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Your task is to write a reflective essay based on the following topics discussed in the class:
Database, Big Data and Business Intelligence
How Information systems support decision making in organisation

The protection and safeguarding of databases in an organisation.

A typical process in developing your essay might comprise:
1. Sourcing and reviewing relevant literature on the above subjects.
2. Finding a relevant, published case study and analysing it critically.
3. Synthesising the outcomes of the two activities above to provide findings and recommendation 

Benefits and Challenges of Big Data Analytics Tools

This particular essay illustrates the crucial necessity of using database management system in a business organization. In traditional days, manual data management approach that used by the business organizations was found to be very much difficult and also different issue used to rise in that process. In order to manage those issues, most of the business organizations incorporated automated data management system in terms of big data analytical tools, artificial intelligence and database system.  

Certain specified business criteria such as data specification, design, simulation and implementation should be maintained by the business organizations to develop the exiting state of data management system. Depending upon the type of the business the required resources are needed information are needed to be gathered from different resources. Almost in all cases, all the components of a system play vital roles (Malik and Patel 2016). The essay depicts the importance of implementation of data protection approach and usefulness of information safeguard.  In order to evaluate the concept of the database management system both the technical support and networking supports are necessary. After implementation of Information System (IS) its maintenance is also needed to be considered by the organizational management authority.  

Big data analytics tools: Most of the large business organizations are currently adapting the big data analytical tools for enhancing both the operational and functional business efficiency. Due to lack of management capabilities most of the business organizations are currently facing major issues in the business operation.  Moreover, high level security challenges are also rising for incorrect governance mechanism (Cardenas, Manadhata and Rajan 2013).  Though if proper big data management tool such as Hadoop is selected then the business efficiency will increase rapidly.  The big data challenges and opportunities are as follows:

Opportunities of big data: In order to enable the business operations required by the consumers frequently, usage of big data tools are found to be very much effective. Simple information could be converted into knowledge and by converting data in a absolutely clear format different significant values could be unlocked. Big data tool makes this activity possible. A big data tool also helps to crate different transactional data and even the next generation organization products and services could be developed by using the big data tools.

Challenge of big data: Proper application of big data tools such as Hadoop is found to be very much difficult. If a business organization lacks number of expert employees then, they will be able to execute the expected outcome. In order to mitigate this challenge proper system scale up and scale down approaches are required to be adapted. During the system growth rather development phase, if the manager fails to control and monitor the system progress then the system will be a major failure.  It has also been found that the big data technology is very much costly and lack of data protection is another challenge associated to big data.  

Benefits and Challenges of Database Management System

Database management system: In traditional days, both the large and small business organizations, used to utilize manual data management system where, the data management system was found to be very much complex. In order to mitigate the data management oriented issues manly the large retail industries currently uses the database management system. The users and clients of the system are capable to access data from the server regardless of their location and time as well. In order to establish effective relationship between the client and server, database management systems are quite valuable. Based on the requirement of the clients the data acquisition and data access is possible. Currently in automated teller systems, flight reservation systems and even in large and small retail industries database management systems are widely used. However, both benefits and challenges of the database management systems are identified and discussed below:

Opportunities of database management system:  The database management systems help to control the overall system redundancy. In traditional file management systems, there was a chance when single data stored in the server for several times. The storage gets wasted for this and also due to data redundancy the users get confused about which data is to be retrieved. In order to avoid multiple copies of single data this approach is helpful. In order to avoid the storing improper data storage in the server, database system is used. Data inconsistency can also be avoided by implementing this technical approach. On the other hand, data sharing process become easier and the system is capable to restrict unauthorized users. Data backup, disaster recovery and application resilience are also possible in case of DBMS.

Challenge of database management system: The database management system is a complex system. The complexity might occur due to the size, performance and quality of data that are stored in the database management system (Galliers and Leidner 2014). The vulnerability of a system might enhance due to the centralization of the resources. On the other hand another challenge of the system is cost of the system.

