Background and analysis of business needs
Human Resource Development Needs Investigation (HRDNI) is the primary stage as per ADDIE model in order to analyse the gap between the organizational actual and expected performance. With regards to this, it is necessary to align the HRDNI with the business demands and wants to design the targeted training interventions in accordance with the chances analysed in the internal and external context of organization for the objective of business development.
In relevance with analysing internal and external business needs in terms of training and development, McKinsey or PEST analysis could be used for the objective of identifying the organizational strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. Along with this, gaps could also be identified with the analysis of internal documents like financial statements and information gained from questionnaires, surveys, external reports of business, etc. (Lacerenza, et. al., 2018).
Strengths and weaknesses of organization
Structure, Staff and skills
Creative insight is an advertisement company established 30 years ago in Tokyo, Japan. Organization has a workforce of 160 employees including 10 managers and one CEO. Amongst the workforce, 60 employees are new joiners whereas others are enriched with appropriate experience and knowledge regarding job. Most of the employees fall under millennials category because average age of the employees is 20-50 whereas the managers fall under the age bracket of 30s and 40s.
Strategy and shared vision
Creative Insight is mainly performing the duties in the field of traditional media advertising and due to shift in the interest of consumers these days; management has decided to change their functionalities as per the trending business environment. With regards to this, organization has planned to launch their online advertisement and promotional campaigns which will include all the major digital platforms like social media, website promotion, email marketing, etc. This strategy will not only help the organization to attain the long-term goals but it will also help to align their goals with the trending business environment. Organizational existing share value is oriented with their existing vision but in order to enhance organizational performance, organization has decided to drive towards the new value in terms of making the organization a self-driven in relevance with generating innovative and creative ideas along with encouraging teamwork and personal development (Obeng & Blundel, 2015).
Style and System
Research conducted through questionnaire and interviews, it has been observed that there is detailed executive, HR management policies and financial aspects which helps in managing employees’ activities in terms of ensuring positive outcomes for organization. Apart from this, organization is also committed towards positive relations with the employees, customers and other relevant stakeholders. This has been developed with the objective of attainment of goals for the organization as well as for the attainment of personalised goals of employees. In terms of enhancing employees’ performance as well as to make alignment between the organizational goals and the employees’ efforts, organization will focus over making their appraisal system effective and goal oriented (Arthur, Adraki & Allotey, 2018).
In addition to this, organization will use formal communication method with the objective of developing openness in the communication in relevance with sharing information wisely. With regards to this, it could be said that organization is following premeditative culture and the leaders are following transactional leadership styles in order to manage the employees in an effective manner. This has helped the organization develop an effective workplace environment along with encouraging teammates to perform as per the organizational requirements. From the top level management to the employees, an effective level of coordination have been developed at the workplace which has ultimately promoted new ideas of business development (Tukker & Tischner, 2017).
Opportunities and threats of organization
Economic and political
Advertisement industry is growing rapidly and in Japan, Rugby World Cup 2019 and Tokyo Summer Olympics are two big upcoming big events and these events will bring various advertisement opportunities. This will help the Creative Insight to attract clients from the overseas market. Apart from this, recently, Japanese government has reduced the corporate tax rates from 32.11% to 29.74% and this has also generated number of opportunities for the local advertisement companies to gain competitive advantage (Pietrobelli & Staritz, 2018).
Japanese GDP as well as the expenditure in advertising industry has seen a slight increase of 1.6% in 2017 but with that increase, the industry has also seen nearly 2.3% decrease in the expenditures in traditional advertising in the financial year 2017 and on other hand; internet advertisement has seen positive increase of 15.2%. Thus, Creative Insight would be able to enhance their performance by investing in both traditional as well as non-traditional advertisement mediums.
Social and technology
The growth of advertisement industry is very high and in Japan, more than 64 million people have accessed to different kinds of social media and other digital mediums. As per the NHK Survey 2015, viewers of TV and readers of newspapers have been decreased and due to increasing number of millennials, usage of social media and other platforms has seen positive growth. Smartphones and the cheap mobile data is the biggest factor for enhancing the demand of non-traditional advertisement mediums. Apart from millennials, smartphone penetration and the usage of social media is also increasing the other age group segments due to its popularity (Donovan, et. al., 2015).
