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Describe the type of food or drink and the amount of each item in as much detail as possible. See Appendices B and C for samples. Also, include any vitamin, mineral, or food supplement products that you consumed 

Compare the total number of servings from each food group to the appropriate number of servings based on your age and gender. For which food groups (if any) are you short of the recommended servings By how much For which food groups (if any) are you over the recommended servings  By how much Does this day reflect your typical eating habits Explain. Have you consumed 30-45 mL of unsaturated oils and fats Examine the quality of your Food Intake Diary (Initial Diet) according to  the  Canada’s   Food Guide. Refer to the following sections: 

Determine your routine activity level. Refer to the definitions given below. Justify your answer providing examples of activities you undertake daily.Calculate the per cent of total energy in your diet for the macronutrients: protein, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fat, and alcohol.Plan a modified diet based on the recommended number of servings and types of foods included in Canada’s Food Guide. Use the clickable Food Intake Diary Template, and label this version as your modified diet.

Enter this modified diet into the Diet Analysis+ program and briefly answer the following questions referring to your Modified Diet “Intake versus Goals”, “Fat Breakdown”, and “Macronutrient Ranges”.  

  • Have you achieved the DRI goals Why or why not
  • What foods and nutrients did you change  
  • Did the changes based on the Canada’s Food Guide improve your diet according to the DRI.

Details on food and drink consumed

Foods

serving size

Visual comparison

Recommended servings  by Canada’s Food Guide

Whole wheat bread

84 gm= 1 grain servicing

1 hockey puck

50 g

MAHATMA rice, Basmati

180 gm= 1 grain serving

1 baseball

100 g

Banana

1 medium

1 baseball

1 medium

Apple

1 medium

1 baseball

1 medium

Cucumber

1 medium

1 baseball

1 medium

Tomato

100 g

1 baseball

1 small

Egg

146 g

2 hockey puck

5 g

Chicken breast boneless

172 g

1 baseball

100g

Cheese

2 g

¾ of whole walnut

10 g

Nutella spread

18.5 g

¾ of whole walnut

12 g

Oils

10 g

1 whole walnut

15 g

Table 2: Serving size of Food Intake

(Source: Capozzi, Francesco, and Alessandra Bordoni, 3)

I take 84gm of whole wheat bread in the breakfast that needs be 50 gm. I consume 180 gm of MAHATMA Rice, Basmati, which needs to be 100 gm for a typical day according to the Canada’s Food Guide. I take two pieces of whole white bread. I consume whole fruits regularly and consume sufficient amount of vegetables. I consume one large size of whole vegetables. However, I need to take medium size of whole vegetable. Lease, Haidee, et al. (25) suggested that a person needs 250 ml milk regularly. However, my diet is lack of milk therefore; I need to add milk in my diet. I consume more quantity of meat products. Canada’s Food Guide suggested that 100gm of meat is safe for the people 40 years above (Johnson, 56). However, I take 172 gm of meat that needs to be minimized to avoid health issues.

I take 10 gm oil, 2 gm of cheese and 18.5 gm of Nutella spread respectively whereas Canada’s Food Guide recommended 30 gm of fat/day. In comparison to the recommended amount, I take sufficient amount of fat daily. I need to be more careful during choosing my diet to avoid the health problems regarding diet. I need to quit smoking as it is injurious to health. I must decrease the amount of meat products from diet, instead of meat and add lean fresh fish. Fish is less harmful than meat products and provide sufficient amount of energy (Keast, Russell and Andrew, 1). I daily take 2.7 liter water that is sufficient and good for the health. Turner-McGrievy et al. (514) suggested that to reduce fat of body water helps much. Therefore, one needs to take sufficient amount of water regularly.

