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1.Submission must be made with clear indication of your name and student name.

2.Marks will be deducted for unprofessional presentation of work.  Examples of unprofessional presentation of work which will lose marks include:

a)Hand written report or poor structured report

b)Not making clear to the reader what you are trying to do

c)Failure to include diagrams that show the situation being analysed and identify the variables used in your analysis

d)Providing graphs that are of poor line quality, have no captions identifying what the graph is showing, have no labels identifying the axes, and/or do not indicate particular data points being plotted (where this is particularly relevant)

It is required to provide the system characteristic in order to select a commercially available pump.  You have to select a pump and you must:

1)Give reasons for your choice of piping (diameter and material). NB Ensure that the velocities in the system are; high enough to entrain air; low enough to ensure noise will not be a significant problem and; also check to see that the velocity in the condenser is suitably high to prevent fouling

2)Calculate the systems characteristic using a constant value of “f” based on the size of the pipe from 1) above and a strainer (filter) selected by yourself from the internet. Plot the system characteristic (head loss vs flow rate) for your pipe type keeping the value of “f’ constant.

3)Select a pump from the provided pump catalogue (or any suitable pump catalogue online) that will enable the system to pass a flow > 0.2XX litres/second.  Plot the pump curve on the system curve to locate the intersection point.  The pump location shown below may not be the best possible position.  Indicate where you will locate the pump and state the reason for its location.  

4)Check that the inlet to the pump is at sufficiently high pressure to avoid cavitation - some manufacturers give the allowable inlet static pressure to ensure a long life.

5)Calculate the K value for the valve if the cooling requirements dictate the flow to be halved (assume that the pump characteristic gives a constant head vs flow rate) – plot this on the system/pump characteristic graph.

6)Comment on how you think the performance of the system will vary with time

7)Write a well presented FORMAL report which addresses the six points above in order – please be reminded that a maximum 7 page limit for this assignment (15% deduction per page).

Selection of Piping System

As given in question, we must select the pump which will fit into the situation given in the question, in the same time, I have to consider the reliability of the ranking cycle also. The temperature in this condition is around 30o. The pressure of the system is little high and corrosion resistance. We can consider the pump which can minimise the noise and its thermal conductivity is low. After evaluating the several pipes, we have chosen Polypropylene copolymer form Acu-tech polymer Company. The reason behind choosing this company pipe is it satisfies the entire above requirement. Polypropylene is readily cheaper, corrosion resistance flexible and easily fixed at required position. Its low coefficient of friction will also provide good effect on flow of liquid and ease on the efficiency of the pump.

The selection of internal diameter must be done according the requirement of the system. The flow rate flow the system is 0.233 m/sec (0.000233 m3/sec). The velocity of the pipe should be as high as to inhale air and low enough avoid noise. In this condition the rated capacity is 0.6 m/s to 1.3m/sec. In this condition the dia. can be calculate from the given formula. Taking velocity as 1m/sec

 where, D = 17.228 mm

The available diameter of pipe with Acu-tech Company is as follows

Table 1 ID of pipe with flow specified flow rate (Acu-tech)

Internal Diameter

Velocity of Fluid

16.7 mm

0.725 m/s

21.1 mm

0.812 m/s

27.0 mm

1.2 m/s

From the table it is clear that, the selected diameter will be 21.2 mm.

Now we will have a look on the condenser, to avoid the fouling, we must keep up the velocity, but not too much to ensure that damage may not occur to the condenser. The average velocity for must keep for this kind of condenser is around 1 m/s to 10 m/s (Silowash, 2010). As given in the question the flow rate inside the condenser is 0.233 l/sec and the internal diameter of pipe is 14.23 mm. In this condition, the velocity of water inside the condenser pipe will be 1.447 m/sec. We can see that the velocity is within the specified range. The cross section area of the condenser and other parameter is as follows

Table 2 The condenser parameter

Fluid in the condenser

Internal Diameter

0.01423 m

Cross-sectional Area

0.000159 m^2


1.447 m/s

The plotting of system characteristic can be done with the help of little calculation, and some assumption also. The dynamic velocity of water is taken at 20oC to be 1.002 x 10-3, and density of water is taken as 995.7 kg/m3 (David Reay, 2014). The calculation for another parameter is as given below

First, we must calculate Reynold no as given below

We can see that the Reynold number is greater than 2300, which means that there is turbulent flow inside the pipe. Now the next calculation will be finding the Darcy equation value. We have considered absolute roughness of calculation = 0.0015 mm, the relative roughness for the pipe as given below.

