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You need to form a group of at most four students, and select one of the case studies provided in Assessment module on VU Collaborate. In this project you will study the existing network of a Small to Medium Enterprise (SME) and redesign it as per their requirements. You are expected to get in touch with the organisation (your tutor for case studies), make appointments, ask the relevant questions, and fulfil their statutory requirements, such as confidentiality and safety.

A WLAN design proposal is expected as the outcome of your project work, which includes:

  • Introduction
  • The client organisation background: business background
  • Current Network capabilities at the chosen organisation
  • The limitations at the chosen organisation
  • The additional capabilities required by clients at the chosen organisation
  • Your WLAN design as the solutions to the client requirements
  • The schedule of the proposed WLAN design project
  • Resource management and plan
  • Conclusion and limitation of your proposal

Radio Indicators and Frequency Testing

Being familiar with 802.11 radio indicators broadcasting from an aerial in horizontal directions to the first floor of the building. When installing wireless networks in multi-floor facilities, however, one should put into consideration that waves also propagate down and up vertically to the floors (Kim, Jeon, Park, and Youn, Samsung Electronics Co Ltd, 2013). The extent is not far in the case of vertical direction, nevertheless it is frequently enough to enter the ceilings and floors in most constructions. The inter-floor signal transmission makes surveying of sites become more complex, however one might be in a position to exploit the situation.

The first step is gaining a good know how of the way 802.11 signals circulate thru different floors within the building where wireless network is to be deployed. Every facility is different from the other, therefore it is advisable to do a bit of testing to decide the number of floors that actually can attenuate the radio signals. It is important to remember that 5GHz and 2.4GHz signals proliferate differently via the same medium, therefore testing must be performed using the frequency one is planning to install. When installing 802.11n, it is advisable to test both 5GHz and 2.4GHz frequencies (Ibrahim, Brancato, and Bongiorno, Apple Inc, 2017). Do the test at the start of RF site surveys in order to get an enhanced idea of the way to position testing access point based on inter-floor signals propagation. 

Despite the fact that, great advances have been made in terms of  the ease and speed of implementing Wi-Fi network, the simple nature of RF (radio frequency) is generally unaffected. Increasing the users accessing the WLAN within a small physical area remains a problem (Sorrells, Bultman, Cook, Looke, Moses Jr, Rawlins, and Rawlins, ParkerVision Inc, 2012). The process and steps for an effective high user densities WLAN design, which can be verified, implemented, as well as maintained through Cisco’s Unified Wireless Network design is defined. It includes the following general stages:

Plan: Decide application as well as device required such as protocols, bandwidth, frequencies, SLA (service level agreement), etc.

  • Design: Control density, antennas, cell sizing, site survey, coverage, etc.
  • Implement: Installation, tune, establish baseline, test, etc.
  • Optimize: Monitor, adjust, report, reviewing baseline for service level agreement (SLA).
  • Operate: Cisco WCS (Wireless Control System) checking, troubleshooting apparatuses, reporting and capacity monitoring tools, etc.

The general ideas in the high-density Wi-Fi plan remain factual for several environments. However it is significant to remember that the solutions and content offered will be appropriate for WLAN plan of HCP Company. The intention of the leader is to elucidate the problems in WLAN plan for high-density user HCP as well as offering successful approaches so that administrators and engineers know them as well as are in a position to tell the effect design choices will have (Rudolf, Zuniga, Rahman, and Kwak, InterDigital Technology Corp, 2012).

High-density Wi-Fi Plan

HCP, an Intra Solar firm that sells as well as installing Black Max solar items. The company owns a construction situated at Footscay. Inside the organization head office, they have rent out some office space to other firms such as Web Donate site, which is a company dealing in real estates, and a furniture selling firm (Kholaif, Mendahawi, Barbu, and Bakthavathsalu, BlackBerry Ltd, 2014). All the four firms are currently operating from the 2nd floor of that building. All business operates from different offices and they have company-based single network.

HCP realized that the whole establishment had serious factory safety challenging without a central control as well as management system. The administration decided to reorganize the structure to offer network connection as well as Internet access via HCP controlled establishments (Gopi, Bidichandani, and Mohan, Marvell International Ltd, 2012). The other firms who have rent the working space can utilize the services and devices offered by HCP.