The primary diet imitates typical eating habits. I mainly try to follow mentioned diet chart regularly. I prefer to take whole fruits than the cooked foods. However, I take limited food in normal range.As per my food intake records, I do consume 30-40 gm of fats. As per Canada’s Food Guide, one should consume 30-40 ml fats regularly for physical need (Leatherdale and Rachel, 42). However, I consume 30.5 gm fat daily.From Food Intake Diary, it is found that I consume limited foods, beverages and oils. The limited foods and beverages are coffee (227 g), sugar (10 g) and herbal tea (236 gm). Vanderlee, McCRORY, and David Hammond (148) recommended that limited amount of limited food creates less risks to health.

a. Dark green and orange vegetables: 

I consume fewer amounts of orange and dark green vegetables. I try to take one serving of green and orange vegetables at least daily in proper amount.

b. Whole fruits and vegetables: 

As per the food intake diary, I consume whole fruits excluding added salt, fat or sugar. I avoid fruit juice and try to prefer whole fruits like apple and banana.

c. All whole grains (unrefined): 

I mainly take unrefined whole grains such as whole white bread. The quantity of whole white bread is 84gm.

Comparison of recommended vs actual servings

d. All grain products with low salt, sugar or fat: 

I take basmati rice, which is lower in salt, sugar and fat. I want to be health conscious and enthusiastic to reduce weight.

e. Low-fat milk and lean meat: 

According to the food intake diary, I do not take milk or milk products in daily diet. Therefore, I need to add 250 ml milk in diet.

f. Beverages: 

With 2.7liter water, I take beverages like coffee and herbal tea. However, the major source of fluid in body is water (Mathe et al., 68).

Vegetables and Fruits

Grain products

Milk and Alternatives

Meat and Alternatives

Oils and Fats

Number of servings consumed

2

2

0

2

2

List of key nutrients provided by each food groups

Carbohydrate, vitamins and fiber

Carbohydrate, niacin, fiber, riboflavin, thiamine, foliate and magnesium.

Calcium, protein, fat vitamin D and magnesium.

Protein, fats, B vitamins, iron, and zinc

Fats, cholesterols, fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids and essential vitamins.

Table 3: Key nutrients found in food group

(Source: As created by Author)

Age: 42 years

Height: 163 cm

Weight: 72 kg

Status: Very active

To calculate the BMI, I need to know the weight and height.

BMI

BMI Status

<18.5

Under nutrition

18.5-24.9

Normal

25-29.9

Obese

30-34.9

Obese I

35-39.9

Obese II

>40

Obese III

Table 4: BMI 

(Source: Baer, Heather, et al., 599)

BMI= weight (kg)/ (Height in cm) 

= 27.1 kg/cm

Based on the above discussion, gaining of weight can be risky and health problems like hypertension, obesity and kidney problems may occur. My weight should be in between 51-61kg according to my age. I need to follow strict diet and do moderate exercises to lose weight.

Main daily activities

Time allocation Hrs.

Energy cost PAR

Time x Energy Cost

Sleeping

8

1

8

Personal care

2

2.3

4.6

Dressing

2

2.4

4.8

Eating

1

2.1

2.1

General household works

2

2.8

5.6

Reading

4

1.3

5.2

Low intensity aerobic exercise

2

4.2

8.4

Light leisure activities

1

1.4

1.4

Walking briskly

2

3.8

7.6

Table 5: Personal activities for typical day

(Source: As created by Author)

My weight is changing over years. Physical activity can affect weight. From the previous years, I began to lose my weight as I have started fitness training and brisk walking. 

Description of food or beverage

Amount consumed

Energy (kcal)

Protein (g)

Fat (g)

Iron (mg)

Coffee

1 X 227 g

2.37

0.28

0.05

0.02

Egg

146g

308.28

20.67

24.63

1.96

Chicken breast boneless

1 piece (172g)

283.80

53.35

6.14

1.79

Cucumber

104g

15.60

0.68

0.11

0.29

Tomatoes

100g

18

0.88

0.20

0.27

Apple

182g

94.64

0.47

0.31

0.22

Nutella spread  

18.5g

100

1.5

5.5

0.36

Banana

118g

105.02

1.29

0.39

0.31

Lemonade

248g

99.2

0.17

0.10

0.40

Tomato soup

248g

74

2

0.70

1.3

Table 6: DA+ Original Diet

(Source: As created by Author)

Intake: grams

% of calories

AMDR

Protein

113.02

28.25%

20-35%

Carbohydrates

317.05

79.26%

45-65%

Total fat

78.04

8.67%

10-20%

Saturated fat

5

0.67%

<10%

Table 7: Calculation of percentages of total energy for macronutrients

(Source: As created by Author)

