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The purpose of this module is to provide a number of conceptual frameworks to help students make sense of their professional practice and context. The focus of the module is to seek insights into behaviour in organisations from a behavioural science perspective. The module develops student's critical awareness of the key debate between contending theories of organisation and management, particularly in relation to organisational processes.

The assessment for this module consists of two elements.

  • Drawing on relevant academic literature, critically discuss the impact of culture on organisational behaviour and performance.
  • Your work should have a brief introduction to the work, a discussion and a brief conclusion. Recommendations are not
  • You are required to critically analyse your own organisation OR another organisation that you are familiar with from an Organizational Behaviour perspective. Focus your analysis on a critical problem or issue(s) the organisation is
  • You must use a variety of OB concepts, models and theories relevant for the problem / issue(s) you are focusing on in your analysis. Ideas, arguments and discussion must be supported with material (references) from the academic
  • The analysis should include discussion and evaluation of implications for the organisation with suggestions or proposed
  • Use a report style with a clearly articulated introduction, body and conclusion with recommendations.

Theoretical Framework: Anthropology, Organisational Behaviour and Hofstede's model

Culture refers to social behaviour that is found within the human societies. Culture can be said to be an important concept in relation to anthropology which is transmitted with the help of social learning (Wilson 2017). Organizational behaviour refers to the study of the manner in which people interact within a group. Organizational behaviour acts as interface in between human behaviour and that of organization. This report discusses about the effect of culture on the organisational behaviour. The report also elaborates on the role of culture in relation to the performance of the employees.

The cultural elements of an organization have an effect on the aspect of sustainability pertaining to an organization. There are certain kinds of organizational culture that pave the way for increased organizational performance. Organizational culture refers to values and beliefs that have an impact on the behaviour of the employees. The culture that prevails within an organization has a great effect on the aspect of organisational behaviour. Organizational performance consist of actual production along with the outcome of an organization that is measured against the expected outcome (Wilson 2018). Hofstede focussed on values that are work-related within the organizational culture. Hofstede has stated that culture can be classified based on dimensions that have an impact on behaviour along with organizational practice. First dimension in the theory of Hofstede talks about whether the individual or the collective action can help in dealing with issues (Hofstede 2015). The cultures that are oriented towards individualism lay stress on the aspect of individual needs along with concerns. On the other hand within the collectivist society an individual carries out interaction with the members within one’s group.

 Power distance refers to the differences in status which is accepted within culture. The dimension of uncertainty avoidance is indicative of relationship of culture to that of uncertainty characteristics of future. The societies that are high in relation to uncertainty prefer the rules that helps in the aspect of operation within predictable situations. The dimension of masculinity-femininity is indicative of degree to which the values can be said to be associated with the stereotypes pertaining to masculinity along with femininity. The high masculinity culture lay stress on the element of achievement and growth. People act in a more assertive manner in this kind of a culture and they show less amount of concern for that of individual needs (Barry and Wilkinson 2016). The last dimension is short term or the long term orientation that reflects on the view of a culture regarding the future. Short-term orientation is indicative of values that are focussed on the present. The thought pattern that is long term is oriented towards the future (Gagné, Sharma and De Massis 2014). These values have an impact on the performance of the employees in organisation.

Impact of Culture on Organisational Behaviour and Performance

Organizational culture has a great impact on employee performance within an organization. Organizational Performance refers to the capability of an organization that helps it in accomplishing the goals in an effective manner. The idea of that of organizational performance is associated with the aspect of success in relation to an organization. Computation pertaining to organizational performance is crucial for both service along with manufacturing organization. Organizational performance acts as most important criterion that helps in managing action along with environment of an organization (Zayas-Ortiz et al. 2015). Culture can provide a firm with competitive advantage as it can help in augmenting performance of the employees. There exists a positive co-relation between that of culture and the performance of the employees. Sustainable competitive advantage can take place by forming organizational competencies that cannot be imitated by competitors. Organizational performance depends on the degree to which the cultural values are shared within an organisation (Greenberg 2017). The organisational culture that gives importance to learning can augment performance of the workers in an organization. Organizational culture helps in bonding the employees together that makes them feel themselves to be an intrinsic part in relation to corporate experience. It can help in attracting the new staff and retain good performances that increases efficiency of employees.