HCP is arranging to rent out the ground floor that is at this time used as stores only and does not have access to network. HCP intends to outspread the network service to the ground floor as well from the 2nd floor. In addition, the Wi-Fi must be accessible from all corners of the building.

The HCP Corporation is currently using a network that only covers their individual offices that are within second floor. Wireless is a limitless medium, which is not affected by restrictions like wiring. In addition it is robust as well as flexible and not a must it be safeguarded or routed among specific physical areas. For engineers, it might be appealing to purely follow the outline of a prevailing wired network, then do "cut and paste" in case of wireless networks (Roy, and Gupta, Empire Technology Development LLC, 2012). While this procedure may seem convenient, it will as well replicate the wired system's shortcomings as well as mistakes and end up being more expensive at the end. Generally, less installation talent and equipment are needed to implement WLAN (wireless local area network) than in the case of a wired system. With wireless network, less often means more. WLAN plan is a different exit from wired plan, and the constituents, which make-up the whole outline will be focused in the following several articles.

Being a limitless medium, the network design should facilitate efficient proliferation of RF, wireless (radio frequency) signals. This enables capacity and coverage, which are main WLAN system strictures (Abramov, Kirdin, and Sukharnikov, Airgain Inc, 2013). Where does radio frequencies energy reach as well as how many users might effectively utilize the network before it is over used to become slow?  Several factors that are involved when designing a dependable, available, and secure wireless system are there. Rational design and planning, based on thorough initial evaluations, can make sure that a wireless local area network will function the first round and enable ease of extension without disruption.

Network Safety Challenges

Wireless LANs purposely propagate data all over buildings, campuses, as well as towns. As a consequence, the radio frequencies regularly go outside the limited area that a company controls. For example, radio waves simply penetrate construction walls and might be gotten from the establishment’s parking bay and perhaps a few meters away, as demonstrated in the Figure below.  Unauthorized people can passively retrieve an enterprise’s sensitive data by use of laptops armed with radio cards from this range without being identified by network safety workers. Hackers, for instance, might be waiting in a car outside a company, capturing every 802.11 transmission through easily accessible packet sniffers, like WireShark. When he captures the information, the hacker can be in a position to retrieve details of e-mails as well as user secret codes to enterprise servers. Obviously, the hacker might use this data to cause a security threat to the business. This challenge as well is experienced in wired Ethernet systems, however to a smaller extent. Flow of current via the metallic cables emits electromagnetic signals that could be received by using critical listening apparatus (Doyle, Yuen, and Girardeau Jr, ViXS Systems Inc, 2012). However the person should be nearby the cable to get the signals. Therefore, for passive watching, wireless local area networks are never as safe as the way wired networks are.

The approach for undertaking the concerns of passive checking is by implementing encryption among all user devices as well as the accessing points. Encryption modifies the data bits in all frames, based on encryption keys, so that hackers cannot make anything sensible from the information they capture through passive watching (Deng, Chen, and Cheng, 2014).  An instance of 802.11 encryption procedure is WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) that was a section of the initial 802.11 principle ratified in the year 1997. Wired Equivalent Privacy is equally easier to crack, though, hence it is never commended for encrypting critical data. Other encryption approaches, such as WPA (Wi-Fi Protected Access), provide much stronger safety

Currently applied wireless skill does not offer similar bandwidth assurances as wired connections; in fact bandwidths are substantially more restricted than wired connections, and are as well shared with other clients who are linked to similar accessing point (Waylett, and McIntosh, LGC Wireless LLC, 2012). The hypothetical aggregate bandwidth accessible for all clients linked to one accessing point is considerably less than the one accessible to one user linked through wired network;

Bandwidth Availability and Traffic Firewalling

Wireless systems is a subject to interfering from every electromagnetic source, and the frequency strength is highly decreased by many construction materials or water-containing objects (e.g.  Students in a class). The availability of items within the vicinity such as DECT phones, microwave ovens, machinery, wire-framed door glasses, people, and several other things within the local surroundings will dramatically decrease the reliability and throughput of the fitting; such interference might go and come following the movement and operation of objects, as well as an extent of intrusion at some moment says nothing concerning the extent of intrusion at another moment (Abramov, Kirdin, and Sukharnikov, Airgain Inc, 2013);