Business intelligence is referred to as an important technical tool that might affect the business flow of a business organization, both positively and negatively.  The benefits and the challenges of the BI are as follows:

Opportunities of business intelligence: In order to determine the effective consumers of a business organization, the computing software named as business intelligence is found to be very much beneficial. This technology provides enough opportunity to the business organization so that after adapting the application, details of the products and services could be easily found by the management authorities. Even after adaptation of the software both the clients and the users will be able to access financial and private details. Not only this but also for eliminating unwanted information from the server, BI tools are effective (Pathak and Padmavathi 2014). The relative strength and the business capabilities can also be identified by the BI tools. BI is useful for the sales force management. With the help of the BI the organizations can take effective decisions those are profitable enough.

Business Intelligence: Opportunities and Challenges

Problems in business intelligence: It has been found that the BI tools are very much beneficial but on the other hand many other disadvantages are also associated to the system. The cost for the monitory expenses and human resource applications are very much high. If the system lacks appropriate expert team then due to lack of training and development capabilities the organization will fail to meet the expectation and the ability of the consumers (Rittinghouse and Ransome 2016). If improper security measures are taken then, the organization will fail to meet the requirement of the consumers.       

Solution of the problems of database management system

For managing the issues of database management system and in order to manage large set of information the server is required to possess security. Different securities measures are there those are used by the business organizations. For protecting information from the external attackers, data prevention from hacking are required to be possessed by the business organizations (Galliers and Leidner 2014). Security is the main concern and most effective measure that is needed to be considered by the business organizations to protect information.

Analysis on the way through which information system supports the decision making approach in an organization:

The information system is used by most of the business organizations to manage large set of data accurately with proper security. Information system helps to deliver the expected outcome of the consumers.  In order to take beneficial business decisions, information systems are very much profitable. On the other hand, during the industrial change the culture of the business organizations also get affected badly and again the information system plays crucial roles in the contemporary society information system. After the adaptation of the IS the environment of the workplaces also get changes however, the computerized information system increases the sustainability of the business organizations (Rezaeibagha, Win and Susilo 2015). Not only the workplace environment but also the surrounding business environment also gets changed accordingly. As the culture of the business organization is changing rapidly thus, the rate of business uncertainly also get reduced frequently. There are many phases of decision making those act in a integrated manner and delivers such an efficient system which maintains intelligence, design, choice and implementation as well.

Technical responsibilities of a Database Administrator (DBA):

Hardware device selection: In order to implement an IS based on the type of the business proper hardware devices are chosen by the DBAs.

Solutions for Database Management System Issues

Data integrity management: In order to integrate data together efficiently, to avoid the data hacking approach, ad for maintaining the data consistency this job is played by the DBAs.

 Accessibility of data: In order to maintain the security of data and data access capability authentication approach is served by the DBAs.

The protection and safeguard of database in an organization:

For maintain the data security and to keep the data server secured from the external attackers proper security measures are required to be undertaken by the business organizations. Rather it can be said that the system is required to be implemented such a way so that none of the unauthorized users can access data from the server (Roesner, Kohno and Molnar 2014). The protection and safeguard measures those are required to be undertaken are as follows:

Server authentication:  The database system or the server is needed to be authorized. In order to protect the content of the server secured from the external users, administrative authentication is required to be incorporated to the system.

Intranet login approach: With the help of the intranet login approach the connection between the SSH keys and password is required to added up to the server (Almorsy,  Grundy and Müller 2016). If any external user tries to access any account then, the he or she will be unable.

Cryptography: In order to keep the security of the system, proper encryption key is required to be incorporated so that none of the external user could access data from the server.

