughly $36/MWh, while the cost for the installation was around one dollar per DC watt.

In comparison to the rest of Europe, Cyprus has greater solar power options. One of the most ambitious targets in European Union would be reached by 2020 when the total share of photovoltaic as well as concentrated solar power in Cypriot energy generation reaches 7%. Targets for Spain are 8%, Greece 5%, Germany 7%, Portugal 4%, Malta 1%, and Italy 2%. Space and water heating may be provided by using solar energy (Kassem, Zoubi and Gökçeku?, 2019). Cyprus has the most solar heating per capita in Europe in 2010: 611 W per capita. Similarly, Austria had 385, Greece had 253, as well as Germany had 120. EU-wide, this capability was lowest in EU in 2010, with large untapped domestic energy potential in Finland, Estonia, Latvia, as well as Lithuania. Denmark, a Scandinavian nation, has a value of 68. The following article is a literature review which will inspect various sides that has been researched about the renewable energy technology of solar power in Cyprus.

The primary goal of the research undertaken by Olusola et al., 2017 is to evaluate the development, utility, as well as policy for solar water heaters in Cyprus. The significance of the solar water heaters located in Cyprus is examined in this research from the standpoint of consumers (Olusola et al., 2017). Cyprus has highest per capita ratio of SWH system in the world, despite the fact that it does not have a SWH systems policy in place at the moment. The information was gathered from a number of SWH manufacturers and merchants in the surrounding area. On the island of Cyprus, residents of one thousand housing units were questioned about the utility and feasibility of their SWH, both in long as well as short term.  Statistical package SPSS is used to analyse the data acquired, and a strategy is presented that will advance development of the SWH. For locally created goods, thermosyphon type of the solar water heater is used, which consists of 2 flat-plate solar collectors with absorber area ranging from 160 x 80 cm which is for the locally manufactured items to 190 x 90 cm for imported products. It is expected that the total number of systems deployed in residential structures in Cyprus surpasses 80,000 units. According to the findings, eight out of every ten households have SWH systems installed, as well as almost half of houses deprived of solar water heating have the plans to set up system in near future (Olusola et al., 2017). The majority of hot water generated by system can be used for bathing, and it really is worth noting that more than 80 percent of those who were questioned believe that system is worthwhile investing in. The article contains a thorough description of all of the results from this investigation, which is presented in an appropriate manner.

Solar Power Options in Cyprus

Kassem et al., 2020 conducted research in which they conducted Statistical Analysis, Assessment, as well as Feasibility Study for Solar Energy Technology for the region of Northern Cyprus. The authors stated that Solar energy is the energy source which is growing fastest in the world, with an annual growth rate of more than 20%. New technologies may be able to assist in increasing the amount of electricity generated from solar energy. People as well as the government are being urged to create power based on solar-energy projects in order to attain sustainable energy infrastructures, particularly in developing nations, according to the purpose of the current article (Kassem, Çamur and Alhuoti, 2020). A road map for solar energy is also presented in this document, which is intended to encourage investors to make investments in technology of clean energy, which will assist to mitigate the effects of global warming while also promoting sustainable technological progress. Consequently, first objective in this paper is to analyze as well as compare monthly solar radiation of the globe for the five places in the area of Northern Cyprus by using measured data from Meteorological Department as well as estimated values from database of satellite imagery.

The data used in this analysis and comparison are collected from Meteorological Department and the satellite imagery database, respectively. The statistical analysis of mean hourly meteorological data, which include air temperature, global solar radiation, as well as sunshine, humidity, as well as relative humidity, it is also carried out, and the kind of distribution functions used is determined by looking at skewness as well as kurtosis values. As a result, assessing global solar radiation helps to enhance solar energy generating plans while also lowering the cost of measurement. As a result, surface models were examined using polynomial modifications while taking values of the R-squared into consideration (Kassem, Çamur and Alhuoti, 2020). At the end of the research, a thorough as well as integrated analysis of feasibility of the 100 MW solar plant project which is grid-connected  as the economic project in the specified area is provided in order to decrease electricity prices and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is provided to the reader. It was necessary to undertake a feasibility study in order to determine the optimal site for a 100-megawatt photovoltaic plant which is grid-connected in terms of energy output, greenhouse gas emissions, as well as financial aspects. The RET Screen Expert program was used to complete the study. After everything was said and done, the findings revealed that the planned solar system can be utilized to generate electricity in Northern Cyprus.