Cultural elements pertaining to an organization can ensure its sustainability in the prevailing environment. Organizational culture has an impact on performance of employees and it can increase performance of employees in an organization. There are different kinds of work-related values that can increase the efficiency of work being carried out in an organization. The dimensions which are based on culture have an effect on the organizational practice. It can be stated that the cultures that are oriented towards the aspect of individualism lay stress on the needs of individual employees. The individuals in a collectivist society interacts with the members of a group. Organizational performance is important for both the service and the manufacturing organization. Organizational performance can help in managing environment of that of an organization. The organizational culture can help in providing an organisation with the competitive advantage that can increase employee performance. It has been found that positive co-relation exist between the organizational culture and that of employee performance.

Organizational Behaviour refers to study of the human behaviour within the setting of an organization. It acts as interface in between an organization and human behaviour. Organizational Behaviour refers to study regarding the manner of interaction of people within a group. Organizational Behaviour refers to a scientific approach that deals with the management of the workers. There are various models along with philosophies in relation to organizational behaviour (Wilson 2018). Marrybrown is a restaurant company that franchises the Marrybrown restaurants across Asia, Africa and the Middle East. It is a leading fast food chain in Malaysia that has laid emphasis on the halal products. The company is expanding in the international arena that has ensured its worldwide reputation. Marrybrown was instrumental in pioneering many firsts within quick-service industry. It was the first important food chain that has brought in items that have now become staples on the menu board of the fast food restaurants. The products of Marrybrown are chicken porridge, products of rice and sate burger. Marrybrown is instrumental in operating innovative products which targets fast food consumer. This report discusses about the issue of poor performance of the members of Marrybrown. It elucidates on the theories and concepts related to organizational behaviour. It elaborates about the implication of the organisational behaviour issue on Marrybrown. It also suggests recommendations that can help in solving the issue of Marrybrown.

Marrybrown- A Case Study

The organizations have objectives that they want to achieve. A company can realize the objectives by utilising men, materials and the money. All the resources are significant but the most important resource can be said to be man power. Manpower plays a crucial role in performing the tasks that can help in accomplishing goals (Barry and Wilkinson 2016). The issue in Marrybrown arose owing to poor performance of the employees of organization that was causing the company to incur losses. A firm can get the advantage over the other competitors by utilizing dedicated man power that can help them in taking lead within market. The employees of Marrybrown was performing badly that was acting as a barrier in the path of expansion of organization. Contribution that the employees make can help a business in excelling in the market. The employees perform various jobs within an organisation based on nature of organization. The employees in Marrybrown perform various tasks like storage, manufacturing, marketing, distribution, finance, accounting and the public relations (Zayas-Ortiz et al. 2015). The performance of these activities in an efficient manner can help Marrybrown in achieving objectives. The lack of proper performance of employees is hindering development of the company. The employees are not functioning properly that is having an effect on sales and profit of Marrybrown. The employees are not satisfied in Marrybrown that is decreasing the productivity of employees. The employees in Marrybrown are facing psychological problems that is hindering performance of employees in the fast food chain (Gagné, Sharma and De Massis 2014).