With the analysis of internal and external business environment, outcomes of HRDNI say that there are various threats linked with the traditional media mix. It has also been identified that the whole external environment is favourable for CreativeInsight as they have recently planned to move towards digital mediums of advertisement in order to enhance their performance.
Human resources act as the essential role in terms of adaptation of new technologies along with determining the needs and demands of the target audience as per the changing business environment. Human resource also act important element for the adaptation of change and they have appropriate knowledge and experience through which effective training interventions could be designed, assessed along with making it as per the gaps identified. Thus, employees’ performance could easily be enhanced along with dealing with the employees’ behaviour to deal with the new business orientation (Tolan, 2016).
Introduction of new training interventions for developing managers adequate for adaptation of transformational leadership covering all the coaching sills in order to provide relevant and suitable information to deal with the business requirements as well as to make appropriate changes in the business functionalities.
Transformational leadership is very effective as it performs adequately in every situation and it could easily be modified as per the organizational culture. Development of coordination at workplace and making the workplace environment friendly for the employees becomes easy for the transformational leaders. Transformational leaders gains certain sort of respect from their teammates due to which leaders could easily take consent from the employees towards any decision. Thus, coaching skills for the managers act as the essential factor for their development as well as for making effective relations between the employees which ultimately helps in the attainment of goals and objectives (Rogerson, 2014).
Overview of the interventions
The interventions of training act as the combination of action learning, informal learning and coaching. In relevance to this, action learning act as the important tool for dealing with the managerial learning under which senior managers needs to evaluate own performances on certain basis along with doing the self-reflection. Action learning is also incorporated with the coaching and this helps the individuals to boost up their effectiveness in terms of making appropriate decisions. Thus, coaching is considered as an essential element to guide the employees and managers to deal with the challenges along with moulding their skills as per the dynamic business requirements to gain positive outcomes (Naudé, 2014).
Coaching sessions are designed on the basis of business needs and these sessions ensure the management to reach towards their set goals in an effective manner. Coaching session for CreativeInsight will be designed in the form of enhancing their employees as well as their employees’ efficiency to boost up their performances as well as to meet with the challenges for gaining desired goals (Ellinger & Ellinger, 2014).
Learning outcomes for the development interventions
With the effect of completion of coaching plan, employees and the managers will be able to:
- Understand the significance of coaching
- Significance of communication tools at workplace
- Impact of Kolb’s theory in terms of aligning manager’s attitude with the organizational requirements (Keep, 2014).
- Selecting the most suitable coaching model from the available options
- Understand the significance of one-to-one coaching sessions
- Aligning the employees’ efforts with the team as well as with the organizational goals
Training and coaching sessions have always been a major tool for enhancing organizational performance and with the effect of their positive impact over the organizational performance; trend for training and development sessions is never gets old. In addition to this, regular updates have been recognised in the training programs through which employee engagement could be enhanced at the workplace for the objective of boosting organizational productivity. Learning theories are Adult learning theory, experimental theory, goal setting theory, social learning theory, etc. and these could be used for the objective of making employees effective as per the organizational requirements (Zaitseva, Goncharova & Androsenko, 2016).
Adult learning theory
Adult learning theory is effective in terms of identifying trainees’ perception, past experiences, their opinions and their capability to deal with a challenging situation and while making decisions. This learning will help the organization in terms of meeting its objectives along with enhancing their efficiency in terms of dealing with the challenges. This theory also includes evaluating own performance as per the standards, by communicating with the employees and by enhancing the engagement of employees in the decision making processes to boost up the performance of the organization (Falola, Osibanjo & Ojo, 2014).
Experiential learning theory
This theory focuses on gaining knowledge through the experiences. The knowledge is abstracting by analysing the skills practised. This theory is divided into four stages; the learner undergoes each phase step by step.
The first step is related to the practically experienced gained so far, the second covers the reflective experience of the learner. The reflective experience covers the abstract of the experience (Poore, Cullen & Schaar, 2014). The third phase is analysing all the experiences by observing them deeply. The last stage of this there is active experimentation in which the learner comes to a conclusion gained from the analysis. The conclusion helps the learner to take a correct direction in the next experiments. This kind of learning experience is undertaken in training and development processes so that conclusion can be made on the basis on past experiments. This learning theory is not only used in training but can be used to resolve the workplace issues (Bower, 2014). This theory makes decision on the past experiences that help learner to tackle all the challenges issues. They deal with the concept “reflection- in action” theory to deal with all challenges (Bower, 2014).