Mahmoud Ouria and Harun Sevinc (2018) published an essay titled "Evaluation of potential of the solar energy usage in Famagusta, Cyprus" in which they state that They looked at the usage of the solar energy in urban environments, with the city of Famagusta in Cyprus serving as an example. Solar energy potential of Famagusta City was calculated by taking into consideration all of the meteorological and geographic parameters. Following that, the potential for solar energy usage in Social Housing Complex of Famagusta district was thoroughly examined and documented. Based on the Famagusta, effective characteristics of solar energy were analyzed using Duffie Beckman as well as Stephenson's cousin methodologies (Mahmoud Ouria and Harun Sevinc, 2018). These parameters included climatic elements, radiation kinds, orientation strategies, geographic parameters, ratio of height to width, as well as analysis of landscape. Rate of the irradiation in solar energy was examined for the vertical, horizontal, as well as inclined surfaces of blocks as well as routes of SHC in the City of Famagusta using the Ladybug for the Rhino as well as Microsoft Excel software tools, which were both developed by the University of Florida. The findings of this analysis revealed that the district's terrain is very inefficient in terms of solar energy production. Despite the fact that there is a significant source of the solar energy creating intense heat, solar energy has not been efficiently used since district is not even walkable, particularly in afternoon. A recommendation is made to make pedestrians' lives easier by planting hardwood trees, installing solar panels to create renewable electricity for lighting, and paving using the permeable materials, among other things.

The Significance of Solar Water Heaters in Cyprus

Statistical analysis for the characterization of solar energy utilization and inter-comparison of solar radiation at two sites in Cyprus by Pashiardisa, Kalogiroua and Pelengaris, 2017 explains that The results of a statistical analysis as well as inter-comparison of the solar radiation at 2 sites in the Cyprus representing 2 various regimes of climate of island (Larnaca-coastal location vs Athalassa-inland plain) over period of January 2013 to December 2015 are presented, with results spanning a period of January 2013 to December 2015. The mean annual as well as mean monthly totals of horizontal beam, global, as well as diffuse radiation, as well as their frequency distributions at both locations, are estimated and analyzed in this paper. Values of the skewness as well as kurtosis coefficients were used to determine frequency distribution type of aforementioned radiation parameters on monthly basis, as well as type frequency distribution is defined as follows: The statistical analysis is expanded to include daily clearness index (KT), diffuse ratio (KD), as well as ratio of the horizontal beam to the global radiation, among other measurements (KB, G). Moreover, influencing variables on the size of radiation elements were investigated in further detail. Value of KT had been used to differentiate between three various sorts of days, like clear, partly cloudy, as well as overcast days, respectively (Pashiardis, Kalogirou and Pelengaris, 2017). An examination of solar radiation was then conducted using statistical methods. On annual average, more over 80% of days are classed as either clear or somewhat cloudy at both the stations, according to the weather station data. Additionally, the effects of atmospheric absorption as well as scattering of the solar radiation under the clear skies was investigated using Linke turbidity factor for determining the effect of the atmosphere on the solar radiation (TL).

Using the findings of this investigation, we can describe as well as compare radiation regimes of the two locations. In terms of global as well as direct intensity horizontal radiation, both locations are rather high in comparison. Athalassa has annual average of global radiation intensity of 18.5 MJ m2 while Larnaca has an annual average daily global radiation intensity of 19.9 MJ m2. Athalassa has a horizontal beam radiation of 13.1 MJ m2 while Larnaca has a horizontal beam radiation of 14.2 MJ m2. Because of this, the proportion of beam component of global radiation is comparably large at both sites, demonstrated by the yearly average daily fraction of higher than 0.600 at both locations. In general, Larnaca has somewhat higher rates of the global radiation than the Athalassa, as evidenced by average annual cumulative irradiation on global level for Athalassa, that is 6763 MJ m2 as well as 7274 MJ m2 for the Larnaca, respectively (Pashiardis, Kalogirou and Pelengaris, 2017).