‘Fat breakdown’ and ‘Initial Diet Intake versus Goals’ recommended that determination of diet is very important for the wellbeing of life (Lairon, Denis, and Machteld Huber, 298). I am taking 113.02 gm protein and calorie percentage of the protein intake is 28.25%. AMDR suggested that percentage of the protein must be 20-35% (Rachul, S59). My carbohydrate intake amount is 673.35 gm and percentage of calories is 79.26%. AMDR recommended that the percentage of carbohydrate calories needs to be 45-65% (Vannice, Gretchen, and Heather Rasmussen, 141). Therefore, my carbohydrate calorie percentage is high than the recommended amount.

My total fat consumption is 78.04 gm and the fat percentage of calorie is 8.67%. According to AMDR, the percentages of fat calorie should be between 10-20%. The quantity of saturated fat expenditure is 5 gm and percentages of saturated fat calorie are 0.67%. The AMDR recommended that the saturated fat percentages should be not as much of 10%. I take carbohydrate inn higher amount than fat, protein and saturated fat. I need to increase the amount of protein and reduce the amount of carbohydrate. However, the protein should be taken in form of meat, fish and egg (Capozzi, Francesco, and Alessandra Bordoni, 4). I do not take alcohol that helps to avoid the serious health issues regarding alcohol. However, I have the habit of smoking that I need to quit so that it cannot harm my health. Therefore, I can lead a healthy and well lifestyle.

Quality examination of food intake according to Canada's Food Guide

I take limited foods in fewer amounts like sugar, coffee and herbal tea.

Intake foods

Amounts

Energy (kcal)

Sugar

10 ml

40

Herbal tea

236 g

2.37

Coffee

227 g

2.37

Table 8: Energy of Limited foods

(Source: Smith, Jimmy, et al., 10)

Macro/Micro ion

Highest source/ Amount

Second highest Source/ Amount

Iron

Egg (146 g)- 1.96 mg

Chicken breast boneless (180 gm)- 1.79

Total fat

Oil (10 g)-25 g

Egg (146 g)- 23.63 g

Dietary fiber

Whole wheat bread (84 g)- 5.63 g

Apple (182 g)– 4.37 g

Foliate

Whole wheat bread (84 g)- 74.76 µg  

Egg (146 g)- 40.88 µg

Vitamin A

Egg (146 g)- 300 mg

Tomato (100 g)- 42 mg

Calcium

Egg (146 g)- 297.84 mg

Chicken breast boneless (180 gm)- 25.8 mg

Sodium

Tomato soup (248 g)- 667 mg

Egg (146 g)- 535.82 mg

Table 9: Result of micro nutrients

(Source: As created by Author)

The suggested diet chart shows balanced diet foods for a woman, who is 42 years old. This diet chart provides the DRI goals because the diet is very rich in micronutrients and macronutrients. I will get help to modify my diet and will be able to take proper amount foods according to the ‘Canadian Food Guide’. The Canadian Food Guide helped to improve my daily diet according to Dietary Reference Intake (DRI). 

The DRI (Dietary Reference Intake) and Canada’s Food Intake agree with each one according to the Diet Analysis Plus. According to Canada’s Food Intake, I need to have proper amount of protein, carbohydrate and fat. However, Dietary Reference Intake suggests that the protein should be 20-35%, carbohydrate should be 45-65% and fat should be 10-20% (Bolzetta et al., 1790). Dietary Reference Intake recommends that the percentage of macronutrients same as the Canad’s Food Guide (Fieldhouse).

Canada’s Food Guide has various strengths and weakness that are discussed below:

  • The strength of Canada’s Food Guide is that it gives a clear idea of the proportional balanced diet (Volpi, Elena, et al. 680).
  • The weakness of Canada’s Food Guide is that this food guide does not give idea of the correct quantity of calories.

As Canad’s Food Guide has strength and weakness, therefore, I need to consult with nutritionist or dietitian and my physiologist before following the Canada’s Food Guide to know all thern pros and cons of using the food guide to prepare my diet chart.  

The DRI (Dietary Reference Intake) suggests mainly about the micronutrients intake such as thiamine, iron, foliate, vitamin A, riboflavin, magnesium, dietary fiber and retinol (Pursey et al., e4). However, DRI cannot provide the details of the requirements. The Dietary Reference Intake chart is prepared on the basis of sex, age group and physical activities.