For Reynold no greater that 4000, we will use

From the figure, the pipe length is 18.5 m

The major head loss for pipe can be given by formula =

Calculation of System Characteristic

For Reynold no greater than, 4000, we will use

The major head loss for condenser can be given by formula =

The main component with their K value



No of parts


90o bend




Shower heads




Globe Valve




Cooling tower inlet










180o bend




Figure 1-System characteristic curve

As per given temperature and pressure which is calculated above, we can choose the pump UPA15-90N. This is due to the reason that pump is suitable for both flow which 0.26 l/s to 0.29 l/sec. is the point of intersection which is (0.3 flow rate and head loss 5, which means that the characteristic profile curve is at slight higher than calculated profile, it clearly means that the pump will run at slight lower efficiency.

Figure 2-System curve Total head vs Flow rate

This is due to the reason hat, it depends upon several other factor like, elevation, diameter of piping, length of piping, pressure drops across various bends and fitting, material used for piping, etc. In this condition best efficiency point is being chosen for given situation.

In general, the location of the pipe is kept at vertical side of pipe system and it should be away from strainer, such that efficiency of the strainer is retained.

To know the reason first we have to calculate the (NPSH) which is net positive suction head, The NPSH for availed pump and what is the required NPSH for the system.

The NPSH for available resources is as follows,

The given term hsp is calculated as follows

and hs = 2.5 m (This is required height of the pump below the cooling tower. Hf is denoted for head loss in pipe from intel side of the system

= 0.7936+1.3543+0.6586+0.1537 = 2.9602 m

And finally,

The NPSH available =  = 10.3287+2.5-2.9602-0.2350 = 9.6334 m

But from the manual it clear that the minimum requirement for given pump is 850 mm, It means that, we can successfully implement the given pump in the system to avoid the cavitation.

As given in the question,

The find the K value for which the flow rate is to be halved. In this condition the velocity Reynolds no and fiction factor all should be calculated,


Condenser result







Friction factor (f)



Based on the above factor we must gain calculate the all losses by keeping the K value for strainer in the equation, which is as follows

We know that total head loss

, K = 117.1037 m3/h Ans

Figure 3- Flow rate Vs Total head constant graph

The performance of the pump system definitely varies with time, Most of the time its efficiency is getting reduced, the change in performance may occurs for several reasons, some of the them are as follows;

  • Due to vibration in pump,
  • Wear an wear and tear of impeller clearance ring
  • Due to Power fluctuation over a long period of time,
  • Due to wear and tear in impeller and change in geometry etc.

As per the figure and question given, we have selected PP-R pipe for economic factor as well as easy to handle. The system characteristic is calculated as (0.29, 4.46).  

The constant value for f is taken as f = 0.0000015, the graph of flow rate Vs total head is presented for CPVC pipe. The efficiency of the pump which is considered for operation is around 62%.

The selection of pump was “UPA15-90N ” and selected rpm to obtain best efficiency point is 1450. The BEP point selected is 396 kg/min at total head around 70 m is calculated.

The explanation for difference in actual BEP and selected BEP is given as a fourth point. We have tried to find the reason that, why suction is always at high pressure, so that cavitation can be avoided.

The value of K was calculated based on affinity equation and BEP data. The graph for flow rate vs total head has shown which has constant line after initial fluctuation.


Anon, 2010, Material Selection using CES edupack, Granta Design, pp, 1-57,

Bachus, A, C, 2006, Know and Understand Centrifugal Pumps, 1st ed, Oxford: Elsevier,

Cengel, Y, 2017, Fluid Mechanics, 3rd ed, New York: Mc Graw Hill,

Chaurette, J, 2008, Pump system analysis and sizing, 6th ed, New York: Fluid Design Ink,

Crawford, J, 2016, Marine and Offshore Pumping and Piping Systems, 6th ed, London: Butterworth,

David Reay, R, M, P, K, 2014, Heat Pipes: Theory, Design and Applications, 6th ed, Amestradam: Elsevier,

Guha, H, a, 2009, The design of a test rig and study of the performance and efficiency of a Tesla disc turbine, Journal of Power and Energy, 1(1), pp, 451-455,

Gülich, J, F, 2014, Centrifugal Pumps, 3rd ed, New York: Springer,

Robert Jacobs, R, C, 2013, Operations and Supply Chain Management, 14th ed, New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education,

Silowash, B, 2010, Piping Systems Manual, 2nd ed, New York: Mc Graw Hill,

Skousen, P, L, 2011, Valve Handbook 3rd Edition, 3rd ed, New York: Mc Graw Hill,

Spellman, F, R, 2017, Water and Wastewater Conveyance: Pumping, Hydraulics, Piping, and Valves, 2nd ed, Boca raton: CRC publisher,

Thomas, C, E, 2015, Process Technology Equipment and Systems, 4th ed, Stanford: Cengage Learning,

White, F, 2013, Fluid Mechanics, 7th ed, New York: Mc Graw Hill

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