For authentication purpose, wireless system traffic goes thru one of some of gateway gadgets, and these might bring about problems of congestion or even failing under error circumstances or malicious or high traffic; the activities that few can possibly influence the network connection of many (Boyd, ZIH Corp, 2016);

Traffic from wireless networks is firewalled, however not every service might be accessible to wireless clients. This is essential because for instance, bandwidth-hungry apps such as video streaming are tightly regulated, to make sure that no single user can unintentionally flood the shared system, to harm other users within the vicinity (Yeh, and Chang, MediaTek Inc, 2012).

Regarding application of wireless networks for bulk training purpose, it must be recalled that through its nature, one access point can never be projected to provide reliable and sustained services for huge amounts of traffics (Yeh, and Chang, MediaTek Inc, 2012). Typically, access points can reasonably provide to about 25 users having 'bursty' traffic profiles (like reading email, opening a typical web page). Effectiveness of wireless networks in certain areas will reduce dramatically when the number of clients escalates, or when the users maintain constant traffic flows for a duration of time (like, at initial system logon, when transferring large documents or website pages containing large imageries, or streaming video or audio content).

At an elementary stage, roaming within a company IEEE 802.11 system happens when an IEEE 802.11 users changes their AP (access point) connection from one access point to the other in the same wireless local area network. Based on client abilities, an 802.11 wireless local area network client can roam all over the same wireless local area network between access points in the same signal band or among the 5 GHz and 2.4 GHz frequency bands (Yeh, and Chang, MediaTek Inc, 2012). Tablets and smartphones, which have simultaneous Wi-Fi as well as cellular connections might seamlessly roam through networks if there is appropriate infrastructure network designs. When users roam from a wireless local area network with single SSID (service set identifier) to a wireless local area network with the next SSID, the roaming will never be smooth. The Wi-Fi user logic upholds only a single Wi-Fi Wireless LAN verification at a particular time.

Electromagnetic Interference

WLAN clients might roam based exclusively on the software abilities or they might depend on supported roaming abilities offered by the wireless local area network infrastructure access points. When there is client regulated roaming, the user is responsible for determining if it should roam, and therefore detects, evaluates, as well as roam to another access point (Rudolf, Zuniga, Rahman, and Kwak, InterDigital Technology Corp, 2012). The software residing in the user assesses the quality of available Wi-Fi links, and implements the connection as well as roaming logic to link an alternate access point to have an improved quality connection.

  • Limited in terms of range coverage
  • Uses WEP
  • Prone to interference due to the things improper building structuring
  • Insecure
  • Low bandwidth
  • Uses WPA2 authentication
  • Extended WI-FI range coverage
  • Secure
  • Strong signal transmissions
  • High bandwidth   

The key components of wireless local area networks including access point, user devices, wireless routers, wireless network adapter, wireless antennas and wireless controller. Client gadget is as well called station. Every end gadget with wireless capacities will work like client gadget, for instance, laptops, PDA and mobile phones.

The system interface card, also known by the name wireless adapter, works like the interface of wireless local area network, and is essential for the device when it is accessing the wireless network. There are exactly three different forms of system interface cards, comprising USB, PCMCIA and PCI (Rudolf, Zuniga, Rahman, and Kwak, InterDigital Technology Corp, 2012). The PCMCIA interface card is intended for the laptop and enable hot swapping, meaning that users might add or replace the system interface card without shutting down the gadget. The PCI card is appropriate for nine desktop PCs and the USB card is appropriate for both laptops as well as desktop computers.

