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Lesson 1: Behaviorism theory for teaching 'Romeo and Juliet'

Discuss About The Pedagogy For Christian Worldview Formation.

The five lessons are developed focusing on the syllabus developed by BOSTES and ACARA for the fifth stage, especially for year 9 (Home - Board of Studies Teaching and Educational Standards NSW, (2018). According to the learning theories, a student can learn the topic in various ways, so it is important to plan the lessons using these theories. The first lesson is developed focusing on the behaviorism theory of learning. The material used for this lesson is “Romeo and Juliet” by William Shakespeare. For teaching a specific module of English, this lesson plans to use behaviorist model is used in the classroom. A student will be recognized and appraised when they will be able to perform better. The law of exercise will be implemented in the classroom so that the students can gain knowledge about the subject very easily (Myles & Mitchell, 2014). The purpose of this lesson is that the student should be able to develop contextual knowledge in the subject and personally engage with the texts.  The lesson is conducted using direct instruction strategies in which the academic content of the syllabus is presented to the students by the teacher.

The information is conveyed to the students through presentation and the students are encouraged to get involved with the module. Using ICT in the classroom, the content can be conveyed efficiently to the students and increase the learning ability of the students. Indigenous culture of the country, cultural identity and linguistic background of the students play a vital role in the learning process of the students (Entwistle & Ramsden, 2015). These factors can cause isolation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students from the course, if not handled properly. These lessons are planned to focus on integrating the social and cultural experiences of the learners into the lesson. The second lesson is developed using the cognitive theory of learning (Olson, 2015). The materials used for this lesson is “Watership Down” by Richard Adams. This lesson is planned to encourage the students to increase their curiosity and they are provided with opportunities to increase their understanding of the subject. The purpose of developing this lesson is to enable the students to develop an understanding of the subject and transfer the knowledge gained into new and different contexts.  The curiosity of the students will be encouraged to increase their curiosity about the subject, and the lesson will be divided into smaller divisions.

Lesson 2: Cognitive theory for teaching 'Watership Down'


The content of the academics will be conveyed to them using instructional approaches in this lesson. Using this approach, the students are encouraged to become independent learners (Kay & Kibble, 2016). The impact of cultural identity is crucial in the learning process, and the lesson is designed to improve the learning of the aboriginal students and decrease the level of a disadvantage with a transfer of knowledge. The third lesson plan is planned is design so that the students will be able to evaluate the cultural meanings of the text and question it (Nicholas & Wells, 2017). The material which will be used in this lesson is “Little Women” by Louisa May Alcott. The theory of learning applied while planning the lesson is behaviorism theory, and the content is conveyed to the students using direct instruction strategy by the teacher. This method enables the teachers to educate their students a specific skill, which is to increase their understanding of the subject English. Along with direct instruction strategy, indirect teaching approach can also be used to increase the understanding of the subject and their engagement in the course (Gee, 2014). The fourth lesson is planned to encourage the students to think creatively and interpret the text and develop critical ideas about the subject. Texts from Roald Dahl and J M Barrie are used as materials. This lesson will also be based on the learning theory of cognitivism. The role of teachers is crucial to encourage the students to participate in the learning process. The cultural identity of the Aboriginal students and the students from Torres Strait Islander background play a significant role in their education. While the lessons are planned, respect is given to their culture and focus is given to building the trust between the student and the teachers.

The fifth lesson is planned to encourage the students to increase their reflective skills and their independence (Banks, 2015). “Rebecca” by Daphne du Maurier is chosen for this lesson as the material for this lesson. Both cognitive and behavioral theory will be used while implementing this lesson in the classroom. The students are encouraged to participate in the course and they are praised when they are able to perform well in the academics. The lesson will be lecture based and highly structured, and the teacher will convey the content to the students.  The teacher will be mainly responsible for their students and their achievements (Nelson & Guerra, 2014).  However, this approach cannot fit the needs of all the students, so the teacher must develop innovative strategies to teach their students.  So the theory of cognitivism is also applied in the classroom. In this method, the students are encouraged to inquire about the subject through a series of questions. However, this approach to is not sufficient to meet the needs of all the students in the classroom. Direct teaching methods are beneficial for the students so that they can understand the subject clearly from their teachers. This why the teachers need to create an environment of trust among their students. The teacher also needs to respect the culture of the Aboriginal students and the students from Torres Strait Island.  The teachers are responsible to promote an environment within the classroom free of racism.   