The modified diet chart needs to include sufficient amount of protein, carbohydrate, fat, saturated fat, fiber, vitamins, sodium, and additional minerals. According to Huth et al. (1) 60 gm of serving needs to add 9% of protein, 870 Kj energy, 9% of carbohydrates, 1% of fat, 1% of saturated fat, 5% of sodium and 11% sugars (Moble et al., 1530S). With the modified diet, one should practice some exercises, which is a good habit and lead to a healthy and wellbeing lifestyle.  

References 

Anderson, L. C., C. L. Mah, and D. W. Sellen. "Eating well with Canada's food guide? Authoritative knowledge about food and health among newcomer mothers." Appetite 91 (2015): 357-365.

Baer, Heather J., et al. "Using electronic health records to address overweight and obesity: a systematic review." American journal of preventive medicine 45.4 (2013): 494-500.

Bolzetta, Francesco, et al. "Are the Recommended Dietary Allowances for Vitamins Appropriate for Elderly People?." Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 115.11 (2015): 1789-1797.

Capozzi, Francesco, and Alessandra Bordoni. "Foodomics: a new comprehensive approach to food and nutrition." Genes & nutrition 8.1 (2013): 1-4.

Fieldhouse, Paul. Food and nutrition: customs and culture. Springer, 2013.

Huth, Peter J., et al. "Major food sources of calories, added sugars, and saturated fat and their contribution to essential nutrient intakes in the US diet: data from the national health and nutrition examination survey (2003–2006)." Nutrition journal 12.1 (2013): 1.

Johnson, Steven T. "Awareness and Use Of Canada’s Food Guide to Healthy Eating: A Population-Based Study." (2013).

Keast, Russell SJ, and Andrew Costanzo. "Is fat the sixth taste primary? Evidence and implications." Flavour 4.1 (2015): 1.

Lairon, Denis, and Machteld Huber. "Food quality and possible positive health effects of organic products." Organic Farming, Prototype for Sustainable Agricultures. Springer Netherlands, 2014. 295-312.

Lease, Haidee, et al. "A Sensory-Diet database: A tool to characterise the sensory qualities of diets." Food Quality and Preference 49 (2016): 20-32.

Leatherdale, Scott T., and Rachel E. Laxer. "Reliability and validity of the weight status and dietary intake measures in the COMPASS questionnaire: are the self-reported measures of body mass index (BMI) and Canada’s food guide servings robust?." International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 10.1 (2013): 42.

Mathe, Nonsikelelo, et al. "Health Behaviours and Awareness of Canada’s Food Guide: A Population-based Study." Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research 77.2 (2016): 66-71.

Mobley, Amy R., Joanne L. Slavin, and Betsy A. Hornick. "The future of recommendations on grain foods in dietary guidance." The Journal of nutrition 143.9 (2013): 1527S-1532S

Pursey, Kirrilly, et al. "How accurate is web-based self-reported height, weight, and body mass index in young adults?." Journal of medical Internet research 16.1 (2014): e4.

Rachul, Christen. "Read Well to Eat Well?: A Multimodal Analysis of Canada’s Food Guide." Canadian Journal of Diabetes 39 (2015): S59.

Smith, Jimmy, et al. "Beyond milk, meat, and eggs: Role of livestock in food and nutrition security." Animal Frontiers 3.1 (2013): 6-13.

Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M., et al. "Comparison of traditional versus mobile app self-monitoring of physical activity and dietary intake among overweight adults participating in an mHealth weight loss program." Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 20.3 (2013): 513-518.

Vanderlee, Lana, C. A. S. S. O. N. D. R. A. McCRORY, and David Hammond. "Awareness and Knowledge of Recommendations from Canada's Food Guide." Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research 76.3 (2015): 146-149.

Vannice, Gretchen, and Heather Rasmussen. "Position of the academy of nutrition and dietetics: dietary fatty acids for healthy adults." Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics 114.1 (2014): 136-153.

Volpi, Elena, et al. "Is the optimal level of protein intake for older adults greater than the recommended dietary allowance?." The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 68.6 (2013): 677-681.

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