 Wireless routers might act as access points or normal routers. Majority of the routers are made to be used at homes. The wireless router have internal firewall that safeguard home user from hackers. Even though wireless routers are different in many diverse ways, usually only one type is necessary for the whole family members. Access points act like a bridge among wired networks and wireless devices. Access points are commonly applied in large constructions so as to make a WLAN that spreads to a wider coverage. Home users might add an access point, however they cannot add routers if they need to enlarge their networks, but office users might add several APs to enlarge the network coverage for the whole construction (Yeh, and Chang, MediaTek Inc, 2012). The wireless controllers used to automatically manage and configure a set of APs. The features of the wireless controls comprising coverage hole correction and detection, load balancing as well as interference avoidance and detection.  In addition, antennas are as well available in wireless local area networks. The purpose of antenna is to receive and transmit electromagnetic waves, so that users might expand the area of coverage of WLAN by use of antennas. The rate of transmission is significantly decreased when wireless gadgets are distance from the access point or other gadgets, and aerials will work together to improve the signals as well as speeding up the transmission rate.

Traffic Congestion

Three different types of wireless LAN topologies are there, including IBSS, ESS and BSS. The Independent Service Sets (IBSS), also known by the name ad-hoc networks (Rudolf, Zuniga, Rahman, and Kwak, InterDigital Technology Corp, 2012). As it is illustrated in Figure 2 of this paper, users might directly transmit information among themselves without having APs. Not less than two wireless positions are required for each one of the topologies. We can simply form a small wireless local area network in offices by applying Independent Service Sets topology. However each node must use same channels.

Figure 2: (Abramov, Kirdin, and Sukharnikov, Airgain Inc, 2013)

The Basic Service Set (BSS), which is also known by the name Infrastructure BSS needs an access point the moment users need to connect with one another, as it is illustrated in Diagram 3.


Figure 3: (Abramov, Kirdin, and Sukharnikov, Airgain Inc, 2013).

The Extended Service Set (ESS) can as well be seen like combining several BSSs with a broadcasting system within the same system, as illustrated by Figure 4. Extended Service Set often contains two or even more access points and it might have a wider area coverage than BSS has.


Figure 4: (Abramov, Kirdin, and Sukharnikov, Airgain Inc, 2013)

IBSSs are appropriate for huge companies for they require many devices where all the gadgets require high speed broadcast. BSSs are appropriate for home purposes since the gadgets don’t require high speed transmission.

Safety has continuously been a significant part of wireless or wired networks. As time passes, insecurity to all sensitive information transmitted from client devices wireless local area networks are increasing. It is high time WLAN be protected from attackers. At very start, WLANs use SSID for their safety (Grandhi, Chandra, Zeira, and Sammour, InterDigital Technology Corp, 2014). Clients use Service Set Identifier to join wireless local area networks. Various WLANs will go into the media accessing control within AP to regulate access gadgets. These two approaches are not ideal solutions for safety anymore.

There are diverse ways for wireless local area network verification. The open verification process is the easiest and default way for authenticating in 802.11 principles. This approach lets any workstation to access the access point. Users send authentication requests to the AP to receive an authentication answer from the AP. After that procedure users might access the access point effectively (Abramov, Kirdin, and Sukharnikov, Airgain Inc, 2013). This approach can easily be used for the unauthorized users. However if the gadget require to pass information, its WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) keys should match that of access point. As it is illustrated in Figure 5, the gadget’s WEP key do not match that of access point, which show that the gadget can validate but cannot transmit data.


Figure 5: (Boyd, ZIH Corp, 2016).

The common key authentication, like it is illustrated through Figure 6, users direct authentication requests to the access point and after the access point get the requests it will transfer a challenge message back to each user, the user then encrypts the message and sends that message to the access point (Boyd, ZIH Corp, 2016). And, the access point will verify the user when access point decrypt the message successfully as well as matching the message to the initial one.  User can gain access to APs after these procedures

The common key verification will cause challenge. Since both the encrypted challenge and the unencrypted challenge text can be examined, it indicates that hackers might calculates the Wired Equivalent Privacy key through comparing the encrypted and unencrypted text to access the access points, so the common key authentication might be less safe than open verification.

The EAP verification will offer the maximum level of safety for the WLAN. The RADIUS server and the wireless gadget will mutually authenticate by use of EAP verification (Boyd, ZIH Corp, 2016). The procedures of EAP authentications are demonstrated through Figure 7. The EAP verification will offer the maximum level of safety for the WLAN.