Modelling as well as simulation of the absorption solar cooling system for the region of Cyprus which is an article by Floride et al in which the paper presents a model as well as simulation of such an absorption solar cooling system for water cooling. With TRNSYS simulation software and the usual meteorological year file with weather characteristics for Nicosia, Cyprus, the system is simulated and tested. Initially, system optimization process is carried out in order to determine the most suitable kind of collector, most acceptable amount of the storage tank, most appropriate collector slope as well as area, and most ideal thermostat setting for auxiliary boiler (Al-Ghussain, Abujubbeh and Fahrioglu, 2018). This system is comprised of a 15-m2 compound parabolic collector that is slanted 30 degrees from horizontal as well as a 600-l hot water tank of storage that has been optimized. Collector area is established after a life cycle study of the system is completed on the system. When nonsubsidized fuel cost of solar system is taken into account, the optimal solar system chosen results in life cycle savings around C£1376. When the thermostat of auxiliary boiler is set to 87°C, system performs at its peak performance level. On the basis of the system's long-term integrated performance, it can be determined that solar energy supplies 84,240 MJ necessary for cooling as well as 41,263 MJ required for hot water generation. Several solar collectors are used in conjunction with a vertical storage tank which is thermally-insulated, conventional boiler, the absorption refrigerator, an interconnecting plumbing to form the overall system. A schematic of system, which includes a representation of the simulation software. Modeling of the system is carried out using the TRNSYS simulation tool. TRNSYS is an abbreviation for 'transient program in simulation,' and it is a model which is quasi-steady of simulation that is used in the aerospace industry.

Feasibility Study for Solar Energy Technology in Northern Cyprus

Fountoulakis et al., 2021, in Effects of Aerosols and Clouds on the Levels of Surface Solar Radiation and Solar Energy in Cyprus states that by 2030, Cyprus intends to significantly expand the percentage of the renewable sources of energy, from 13.9 percent in the year 2020 to 22.9 percent in the year 2030, a significant increase. Solar energy has the potential to play a significant role in the endeavor to achieve this aim. Because of the island's low latitude and mostly clear summers, potential for the solar energy generation on the island is far greater than that of the majority of European territory (Fountoulakis et al., 2021). It is the goal of this study to quantify effects of dust, aerosols as well as clouds on the levels of solar radiation on the surface for period 2004–2017 using high quality as well as fine resolution satellite retrievals through latest developed MIDAS climatology as well as information for the clouds from the CM SAF for quantifying financial loss associated with various kinds of solar energy installations during this period. On the basis of the above facts, the surface solar radiation climatology had also been established. It was also decided to include ground-based observations in order to investigate contribution of various species to aerosol mixture as well as impacts of day-to-day variations of aerosols on the SSR. Aerosols have the attenuation of 5–10 percent of annual worldwide horizontal irradiation as well as 15–35 percent of direct normal irradiation annually, while the clouds attenuate 25–30 percent and 35–50 percent, respectively, of annual global horizontal irradiation as well as annual direct normal radiation exposure.

Dust is accountable for 30–50 percent of the total attenuation caused by aerosols as well as is also the most important regulator of fluctuation of total aerosol concentrations. All-sky global annual horizontal irradiation rose dramatically by 2 percent during the course of the research period, which was mostly related to variations in cloudiness and precipitation. The findings of this research demonstrate the relevance of SSR predictions for Cyprus, since day-to-day fluctuation of solar irradiation may be high, even on cloudless days, as a consequence of the huge variability of aerosol load that occurs in Cyprus (Fountoulakis et al., 2021). Accurate projections may give very valuable information for the optimization of the solar energy output, particularly in the summer. Maintenance on installations, for example, might be scheduled on days when output is low. A further advantage of precise projections of the total quantity of energy entering in the network in next hours or days is the ability for energy providers to improve their energy management policies and practices It should be noted that for the predictions to be validated, more ground-based data are required.