Lesson 3: Direct instruction and indirect approach for teaching 'Little Women'

These lessons will include culturally inclusive teaching practices, which will be sensible and respectful towards the culture of these students. Thus it would ensure positive interaction from the students of these communities.  The subject will be explained to the students in an easy manner, so that they can learn the subject at their own pace. As the values, culture and cultural identity of the student will be closely linked, it is important to provide a safe environment to the students (Delamont, 2016). When these students come to school to learn new things, they have to understand another culture. Respecting the culture of these students will allow the teachers to increase the efficiency of their teaching skills. Otherwise, the student will not be able to cope with the lesson in the classroom. The cultural identity of these students should not be denied, as it can reflect badly on their self-esteem.  This is why, focus has been given on respecting the culture of these students, and implementing the lessons within the classroom (Luke, 2018).  These students comes from a history of oppression and resistance, so a level of trust must be established before conveying the content of the course. This is due to the reason that they belong from a culture with strong oral traditions. These cultures believe in creating and maintaining relationships. So it is important that, the teachers must try to create and maintain relationships with the students.  

The identity of a person depends on the culture they are belonging, and they have a great influence on the learning process of the individual. The lesson is developed to recognize that cultural identity of the students as a part of their living (Apple, 2017). The lesson plan reinforces the cultural knowledge that these students brings to the classroom. The lesson also recognizes the impacts of culture, cultural identity and linguistics on their education. So the lesson will also include their language as a foundation of the course before moving to teaching other details of the program.  It will help the students to understand and recognize their own cultural beliefs as well as the cultural belief of others. The lesson is also developed to create a positive environment for students from different cultures in the classroom. With the help of these lessons, the teacher will be able to encourage the students to participate in the learning process of the course.  A balance will be maintained in these lessons for both the Aboriginal and other students in the classroom. Proper implementation of these lessons will result in creating a proper environment in the classroom (Cummins, Hu, Markus & Kristiina Montero, 2015). The teachers will be able to prevent negative behaviors of the student by recognizing the cultural differences in the classroom. A culturally responsive lesson will increase the participation of the students in the course, thus increasing their learning in the process. The lessons are planned to educate the student on the relevance of learning another language and the importance of it.  It will also help the students to increase their understanding about various texts, articles and the meaning they convey. The teacher is responsible to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the students, and modify their lesson plan according to that. They are also responsible to provide a safe environment to the students, which would be free from any racism, or other forms of discrimination.                 

Lesson 4: Cognitivism theory for developing critical ideas from Roald Dahl and J M Barrie

The five lessons are planned carefully by considering the learning theories of the student, the direct teaching strategies etc. Additional focus is given to the impacts of culture, cultural identity of the students coming from Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander backgrounds (Chapman, Wright & Pascoe, 2018). The lessons are planned to teach a small group of students belonging to stage five.  During the implementation of the lessons, I have given clear instructions to the students, so that they can understand the course requirements. The students are also encouraged to participate in the course as well. Both cognitive and behaviorism theory of learning is implemented in the classroom. These lessons are well developed and structured so that the lessons can be taught properly in the class. The students are encouraged to participate in the course, thus increasing the effectiveness of their learning. The students inquired about the course, which enabled me to increase my teaching skills as well. With the help of these lessons, I am able to recognize the strengths and weaknesses of the students, as well my own. In the classroom, I have given respect to the cultures of the students coming from different backgrounds, thus building a relationship of trust with my students. This step plays a vital role in the successful implementation of the lessons, as building a relationship is considered crucial in their cultures. As a result, these students are encouraged to freely participate in the course.  

The implementation of the lessons in the classroom is a success, drawing more students towards the course. With the help of these lessons, the students are encouraged to actively participate in the learning process. The students followed the instructions and enquired in case of any doubts, thus increasing their level of knowledge. The students are able to achieve the outcomes of these lessons in effective manner.  These students are able to understand why they are learning a foreign subject like English and its application in the world. As a teacher, I am able to reinforce the knowledge they bring with them in the class.  I have incorporated their language in the classroom, along with using English as a medium of communication.  This has helped the students to learn the language effectively and efficiently.  It also helped me to develop strategies to overcome weaknesses of my teaching skills and help the students achieve their learning outcomes. A lesson which is encouraging students to participate in the learning process, can be considered as an effective one. The lessons developed by me allows the students to increase their curiosity about a topic. It also enabled them to fulfill their curiosity by enquiring about their doubts. Thus I am able to teach them about the subject using both behaviorism theory of learning and cognitive theory. I have implemented both these theories to facilitate the learning of the students irrespective of their background. The number of students is less in the classroom, thus allowing me to spend more time with the students and recognize their individual strengths and weaknesses.          