Figure 7: The procedures of EAP authentications.

The user devices will transfer authentications to the AP, then the AP will notice the request, when the user transfer the username as well as the access point convey the username to the server, RADIUS, which will relay authentication challenges backward to the user. The user will apply one-way encrypting of the passwords to provide an answer to the challenges then transfer the answer to the server. The server will generate its own response which is compared with that of user. After the RADIUS authenticates the user, the authentication process is finished (Boyd, ZIH Corp, 2016). The RADIUS server and the client will create an exclusive Wired Equivalent Privacy key to facilitate the user when accessing the suitable level of wireless network. The user will then use the WEP key during logon sessions. In logon sessions, the server, RADIUS will encode the session/WEP key and relay that key to the AP. The AP will encode its session key and the broadcasting key then transfer the encoded broadcast key back to the user who will utilize the session keys to decode it. The AP and the client will utilize the session as well as broadcast Wired Equivalent Privacy key for all connections (Ibrahim, Brancato, and Bongiorno, Apple Inc, 2017).  There are several different forms of EAP verification, however the AP has similar conducts. The access point will send authentication texts from wireless user to the RADIUS as well as from the server, RADIUS to wireless clients.

Experts from all roles and fields formed the standards. Use details of real threats that have affected frameworks to offer the platform to tirelessly have knowhow about the attacks to build practical and compelling defenses. Combine only the controls that already have shown to stop threats in real situation. There is no system that is hundred percent safe; layering safety make it difficult for the attackers. Each layer may only stop 30 to 40%. Achieving a secure domain requires several layers to be used. The new system will observe these commended protection controls, the first phases when locking down as well as securing WLANs are accomplished (Ibrahim, Brancato, and Bongiorno, Apple Inc, 2017). Prevention and detection are both needed to fully eliminate the hackers.

Before realizing Control 15 as well as its sections, the business site and case study are done. The company case authorizes that wireless conditions are safe (Ibrahim, Brancato, and Bongiorno, Apple Inc, 2017). The site assessment has helped in determining the required hardware for the wireless network. Figure 8. Show the configuration plan. The configuration orientation includes two Cisco 2504 Wireless regulators as well as thirty 802.11G/N FUAP (Fixed Unified Access Points) having Internal Antenna. The devices are configured using Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service (RADIUS) authentication for safeguarding access management. The figure 8 below shows the configuration collection for establishing RADIUS authentication; figure 9 below demonstrates comprehensive server setup. This setting is managed and controlled. The controls are built to assist failover to organize a lonely breakdown point. Directing all activity thru network intrusion detection system (NIDS) and a firewall helps to advance security.


Figure 8: Configuration of Radius Authentication Server (Ibrahim, Brancato, and Bongiorno, Apple Inc, 2017).


Figure 9: Set up of Radius Verification Server (Ibrahim, Brancato, and Bongiorno, Apple Inc, 2017).

Utilizing commercial level wireless access points allows the wireless network to accomplish two roles. Access points can be used as a source of signals for the WLAN and function as wireless intrusion detection systems (WIDS). Access points are designed to examine for rogue access points and users (Boyd, ZIH Corp, 2016). They are as well are designed to identify all rogue remote devices and successful or attempted compromises and attacks. This is clearly illustrated in figure 10 below.


Figure 10: Rogue access points and users.

The Headquarters, Joondalup and Kalamunda, all should to separate Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs). Partition is important for security and control of the traffics of wireless gadgets. Each WLAN is therefore connected to VLANs, like demonstrated in figure 11 below. At the point when every traffic from the wireless gadget undergoes same security and firewall stack like wired system traffic (Sirotkin, Intel Corp, 2015). Leading the traffic thru the safety stack enables filtering and auditing of traffic. IT is demonstrated in figure 12 below showing that, Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA2) safety is being applied. Also, MAC filtration is used to assure that only known and approved users can gain access to the Headquarters, Kalamunda, as well as Joondalup system. Accepted MAC address is stored inside Active Directories. Their verification and validation is regulated by Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service server. The approved credentials are transferred to the control through Cisco ACS. Controller of Headquarters accessibility is by Web Authentication (Web-Auth). Headquarters access a secret code while Username expires after each 24-hours’ duration. When connecting with the Headquarters Service Set Identifier (SSID), all users are forced into web-based portals, which anticipates them to offer their certifications.