The study by Meliz Hastunç and Neyre Tekb?y?k-ErsoyNorth shows that Cyprus is reliant on fossil fuels for its energy needs. Because of the abundance of solar energy on the island, it may be possible to reduce or eliminate this reliance on imported energy. For this reason, several Retscreen evaluations were performed in order to build 4.85 kW solar rooftop systems in the Nicosia, Morphou, as well as Dipkarpaz as part of the current project. The primary goal was to determine whether or not the proposed installations were economically viable. The findings revealed that Morphou's solution was the most workable one (Hastunç and Tekb?y?k-Ersoy, 2018). A MATLAB simulation was then run-in order to identify the optimal number of installations for each city in order to optimise the overall quantity of power sent to the grid while taking practical limits into consideration. As a result, this research serves as a model for how to optimise power generation in North Cyprus via the use of solar energy.

This is a well fact because cities with a greater potential for solar energy have superior overall performance than other cities. Similarly, this may be noticed in the research. The simulations in this investigation were conducted out using Ret screen and MATLAB software. Using Ret screen, the findings suggest that Morphou is the city with the most practicable outcomes, with a simple payback time of 6.7 years as well as a present value of €816, and also that it is also the most expensive. As shown by Section III, which states that Morphou has the solar radiation values ranging from 1950 and 2000 kWh/m2 per year, this conclusion may be supported by other sources of information. Nicosia is the worst-case scenario, with simple payback time of 7.2 years as well as a net present value for just €216, it is the most expensive (Themistocleous, Stefanou and Iosif, 2018). According to the findings of MATLAB simulation, this can be concluded that Scenario 3 in the study has lowest number of installed systems. All three situations demonstrate that the distribution of Morphou is exactly one hundred percent in all three cases. This is owing to the large number of people that shop in Morphou. Because it has a lesser number of residents compared to Nicosia and Dipkarpaz, and because it has more potential, percentage distribution is larger in this city. It should be mentioned that the analyses that were undertaken in this research were primarily theoretical in nature. The results of future research will be used to determine if there is a potential of raising the capacity limitations on island in order to achieve a more realistic outcome.

The thesis written by Mehmet Yenen in 2015 gives an evaluation of solar as well as wind energy sources in the Northwestern Cyprus, with the goal of modelling the relationship between measurement as well as electrical energy output from wind and solar resources. It was necessary to establish measuring devices and evaluate the data collected by these systems in order to achieve the requirements of this thesis. The statistics for electrical energy generation from wind and sun energy were calculated using mathematical models that were already in existence. A Photovoltaic model which is circuit-based from the literature was employed, and the results were compared to the specifications of Serhatköy PV module spec sheet. When attempting to verify model, data from Global Tilted Irradiation system of Serhatköy PV farm was utilised, and an estimate of energy output at the site was derived with annual average error of 5 percent (Yenen, 2015). A prediction approach from the literature was utilised to estimate Global Horizontal Irradiation on Serhatköy based on measurements taken from Northern Cyprus Campus Middle East Technical University as well as Direct Normal Irradiation (DNI). The gaps in energy production may be addressed using the methods proposed in thesis, as well as a more accurate estimate of prospective energy output can be achieved. One of the primary objectives of thesis is to validate the approach that has been established in order to become capable of anticipating PV power generation with decent accuracy for any particular site in Northwestern Cyprus (Bamisile, et al., 2017). For production of wind energy, mathematical model from literature has been used. The estimated yearly solar power output in Serhatköy was 2118 kWh/m2 GTI, with annual average error of 2.37 percent, according to the estimates. Inferring the expected GTI value from the METU NCC measuring station, it was possible to forecast Serhatköy energy production with annual average inaccuracy of around 4%. In contrast to the findings of solar energy evaluation, the predictions for wind energy power production were below international norms. Throughout this thesis, comparisons using numerical were made and findings were compared to the other outcomes from European nations. Despite the fact that a technique for estimating wind power production has been created, it has been determined that it can only be used to METU NCC.