The lack of ability of employees at Marrybrown was affecting their performance at Marrybrown. It was diminishing the performance of the company. Poor performance of workers at Marrybrown was leading to inappropriate behaviour in the workplace. The employees at Marrybrown were showing depressive attitudes that was affected the overall performance of all the employees at Marrybrown (Gagné, Sharma and De Massis 2014). The poor performance of the employees was making them to lose motivation that was leading to high turnover of workers at the fast food chain called Marrybrown. Poor performance of employees was proving to be stressful for the management. The employees having poor ability needs greater amount of supervision and this was proving to be demanding for the managers of Marrybrown. The managers were being distracted from the everyday operation that was causing the company to incur loss (Azeem et al. 2015). Lower motivation was leading to mistrust in between parties that was causing the company to lose revenue. The atmosphere at Marrybrown was causing the employees to work under a lot of pressure that was affecting performance of employees. Poor performance was creating an aggressive environment at Marrybrown that was increasing stress level in organisation (Kannan and Sathiya 2018). The employees of Marrybrown were becoming disgruntled with work and this was having an effect on the quality of work at Marrybrown. Poor performance of members was taking a toll on health of employees and was demoralizing them. The workers of marrybrown were not being provided with material resources that was proving to be detrimental for success of the company. The workers were being given incompatible roles and the lack of the factor of clarity in the workplace was having bad effect on employees.

Implications of Poor Performance at Marrybrown

High performance of employees at Marrybrown can lead to employee engagement that can augment performance in relation to employees of company. It can create sense of commitment among employees and increase loyalty of employees towards the organization. Systems theory refers to interdisciplinary study of the systems in an organization. System can be said to be a cohesive conglomeration of the interrelated parts. The changing of one part in a system will have an effect on other parts along with that of the whole system. There are systems which are self-learning, positive growth would depend on whether system would be adjusted to environment.

 There is an inter-relation in between an organization and the environment and it is important that organizations should adapt themselves to changes taking place in environment that can help them in succeeding in the long run (Skinner and Stewart 2017). The systems theory can help in discovering dynamics of the system that can be applied to a system for the purpose of effective performance. The systems theory can be applied to the problem that Marrybrown is facing as one aspect of organizational behaviour has an effect on other aspects within an organization. The employees at Marrybrown were not being able to perform effectively owing to increasing pressure that management was creating on employees. The managers in company were not able to provide proper orientation along with training that was decreasing morale of employees at Marrybrown. The lack of proper coaching was proving to be detrimental for employees in the company (Fu and Deshpande 2014).

The career development opportunities were not provided to staff that was decreasing performance of employees at Marrybrown. The management is instrumental in planning for job and deciding about the competencies that would be required for performing the job. The management was not taking any decision in relation to required standard of performance that was causing confusion among workers in Marrybrown. The performance management in organization was not properly organized that was acting as barrier in path of development of both employees along with organization. The need of the training should be found out by the management that can help them in guiding employees of organization. The performance of people working were not measured that was discouraging them within workplace. Performance feedback can help in measuring performance of employees (De Gieter and Hofmans 2015). It can be said that exists link between management and employee performance as the management can play an important role in providing guidance to employees. The performance feedback can help the employees in conducting the coaching session that can be of help for employees of organization.

Recommendations for Improving Performance at Marrybrown

The management can suggest ways that can improve performance of the workers at Marrybrown. Performance Feedback can help the employees in understanding the difficulties that employees are facing in Marrybrown. The top management at Marrybrown should design the compensation and the reward system in a manner that can increase output of employees of company (Hafeez 2018). The incentives in the company should be designed on the basis of output that can help in increasing efficiency of performance of employees in Marrybrown. The employees in organization who perform effectively should be provided with appreciation letter and rewards. The top management in Marrybrown should be able to foster good working environment that can improve performance pertaining to employees of Marrybrown.