The wireless plan applies to every department of wireless connections of the HCP system infrastructure and includes every wireless device working within the enterprise IP address range, on all of the enterprise premises, or every remote area openly connected with the enterprise network (Ozluturk, InterDigital Technology Corp, 2013). Currently information Services are in control of the HCP network structure. The wireless network is an extension of this system and therefore, information Services plays a single role concerning the plan, deployment, and management, of the firm’s WLANs.

  1. Each access point should follow national controls about Wireless Gadgets.
  2. Each current access point must comply with set particulars as described by Data Service.
  3. All new access points should be attained by through Data Service, in-line with HCP present purchasing strategy and enterprise Information Technology Institutionalization initiative.
  4. Each access point must take Data Services Established Configuration sets for access points.
  5. Access points will only support the 802.11b and 802.11g benchmarks.
  6. Data Services limit the connection of every non-standard access point.
  7. In agreement with the Information Technology Guidelines Data Services have the freedom to cripple all non-standard gadgets which might bring about impedance with available affirmed access points. The culpable device might be displaced without prior notice.
  8. Active scrutinizing of wireless networks is always done by Data Services and any unauthorized AP will be excluded from the network.
  9. Data Services acts like the central administration organ in monitoring the installation and maintenance of all 802.11 wireless local area network.

HCP Company boosts the Appropriate and proper usage of service and facilities, which the enterprise provides to its staff, clients, and other authorized users.

In relation to the providing of these services and facilities, HCP considers its duty seriously to offer a suitable organizational structure, including particular rules and measures for the appropriate use of these enterprises’ services and facilities (Asokan, Ginzboorg, Moloney, Kostiainen, Sovio, Ekberg, and Takala, Nokia Oy AB, 2013). The wireless plan constitutes a section of this organizational structure. Application of each IT facility offered by HCP is responsible to the valid Regulations and Policies, especially, the business Internet Plan as well as the IT Guidelines for Company Statement.

The usage of information technology facilities of HCP, set a situation to staff members or any other approved person, that the user approves that should be bound through appropriate Company Policies and Regulations (Yeh, and Chang, MediaTek Inc, 2012).


There have been wide-ranging articles as well as research papers that persistently indicates that applying one or even two stages of safety are not enough. Wireless administrators should take an extensive look as well as taking into consideration the security in wide approach to be sure that their wireless local area networks are secure. Applying numerous layers of defense defers the attackers and require more effort and experience to hack the network.

 Certainly, even the utmost secure procedures for wireless local area network still have some errors. Suitable setup as well as strong security are still the paramount as well as most grounded approaches for safety. The tools and knowledge of exploiting and breaching into wireless networks are openly available. Culprits and hackers consistently attack companies to access or steal their money and information. The important control from the Central point for Internet Safety offer twenty different controls detached into App controls, Systems and Networks. CIS controls are a collection of globally recognized measures refined, created, as well as approved through driving information technology safety specialists from all over the world. CIS’ controls addresses most serious digital hygiene issues all businesses should observe to safeguard their information technology system. Putting issues into perception, a valuation by Australian government proves that 85% percent of recognized vulnerabilities might be avoided through use of the five critical CIS guidelines. It includes taking stocks of information technology resources, realizing safe configurations, susceptibilities, limiting and patching unauthorized users.

HCP should upgrade by using current updated network systems. Setup controls are absolute requisite. When outlines are put in place, reviews must be intermittently done to make sure that no unapproved alterations can be done. It is hard to make sure the safety of the wireless network having obscure devices giving access as well as interfacing. Safety experts should notice and safeguard all routes; that hackers might use to access the company's' data and information. Reports of new and larger breaks occurs daily. Earlier, a little attack was a big issue, nowadays when stealing of a big number of files occurs it is simply a stun. People are becoming numb due to the effects of hacking.