Social learning Theory
This learning theory concludes on the basis of observation and adapts the learning by watching certain activities. The process of learning in this theory is related to behaviour of other as learning is made from the observations. The observations are used by learners to learn new things through behavioural observation(Akers & Jennings, 2015) . The learner than practise the concept using retained memory that is gained from observation. This process is known as motor reproduction. This theory is used in training so that trainers learn from observing the patters displayed in front of them (Thomas & Simpson, 2014). ALS also observes and understands the behaviour of learning. Social learning theory is dependent on personal, environmental and behavioural factors (Thomas & Simpson, 2014).
Evaluation of development interventions
The evaluation of training can be said as the last stage of training process as it helps in finding to the success gained through these programs and what where the loopholes in the process. It also helps in finding out the scope of improvement so that it could be more beneficial (Ma, Yu, Wang & Wang, 2015) . It also supports the HR of an organisation so that they could identify the effectiveness and shortcomings of the training programs so that it could be improved future for the organisational development.
The evaluation of mangers in coaching skills is also evaluated so that individual performance could be improved. They work on the concept of feedback that allow learns to know their point of strength and weakness so that skills could be developed (Moore, et. al, 2015). Thus, evaluation after training programs is a mandatory task.
Evaluation based on Kirkpatrick’s model
The kirkpatrick’s model has four levels for analysis. Explaining all levels in detail:
Level 1- Reaction
The first level considers the reaction towards the training curse. This level requires 10-12 managers who take part in a questionnaire session and future go through some interview sessions so that internal operations can be evaluated. This level allows the managers to showcase their impression on the program and desires about training programs could be understood (Reidt, Morgan & Janke, 2016) . The reaction is measured by designing programs so that productivity and efficiency could be improved.
Level 2- Learning
This level is used to measure the learning that is gained by the learners. This level checks the new skills and knowledge that is learned by the learner during the training programs (Reidt, Morgan & Janke, 2016). The best method of evaluating the learning is done using pre and post online test of the learners. The differences between the score of pre and post-test can help in evaluating the skills that is learnt during the training session(Zhou,et. al, 2017) . The score that is calculated is quantitatively evaluated so that learning gain can be calculated. The score can be calculated mathematically using this formula
Points= (Post-learning Score minus Pre-learning Score / Maximum Score minus Pre-learning Score) X 100
This point can be evaluated like, suppose manger scored 55 points in the pre-learning test that is undertaken before the training program, the post-learning score that is undertaken after the training program. The post test score islet suppose 85 and the maximum score is 100. Then the result will be: ((85-55) / (100-55)) x 100 = (30 / 45) x 100 = 66%. This means the manager has gained 66% of new skills/ knowledge.
Level 3- Behaviour
The third level is used to evaluate the change in behaviour that is caused in learner due to the training process. The change is behaviour is calculated by observing the behaviour on different conditions. This level considers all the external conditions through which change in behaviour is observed(Zhou,et. al, 2017) . Though, it is difficult to identify the factors through which change is observed. But it can be done by undertaking various interviews and short interaction sessions. The performance appraisal, rewards and awards and other factors could be used to manage the workplace in the organisation.
Level 4- Results
The last level is figure out the changes in an organisation. This level checks the change that is seen in each employee, weather the change is significant or not. The chances are monitored and it is evaluated that it is for the betterment for the organisation or not. The level 4 is one of the time consuming level. The cost for evaluating the result is also high. It can be said as the difficult level in the whole model as it deals with calculating the final result. The tools and technologies that are present today are quiet slow and may require 2 years to come to a conclusion(Chatterjee, Yadav, Ananad, Malik, Kotwal & Kunte, 2018) . The feedback is also taken from the mangers so that development and actions plan could be designed accordingly. The feedback will somewhere help the organisation to make changes and work in a way so that profit margins could be increased. The feedback can be taken in the form of interviews or surveys so that client satisfaction is achieved (DeSilets, 2018).