Human resource development component should be properly realized that can help in maximising performance of employees in Marrybrown. The workers in Marrybrown were not provided with proper training that was having a severe impact on employee performance within Marrybrown. The challenges of the leaders of the company can be removed by providing them with requisite training. The employees did not have sufficient knowledge that was affecting their work in company. The employees did not have understanding of policies of company and the employees of Marrybrown would be strengthened in the event of knowing about the procedures of company. It can pave the way for increasing job satisfaction that employees face at work that can cause improvement in work of employees in Marrybrown. The lack of the resources in the company was a dominant factor that was proving to be detrimental for functioning of organization (Sousa and Tan 2015). Poor performance led to negative consequences for organization along with its members. The poor performance was not addressed immediately that created long term effect for Marrybrown. Poor performance have led to unfixable situation that made the clients lose confidence. The bad performance of employees tarnished image of company and it made the organization unruly (Biron and Eshed 2017). The employees of organization were demotivated that acted like a hindrance in path of development of organization. Poor performance was demoralizing morale of members that was creating negative repercussion on organization.

Communication can help members of organization for understanding roles along with responsibilities. The instructions should be given in a clear manner in Marrybrown that can help employees in understanding responsibilities. Instructions should be given clearly to employees of Marrybrown that can help in preventing confusion in organization. The lack of building of trust was creating bad relationship in between management and employees of organization. Motivation is an intervention that can help in maximising performance of employees in an organization (Petersen, Laumann and Jakobsen 2018). The workers of Marrybrown were not being provided with the right amount of motivation that was leading to ineffective performance in Marrybrown. The role ambiguity will hamper the performance of employees in Marrybrown. The pressure related to performance will increase in the event of the employees not getting proper amount of support from supervisors and management. Lack of support that the employees of Marrybrown faced was harming their potential. Role conflict was occurring at Marrybrown since the employees were not properly informed about their job responsibilities. Confusion that employees were facing regarding their job duties was having bad impact on their job performance. There is a lot of competition among fast food companies in Malaysia and the poor employee performance would cause the company to incur loss that would harm their reputation in market (Osibanjo et al. 2018). They would not be able to make profit in competitive market of Malaysia that would make it difficult for company for surviving in competitive market of Malaysia.

Conclusion

The performance of employees can be increased by clearly communicating the expectations to the workers. This can help the employees in clearly knowing about the responsibilities that can help them in performing their work diligently in the organization. Social networking tools can help in the aspect of team communication that can increase efficiency level of employees in organization. The employees at marrybrown should be given tasks on the basis of their strengths and capabilities (Bin 2015). The employees should have regular appraisals that can help them in understanding their weakness so that they can improve in their weak areas. The employees should be provided with the opportunity to review various aspects like work environment, salary and the benefits that can help the employees in feeling that they are an integral part of the organization. The right technology platforms should be implemented in organization that can help in driving performance of employees (Alola et al. 2019).

Delegation should be carried out in proper manner at Marrybrown that can help them in performing tasks well. Proper responsibility meted out to employees of Marrybrown can help them in gaining skills that can maximise performance of employees at Marrybrown. Behavioural styles of employees at Marrybrown should be known that can that can help in maximising performance of employees in organization. The individual needs of the employees should be taken into account while rewarding them. The workers at Marrybrown should be recognized for the job that can increase productivity of employees. Continued employee development should be focussed on at Marrybrown that can improve the efficiency of employees in the company. The employee development at Marrybrown can be supported with the help of workshops, seminars and mentoring that can sharpen the skills and the abilities of Marrybrown (Sousa and Tan 2015). These opportunities should be provided at Marrybrown that can help the employees in learning additional skills that can improve their productivity in organization. The leaders in Marrybrown should listen to the suggestion of the employees that can pave the path for effective employee performance. Listening to the concern of other people help in the creation of effective work environment that can lead to improvements in employee performance.

