Get Instant Help From 5000+ Experts For
question

Writing: Get your essay and assignment written from scratch by PhD expert

Rewriting: Paraphrase or rewrite your friend's essay with similar meaning at reduced cost

Editing:Proofread your work by experts and improve grade at Lowest cost

And Improve Your Grades
myassignmenthelp.com
loader
Phone no. Missing!

Enter phone no. to receive critical updates and urgent messages !

Attach file

Error goes here

Files Missing!

Please upload all relevant files for quick & complete assistance.

Guaranteed Higher Grade!
Free Quote
wave

How did Christians develop sacraments from the 2nd to 13th century?

Section I

1. How did Christians develop the practices and understandings that came to be known as sacraments? How did various places, cultures, philosophical and theological schools, and geopolitical realities shape the practices of baptism, the eucharist, and other practices of the faith leading up to the 4th Lateran council’s decisions regarding practice of the eucharist and a total of 7 sacraments by the 13th century? How might we interpret these divergent beliefs and practices from the early church to the Middle Ages? (Please do not use biblical figures in your analysis, but rather drawing evidence from the second century to the 13th century.)

How did monasticism and religious orders shape the Christian movement from the 3rd century to the 13th century? How did Christian monastics and the women and men of different religious orders offer various understandings and ways of being in community and in the world that shaped Christian theology? How did they impact the practices of faith and the broader society in places monks, sisters and brothers, and friars lived and served. A complete answer must include evidence and interpretation of new orders and movements of the Middle Ages. 2

Section II

Analyze gender in the Christian movement from the second century to the middle ages. Make sure to utilize the writings from both women and men, providing ample evidence (with both primary and secondary sources) of the complex ways gender shaped the movement and functioned in the history of global Christianity. A complete answer will both detail the lives and texts of women, but critically interrogate the role of gender in Christians’ theological, communal, ritual and social life. (Please do not use biblical figures in your analysis, but rather drawing evidence covering the range of readings from the second century to the 13th century.)

“Just as God established two great luminaries in the heavens, the greater to preside over days, and the lesser to preside over nights, so did he establish two luminaries in the heavens of the universal church…The greater to preside over souls as over days, and the lesser to preside over bodies as over nights. These are pontifical authority and royal power.”

How might we interpret the intersection between the Christian faith tradition and political power or civil authorities from the 4th to the 13th century? Explore the positions of Christians regarding various forms of civil authorities, kingdoms, and empires, and garner evidence to make an argument regarding theological developments and power dynamics within and shaping these relationships. Make sure your analysis includes the development of the idea of (European) Christendom and at least one example from outside of the geographical area that would come to be known as Europe. What were the implications for these developments for theology, Christian ritual life and practice, and various imperial developments?

How might we think about violence in the history of global Christianity from the 3rd century through the 13th century? Craft a nuanced interpretation of this important topic throughout this period. Pay attention to the range of ways diverse Christians suffered, witnessed, rejected or justified, and perpetrated violence, making use of historical evidence. A complete answer will consider the crusades and present a range of evidence spanning from the 3rd through the 13th century. 3

Section III

An elder in your church asks: “Since you are in seminary, would you say the most important thing the church does is serves as an authority, ensuring correct Biblical theology and setting boundaries so that people practice the right way to be a Christian? Isn’t that the whole point of the church's history?” Address the elder’s inquiry using interpretations of the history of Christianity from the 2nd through the 13th century. Possible answers might describe different bounded vs. centered set paradigms, discussion of orthodoxy, heresy, or paradoxes in church thought and practice. Use evidence of various theological debates or understandings of authority, and offer a historical interpretation of theology as constructed in various social and political settings, by a range of historical actors, and to diverse and complicated ends.

A church member comments on hearing a lot about Islam in the news, and asks you, “What is the historical relationship between Christianity and Islam? A lot of people seem to present these as two fundamentally opposed religions who since the beginning of both have been trapped in a clash of civilizations. Is there some other way to understand these two faith traditions, and what historical evidence might support a more nuanced interpretation of these interfaith relationships, consider changes over time, and even contextualize violent conflicts between Christians and Muslims?” Respond to the member’s thoughtful query, offering a nuanced approach to the subject and giving specific historical evidence from this semester’s coursework in support of your interpretation.

Your neighbor noticed that you were reading The History of the World Christian Movement and invited you to coffee. When you meet up with them, they ask, “I saw you reading a book about Christianity as a world movement, but I always thought of Christianity as a European religion worshipping a white Jesus. Am I missing something? Why would I be led to think that Christianity and European society were inextricably linked, and what kinds of evidence would push me to see Christianity as a broader global movement?" Offer a thoughtful response to their questions, using evidence from the history of Christianity from the 2nd through the 13th century.

How did Christians develop sacraments from the 2nd to 13th century?

Answer B.

The Monastic movement too had its beginning in Israel during the 3rd and the 4th centuries. This was similar to that of every other movement as the Christians who took to monastic form of life had been simpler. As the centuries passed things took a different turn. The monks and the nuns were settling down in places and in smaller groups in order to pray and preach about God. Now in order to bring all these monastics together and form a bigger group, the church took the initiative. New rules and regulations were formulated which had to be followed, thus giving rise to a much consistent Christian monastic movement. Monasticism had a great influence on the entire Christian movement. It has created a connection between “renunciation” and “salvation” The monks and nuns have explained through their preaching that when people are willing to renounce their worldly pleasures then salvation is easier to attain.   