Conclusion

To sum up that has been stated above the Republic of Cyprus has the world's highest per capita ratio of sewage treatment systems (SWH systems), despite the fact that it does not currently have a policy on SWH systems in place. Because the vast majority of hot water created by system may be utilised for bathing, as well as due to 80 percent of those who were polled felt that the system is worthwhile investing in, it is worth mentioning that it is also carried out a study of mean hourly meteorological data, global solar radiation, as well as sunlight, humidity, and relative humidity, among other things. Among the other things included in this paper, which is meant to encourage investors to make investments in clean energy, is a road plan for solar energy development. Because the region is inaccessible by foot, especially in the afternoon, solar energy has not been used adequately. Planting hardwood trees, installing solar panels, and paving with permeable materials, among other things, are suggested as ways to make pedestrians' lives more comfortable. This paper presents the findings of a statistical study, as well as an intercomparison of solar radiation at two locations in Cyprus. Using the Cypriot weather stations in Athalassa and Larnaca, researchers have been able to determine how the atmosphere affects solar radiation (TL).

Both places are quite high in terms of global and horizontal radiation, and both locations are relatively high in contrast to other areas. Solar energy provides the 84,240 megajoules (MJ) needed for cooling and the 41,263 megajoules (MJ) required for hot water production. Thermally insulated vertical storage tanks, conventional boilers, absorption refrigerators, and interconnecting pipes are all utilised in unison to create the entire system. It was discovered that Cyprus' all-sky annual global horizontal irradiation increased considerably, increasing by 2% throughout the duration of this study period, which was mostly due to fluctuations in cloudiness and precipitation. Accurate forecasts may provide vital information for optimising solar energy production, which is especially important during the summer months. Morphou has more potential than Nicosia and Dipkarpaz combined. Morphou has the lowest number of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems installed of all of the countries in the world. This is due to the enormous number of people that shop in Morphou, as well as the fact that the town has a smaller population of inhabitants. Based on data made from the Northern Cyprus Campus of the Middle East Technical University, a prediction technique from the literature was utilised to estimate Global Horizontal Irradiation on Serhatköy.  

References

Al-Ghussain, L., Abujubbeh, M. and Fahrioglu, M., 2018, May. Assessment of PV investments in Northern Cyprus. In 16th Int. Conf. Clean Energy (pp. 9-11).

Bamisile, O.O., Babatunde, A.A., Dagbasi, M. and Wole-Osho, I., 2017. Assessment of solar water heating in Cyprus: utility, development and policy. International Journal of Renewable Energy Research (IJRER), 7(3), pp.1448-1453.

Farjami, E. and Mohamedali, A., 2017. Evaluating interior surfaces including finishing materials, ceiling, and their contribution to solar energy in residential buildings in Famagusta, North-Cyprus, Turkey. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 75, pp.338-353.

Fountoulakis, I., Kosmopoulos, P., Papachristopoulou, K., Raptis, I.P., Mamouri, R.E., Nisantzi, A., Gkikas, A., Witthuhn, J., Bley, S., Moustaka, A. and Buehl, J., 2021. Effects of Aerosols and Clouds on the Levels of Surface Solar Radiation and Solar Energy in Cyprus. Remote Sensing, 13(12), p.2319.

Hastunç, M. and Tekb?y?k-Ersoy, N., 2018. Optimizing Residential Renewable Energy Utilization in North Cyprus: Case Study of Solar Energy. no. May, p.9.

Kassem, Y., Al Zoubi, R. and Gökçeku?, H., 2019. The possibility of generating electricity using small-scale wind turbines and solar photovoltaic systems for households in Northern Cyprus: a comparative study. Environments, 6(4), p.47.

Kassem, Y., Çamur, H. and Alhuoti, S.M.A., 2020. Solar energy technology for Northern Cyprus: Assessment, statistical analysis, and feasibility study. Energies, 13(4), p.940.

Ouria, M., & Sevinc, H. (2018). Evaluation of the potential of solar energy utilization in Famagusta, Cyprus. Sustainable cities and society, 37, 189-202.

Pashiardis, S., Kalogirou, S.A. and Pelengaris, A., 2017. Statistical analysis for the characterization of solar energy utilization and inter-comparison of solar radiation at two sites in Cyprus. Applied energy, 190, pp.1138-1158.

Themistocleous, M., Stefanou, K. and Iosif, E., 2018. Blockchain in solar energy. Cyprus review, 30(2), pp.203-212.

Yenen, M., 2015. Modeling electrical energy production in northwestern cyprus based on solar and wind measurements (Master's thesis, Middle East Technical University).

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