Lesson 5: Using lecture-based and inquiry-based methods for teaching 'Rebecca'

While developing and implementing the lessons, I am able to understand the importance of culture, cultural identity and the linguistic background of the student in education. The lessons are given to a small group of students to increase the efficiency of these lessons (Lindemann, 2016).  The overall experience has helped me to increase my teaching skills. It also helped me to understand the strengths and weaknesses associated with them. I was also able to identify the strengths and weaknesses of my students and is able to modify the course according to that. I also understood, that a culturally responsive teacher will not try to isolate the cultural identity of the students from them. Rather, it can be used to increase the level of learning of the students (Daniels & Gustafson, 2016).  It is necessary to understand the values, cultures, beliefs of the students, so that they can feel comfortable in the classroom. The class teacher appraised me for the first and fourth lesson, but said my second, third and fifth lesson was unable to meet the mark. There are several advantages applying a Christian worldview and faith-based orientation to planning and teaching. The students are encouraged to interact to with people of all religious and cultural belief with same mentality (Glanzer & Alleman, 2015).  It also allow the teachers to encourage the students to remain faithful to their beliefs and faiths.  The students are encouraged to understand the world in a new way and increase the level of their thinking to global standard. It also helps teachers to incorporate a deep understanding among the students about living with their own convictions.

This approach encourages the students to share their feelings with others in an inviting manner, among the people with other beliefs (Tran, 2017).  The class size is small, so the teachers are able to understand the strengths and weaknesses of their students. They will be abler to modify their courses according to these issues. It also creates a sense of spirituality among the students and thus allowing them to create a closer relationship with their God. They will be able to behave in a positive manner, as they will model their behavior based on the behavior of their teachers (Parkay, Anctil, & Hass, 2014).  However, there are some disadvantages associated with this worldview approach to planning and teaching. There are lesser options to choose from for the students, so they may not able to perform well in the real world. The worldview may not be applicable to all the issues of the world. The students applying the worldview approach to these issues may not be able to perform well in a better way. They may not be able to handle the fact, not all people will believe in the same things as they do (Moore, 2015). Thus they can be discouraged in certain ways to maintain their own beliefs and values. The teachers may not be able to encourage their students to find a practical solution to their existing problems. The students might not be able to face conflict in different aspects of their life if they try to use this worldview.     

References 

Apple, M. W. (Ed.). (2017). Cultural and economic reproduction in education: Essays on class, ideology and the state (Vol. 53). Routledge.

Banks, J. A. (2015). Cultural diversity and education. Routledge.

Chapman, S., Wright, P., & Pascoe, R. (2018). Arts curriculum implementation:“Adopt and adapt” as policy translation. Arts Education Policy Review, 119(1), 12-24.

Cummins, J., Hu, S., Markus, P., & Kristiina Montero, M. (2015). Identity texts and academic achievement: Connecting the dots in multilingual school contexts. Tesol Quarterly, 49(3), 555-581.

Daniels, J. R., & Gustafson, J. N. (2016). Faith-based institutions, institutional mission, and the public good. Higher Learning Research Communications, 6(2), 90.

Delamont, S. (2016). Fieldwork in educational settings: Methods, pitfalls, and perspectives. Routledge.

Entwistle, N., & Ramsden, P. (2015). Understanding student learning (Routledge Revivals). Routledge.

Gee, J. (2014). Social linguistics and literacies: Ideology in discourses. Routledge.

Glanzer, P. L., & Alleman, N. F. (2015). The implications of religious identity for teaching ethics. Journal of Beliefs & Values, 36(2), 131-141.

Home - Board of Studies Teaching and Educational Standards NSW. (2018). Boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au. Retrieved 6 June 2018, from https://www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/ 

Kay, D., & Kibble, J. (2016). Learning theories 101: application to everyday teaching and scholarship. Advances in physiology education, 40(1), 17-25.

Lindemann, R. (2016). Pedagogy For Christian Worldview Formation: A Grounded Theory Study of Bible College Teaching Methods.

Luke, A. (2018). Literacy and the other: A sociological approach to literacy research and policy in multilingual societies. In Critical Literacy, Schooling, and Social Justice (pp. 243-261). Routledge.

Moore, P. (2015). English syllabus under review. Newsmonth, 35(8), 6.

Myles, F., & Mitchell, R. (2014). Second language learning theories. Routledge.

Nelson, S. W., & Guerra, P. L. (2014). Educator beliefs and cultural knowledge: Implications for school improvement efforts. Educational Administration Quarterly, 50(1), 67-95.

Nicholas, M., & Wells, M. (2017). Insights into casual relief teaching: casual relief teachers’ perceptions of their knowledge and skills. Asia-Pacific Journal of Teacher Education, 45(3), 229-249.

Olson, M. H. (2015). An introduction to theories of learning. Psychology Press.

Parkay, F. W., Anctil, E. J., & Hass, G. (2014). Curriculum leadership: Readings for developing quality educational programs. Prentice Hall.

Tran, Y. (2017). What Does Faith Get to Do with It? Influences on Preservice Teachers' Racial Identity Development. Religion & Education, 44(2), 203-224.

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