Transfer of Learning
Transfer of learning is a common concept that is seen in daily activities at home, workplace, communities or any place. This technique can be used by employees in a workplace they can transfer the knowledge and skills one has gained through the educational program. In term of theoretical point of view, transfer of learning occur from an individual that have prior and higher knowledge to the one who is ready to acquire new knowledge. Transfer of learning is dependent on human performance and their learning ability. This covers the ways in which an individual may transfer the knowledge by influencing the learning of others. They also make use of identical element theory (Leberman & McDonald, 2016) . To be more precise, transfer of learning is the process in which past experiences are used to transfer the knowledge. It is difficult to find a way through which information can be transformed. From various researches, it was found that learning can be transferred through social media source. There are certain barriers that stop transfer of knowledge like lack of reinforcement on the job opportunities. It causes issue of sharing their knowledge due to lack of support from management ad lack of training sessions (Healy, Schneider & Barshi, 2015) . Some of the strategies through which transfer of knowledge takes place are listed below. Along with the strategies the training process is also discussed by analysing the process before, during and after training.
Some of the strategies are listed below:
- The strategy adopted before the training session
Involvement of supervisor in the designing team
- It covers an important discussion between managers and instructors regarding the training process and course material.
- The complete process is designed so that feedback could be taken in an effective manner.
Designing the programs
- Programs are designed so that learner can grab the knowledge from peers (Xu, Fang, Wu, Li & Zhang, 2016).
- It go through various processes like data recording and feedback
- Strategies at time of training
Application based objectives need to be developed
- This covers the set of behaviour that need to be followed by trainers once they join the job.
Feedback should be offered at individual level
- The instructors in the training process will guide the employees so that efficiency could be improved and implementation for betterment could be done(Xu, Fang, Wu, Li & Zhang, 2016) .
- Strategies that need to be adopted at workplace after training
Evaluate and then conclude
- The evaluation surveys and interviews are very helpful for trainers as they make the action plans for improvement(Shao, Kit & Fu, 2014) .
- The feedback is taken in the form of surveys, interviews, questioners so that scope of improvement is increased.
- Good trainer is selected so that feedback is taken in a right direction.
Cost and benefits
Training is considered as one of the important component of an organisation as it improves the knowledge and skill of employees so that productivity of an organisation is improved. The cost of such training sessions is quiet high, thus medium sized organisation face issue for organising such plans (Shao, Kit & Fu, 2014) . Thus, a budget needs to be decided for implementing the training course in an organisation.
The direct or anticipated cost of an organisation covers many things like:
- External Trainer- Hiring the trainers from external firms requires high financial investment. External trainers are beneficial as they support internal trainers to develop the strategies for the companies.
- Facilities- The Company make sure that facilities are offered so that training session could be completed effectively. Like, it is required to have a conference room that allow at least 30 people to sit together and participate in the sessions. Additionally, there is a need of learning equipment’s like recorder, speakers, projector, computer and various other things.
- Managers- The skilled managers are required so that knowledge is spread in the organisation. In this case cost is defensible (Shao, Kit & Fu, 2014).
- Material cost- The training is done by using some hi-tech technology like HD power points, video screenings and other devices through which a clear visualisation is offered. This requires additional cost for buying the materials. This is considered in the direct cost of an organisation.
- Refreshment- The refreshment breaks need to arrange for employees like lunch, tea-coffee, snacks ad water Theses things need to be arranged for the trainers and the training team(Shao, Kit & Fu, 2014) .
- Projected Benefits- Training is a two way communication in which knowledge, skills and abilities are transferred between individual training helps in sharing the knowledge between different individuals, and also supports in developing competitive edge for an organisation (Shao, Kit & Fu, 2014). It helps in building knowledge among employees so that productivity could be improved. Training mangers make sure that abilities and knowledge is enhanced so that a coaching culture is created at the workplace.
Through training, supervisors improve their capacity to make training society whereby he will have the capacity to utilize representatives' power and propose methodical affirmation to empower their association, duty and ability for the general accomplishment of the association. Other advantage would be representatives' prosperity and occupation fulfilment. As trusted by the wellbeing of individual prompts inspiration and fulfilment. The health incorporates enhanced working conditions and positive connection among director and representatives which additionally results in high worker spirit, diminished truancy, receptiveness, and sharing of information (Shao, Kit & Fu, 2014). Development and advancement is another advantage where the capability of the workers is opened as they try to grow their jobs and handle far reaching recognitions with the end goal to enhance relational skills. Also, the preparation causes individual to wind up proactive, versatile to change and partake effectively in quest for development and advancement to remain in focused edge. At last, the preparation likewise adds to group building and joint effort to achieve authoritative execution which consequently will profit their picture and profession improvement.
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