Programmers, System Administrators, Active Directory Managers, Managers, and Network Administrators should play part in security awareness and training. They are the individuals in control of the data and resources, therefore they must be aware of the perils as well as the answers to assure the safety of the company. Security is a responsibility of everybody but not only for security personnel.

Kim, S.J., Jeon, S.J., Park, J.Y. and Youn, M.K., Samsung Electronics Co Ltd, 2013. Securing quality of service (QoS) according to type of wireless local area network (WLAN) service. U.S. Patent 8,428,555.

Ibrahim, T., Brancato, J. and Bongiorno, J., Apple Inc, 2017. Pico cell wireless local area network (WLAN). U.S. Patent 9,565,610.

Sorrells, D.F., Bultman, M.J., Cook, R.W., Looke, R.C., Moses Jr, C.D., Rawlins, G.S. and Rawlins, M.W., ParkerVision Inc, 2012. Wireless local area network (WLAN) using universal frequency translation technology including multi-phase embodiments. U.S. Patent 8,229,023.

Rudolf, M., Zuniga, J.C., Rahman, S.A. and Kwak, J.A., InterDigital Technology Corp, 2012. Supporting emergency calls on a wireless local area network. U.S. Patent 8,145,182.

Kholaif, A.M.M., Mendahawi, N.F., Barbu, I. and Bakthavathsalu, K.K., BlackBerry Ltd, 2014. Configuring mobile station according to type of wireless local area network (WLAN) deployment. U.S. Patent 8,699,379.

Gopi, P., Bidichandani, S. and Mohan, A., Marvell International Ltd, 2012. Method and apparatus for providing quality of service (QoS) in a wireless local area network. U.S. Patent 8,238,287.

Roy, S. and Gupta, R., Empire Technology Development LLC, 2012. Achieving quality of service in a wireless local area network. U.S. Patent 8,144,613.

Abramov, O.Y., Kirdin, A.N. and Sukharnikov, Y.P., Airgain Inc, 2013. Method for radio communication in a wireless local area network and transceiving device. U.S. Patent 8,423,084.

Doyle, J., Yuen, W. and Girardeau Jr, J.W., ViXS Systems Inc, 2012. Method and apparatus for affiliating a wireless device with a wireless local area network. U.S. Patent 8,284,739.

Deng, D.J., Chen, K.C. and Cheng, R.S., 2014, August. IEEE 802.11 ax: Next generation wireless local area networks. In Heterogeneous networking for quality, reliability, security and robustness (QShine), 2014 10th international conference on(pp. 77-82). IEEE.

Waylett, N.S. and McIntosh, C.P., LGC Wireless LLC, 2012. Communication system having a community wireless local area network for voice and high speed data communication. U.S. Patent 8,184,603.

Boyd, R.W., ZIH Corp, 2016. System and method for determining signal source location in wireless local area network. U.S. Patent 9,274,207.

Ozluturk, F., InterDigital Technology Corp, 2013. Method and system for facilitating handover from a third generation (3G) cellular communication system to a wireless local area network (WLAN). U.S. Patent 8,548,478.

Yeh, C.H. and Chang, C.M., MediaTek Inc, 2012. Systems for wireless local area network (WLAN) transmission and for coexistence of WLAN and another type of wireless transmission and methods thereof. U.S. Patent 8,184,566.

Asokan, N., Ginzboorg, P., Moloney, S., Kostiainen, K.T., Sovio, S., Ekberg, J.E. and Takala, J., Nokia Oy AB, 2013. Administration of wireless local area networks. U.S. Patent 8,532,304.

Rudolf, M., Zuniga, J.C., Rahman, S.A. and Kwak, J., InterDigital Technology Corp, 2014. Supporting emergency calls on a wireless local area network. U.S. Patent 8,682,279.

Sirotkin, A., Intel Corp, 2015. Method, system and apparatus of wireless local area network (WLAN) communication in conjunction with cellular communication. U.S. Patent 8,988,999.

Grandhi, S.A., Chandra, A., Zeira, E. and Sammour, M., InterDigital Technology Corp, 2014. Method and system for improving responsiveness in exchanging frames in a wireless local area network. U.S. Patent 8,830,846

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