Conclusion

From the above discussion it can be concluded that any business organization can be both positively and negatively impacted rather influenced by the information system. In order to bring radical management as well as strategic changes in the business organization, different advanced digital technologies should be incorporated. The digital advanced include RFID (Radio Frequency Identification Devices), Business Intelligences (BI), big data analytic tools and Database Management System (DBMS).  Though, after the adaptation of these technologies their proper applications are also necessary.  However, after implementation of these technologies the organizations might face several challenges. In order to mitigate these certain recommendations are also provided. Proper protection and safeguard of the server is very much necessary overcome the challenges. The Database Administrators (DBA) is responsible to apply the system in the real world, to enhance the overall market revenue. In order to mitigate the issues certain recommendations are also provided and those are as follows:

Role of Information System in Decision Making

Training and development program: In order to handle the technologies appropriately in the real time business organizations, accurate training and development programs are required to be arranged by the management authority of the business organizations.  

Plan for developing comprehensive technology: In order to incorporate regular technical changes to the existing system, comprehensive change implementation are needed to be adapted by the business organizations to increase the system efficiency.

Implementation of security key: In order to maintain the security of the system the business organizations are required to incorporate certain security keys such as authentication, intranet login approach, encryption technology etc. All sensitive information of business organizations is stored in organizational data server. With the help of encryption technology only the authorized users will be able to access data from the server.  

Selection of proper big data tools: Different big data tools exist in the technical field those are adapted by the business organization. For serving the valuable purposes, proper big data tools are required to be selected by the project development teams.  

References 

Almorsy, M., Grundy, J. and Müller, I., 2016. An analysis of the cloud computing security problem. arXiv preprint arXiv:1609.01107.

Flanagin, A.J., Metzger, M.J., Pure, R., Markov, A. and Hartsell, E., 2014. Mitigating risk in ecommerce transactions: perceptions of information credibility and the role of user-generated ratings in product quality and purchase intention. Electronic Commerce Research, 14(1), pp.1-23.

Galliers, R.D. and Leidner, D.E., 2014. Strategic information management: challenges and strategies in managing information systems. Routledge.

Galliers, R.D. and Leidner, D.E., 2014. Strategic information management: challenges and strategies in managing information systems. Routledge.

Hajli, M.N., 2014. A study of the impact of social media on consumers. International Journal of Market Research, 56(3), pp.387-404.

Kim, G.H., Trimi, S. and Chung, J.H., 2014. Big-data applications in the government sector. Communications of the ACM, 57(3), pp.78-85.

Li, H., Gupta, A., Zhang, J. and Sarathy, R., 2014. Examining the decision to use standalone personal health record systems as a trust-enabled fair social contract. Decision Support Systems, 57, pp.376-386.

Malik, M. and Patel, T., 2016. DATABASE SECURITY-ATTACKS AND CONTROL METHODS. International Journal of Information, 6(1/2).

Pathak, A.R. and Padmavathi, B., 2014. Analysis of security techniques applied in database outsourcing. Proc. of International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technologies, 5(1), pp.665-670.

Ren, K., Samarati, P., Gruteser, M., Ning, P. and Liu, Y., 2014. Guest Editorial Special Issue on Security for IoT: The State of the Art. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 1(5), pp.369-371.

Rezaeibagha, F., Win, K.T. and Susilo, W., 2015. A systematic literature review on security and privacy of electronic health record systems: technical perspectives. Health Information Management Journal, 44(3), pp.23-38.

Rittinghouse, J.W. and Ransome, J.F., 2016. Cloud computing: implementation, management, and security. CRC press.

Roesner, F., Kohno, T. and Molnar, D., 2014. Security and privacy for augmented reality systems. Communications of the ACM, 57(4), pp.88-96.

Stantchev, V., Colomo-Palacios, R., Soto-Acosta, P. and Misra, S., 2014. Learning management systems and cloud file hosting services: A study on students’ acceptance. Computers in Human Behavior, 31, pp.612-619.

Terzi, D.S., Terzi, R. and Sagiroglu, S., 2015, December. A survey on security and privacy issues in big data. In Internet Technology and Secured Transactions (ICITST), 2015 10th International Conference for (pp. 202-207). IEEE.

Whitmore, A., Agarwal, A. and Da Xu, L., 2015. The Internet of Things—A survey of topics and trends. Information Systems Frontiers, 17(2), pp.261-274.

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