Conclusion

Organizational Behaviour is indicative of human behaviour within the organizational setting. Organizational Behaviour plays the role of interface between the organization and that of human behaviour. Organizational behaviour issue was created in Marrybrown owing to ineffective performance of the employees. The company had to suffer from losses because the employees were not carrying out their responsibility in an efficient manner. An organisation can get advantage over competitors by the utilization of manpower that can help them in creating a distinct position in marketplace. The organization was not able to expand because the employees were working in a poor manner in the organization. Lack of the factor of ability on the part of employees was leading to bad performance of employees in organization. Poor performance in relation to workers was causing the employees to work in inappropriate manner. Proper training was not provided to workers of Marrybrown that was having a detrimental effect on employee performance at Marrybrown. The leaders in Marrybrown should provide training that can help in removing challenges for managers of Marrybrown. Insufficient knowledge of employees was having effect on work at Marrybrown. The expectation should be clearly set out to employees that can help the employees in dissolving their responsibilities in company. Social networking tools can help Marrybrown in the aspect of communication that can increase efficiency of the employees. Leaders of Marrybrown should take into consideration employee suggestion that can help in the running of company. The problems that people face within Marrybrown should be listened to that can augment performance level of employees.

References

Alola, U.V., Olugbade, O.A., Avci, T. and Öztüren, A., 2019. Customer incivility and employees' outcomes in the hotel: Testing the mediating role of emotional exhaustion. Tourism Management Perspectives, 29, pp.9-17.

Azeem, M.M., Abrar, M., Bashir, M. and Zubair, A., 2015. Impact of organizational justice and psychological empowerment on perceived organizational performance: The mediating role of organizational citizenship behaviour. American Journal of Industrial and Business Management, 5(05), p.272.

Barry, M. and Wilkinson, A., 2016. Pro?social or pro?management? A critique of the conception of employee voice as a pro?social behaviour within organizational behaviour. British Journal of Industrial Relations, 54(2), pp.261-284.

Bin, A.S., 2015. The relationship between job satisfaction, job performance and employee engagement: An explorative study. Issues in Business Management and Economics, 4(1), pp.1-8.

Biron, M. and Eshed, R., 2017. Gaps Between Actual and Preferred Career Paths Among Professional Employees: Implications for Performance and Burnout. Journal of Career Development, 44(3), pp.224-238.

De Gieter, S. and Hofmans, J., 2015. How reward satisfaction affects employees’ turnover intentions and performance: an individual differences approach. Human Resource Management Journal, 25(2), pp.200-216.

Fu, W. and Deshpande, S.P., 2014. The impact of caring climate, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment on job performance of employees in a China’s insurance company. Journal of Business Ethics, 124(2), pp.339-349.

Gagné, M., Sharma, P. and De Massis, A., 2014. The study of organizational behaviour in family business. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 23(5), pp.643-656.

Hafeez, S., 2018. The Impact of Job Stress on Performance of Employees: A Study of Social Security Hospital of District Okara & Sahiwal. Journal of Neuropsychology & Stress Management, 3, pp.4-12.

Kannan, K.S. and Sathiya, V., 2018. The Effects of Personal Characteristics on Organizational Behaviour. GLOBAL JOURNAL FOR RESEARCH ANALYSIS, 6(6).

Osibanjo, A.O., Akinbode, J., Falola, H.O. and Oludayo, O.O., 2018. Work ethics and employees’ job performance. Journal of Leadership, Accountability and Ethics, 12(1), pp.107-117.

Petersen, N.B.G., Laumann, T.V. and Jakobsen, M., 2018. Acceptance or Disapproval: Performance Information in the Eyes of Public Frontline Employees. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory.

Skinner, J. and Stewart, B., 2017. Organizational behaviour in sport. Routledge.

Sousa, C.M. and Tan, Q., 2015. Exit from a foreign market: Do poor performance, strategic fit, cultural distance, and international experience matter?. Journal of International Marketing, 23(4), pp.84-104.

Wilson, F.M., 2018. Organizational behaviour and work: a critical introduction. Oxford university press.

Zayas-Ortiz, M., Rosario, E., Marquez, E. and Colón Gruñeiro, P., 2015. Relationship between organizational commitments and organizational citizenship behaviour in a sample of private banking employees. International journal of sociology and social policy, 35(1/2), pp.91-106.

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