There is only limited evidence that can help us in understanding the influence that monasticism and the religious order had on Christianity. The ascetics devoted themselves completely and began preaching Christianity far and wide. They abstained from all forms of earthly comforts and devoted themselves completely in the works of God. They prayed and undertook a life where they could serve the community by preaching them more about Christianity. There were the ones through whom Christianity reached far and wide. Participation of females was evident through the rise in their monastic communities. Women empowerment was visible and women started becoming nuns, Beguines, anchoresses and several such other things within a society that was predominantly Patriarchal. In Eastern Syria and in the Latin world, monasticism was associated with missionaries while in Byzantine things were different. This was because the majority of the population had been baptized at a very early age. On the other hand the monks and nuns belonging to the Greek customs laid more emphasis on the fact of a “divine presence”. This emphasis that they laid on the “spiritual life” was something that helped in shaping the Christian theology further.

The initial stage of Christian monasticism began with “Etherea of Spain, Melania of Rome”, “Basil the Great” and such others. They have travelled all the way to Egypt and had lived in the monasteries built along the banks of the river Nile. Basil had a rule which was designed in the basic Egyptian format of early life. According to his rule the monks and the nuns remained under a bishop. The main role that they played was to work on behalf of the church in serving all those who were poor and sick. It is this contribution of his to monasticism and even to Christianity that helped him in attaining a major position. He is regarded as the “father of Eastern Orthodox monasticism”. This monasticism travelled from Egypt to further East where Latin was being spoken and this took place around 4-5th century. Monasticism had entered Rome during 339-346 in the hands of Athanasius.  

How did monasticism shape the Christian movement from the 3rd to 13th century?

It was towards the end of the fourth century a new group comprising of both male and female ascetics arose. Their presence did bring about a huge amount of controversies on part of the western church. Despite this, the contributions that they made had a long lasting effect on the Latin theological aspect. This group of ascetics comprised of Jerome, Marcella, Paula and one of her daughter Eustochium. They worked together in building a community of monastic in Bethlehem. It is at this place that the translation of Bible and several other holy scriptures into Latin took place. This further added to the spread of the Christianity across the world. There was another name that came up during the 5th century which served to be important when it came to monasticism and spirituality and this was of Benedict Nursia. There were various other forms that were being implemented to ensure that all those who took up the Christian faith were doing it in a proper manner. In order to ensure this, the best way implemented was baptism. Monasticism had its revival during the 10th century and it occurred in the “Greek East” and this phase saw the highest achievement of monasticism. This revival of monasticism is thought to have taken place in a monastery situated on Mount Athos. It was in this monastery that hermitism was practiced and that too in solitude. In this regards the name of St. Simeon has often surfaced as he has been regarded as the “New Theologian”. He belonged to the time period of (942-1022) and his teachings have influenced a number of followers.   

Answer A.

The New Testament is one of the oldest documents referring to the Christian movement which states that Christianity did have women followers right from the beginning itself. The names that do surface as disciples of Jesus at the very beginning include Mary Magdalene, Susanna and Joanna. This trend of participation of both the genders in the Christian Movement remained even after the death of Jesus. The very first evidence comes from the “Letters of Paul” The letters mention that names of women like Prisca, Julia, Junia and Nereus who have travelled as missionaries and have spread the world of faith. They have helped in spreading Christianity. The society might have been patriarchal but in the process of the movement, in order to enlighten people, women too played a very important role. The texts have always offered a mixed response on this issue of gender and the role that it has played on the spread of the Christian Movement.  

There are a number of other evidences that make it clear that women were active members in the movement. A second century literary work named the “Acts of Thecla” relates the story of a woman apostle. It was Paul who had converted her into this faith. She changed herself completely by cutting off her hair and dressing up like men so that she could turn herself into an apostle working for the missionary. This again brings us to the reality that gender did play a role at some point. This is because if women were free to serve, then she would not have to take up the attire of a man. Evidences show that women prophets like Quintilla and Prisca were involved in the spreading of the Christian movement around the second century.  With time, when the new monasteries came up, the roles of gender became almost equal. Both men and women together formed communities and they started living in the monasteries. This helped them in preaching in a better manner. In was during the 7th century that a name surfaced and it was of Burgundofara. This lady presided over both men as well as women monks and nuns and guided them equally. At that point of time this was something quite rare in Europe and thus making it even more prominent that gender differentiation was prominent in the Christian movement. Men participated prominently as members of the Church while women needed to be of strict principles in order to make their contribution towards the Christian movement.

Gender analysis in the Christian movement from the 2nd to 13th century

Gender inequality was present and evident but there has remained some amount of ambiguity within this. The letters of Paul that are present in the New Testament seem to be assumptions about the participation of women. On the other hand, the valid sources that are present tend to reflect that though participation of both the genders was present but women were found only in limited instances. It was in the fourth, fifth and sixth century respectively that three women came prominently through the forefront. Marcella took up preaching during the 4th century and there were several church leaders who took her help in interpreting various scriptures. Paula joined hands with Jerome and it was with the money that she had inherited they went up to establish a community in Bethlehem. The last name that has surfaced is that of Eustochium who took up the initiative during the 6th century.

Texts from both men and women are present from the time of Christian movement. They provide a mixed expression as some support the presence of gender equally while others do raise the issue of differences. When taken a closer look, it seems that lesser women and more number of men have indulged themselves in the production of texts. The Christian movement did saw the presence of women to a large extent but the actual number is not quite visible. Gender had affected the movement and at the same time has been affected by the movement. The women preachers like Marcella were among women who had even faced attacks in their process of leading the movement. Both monks and nuns together have settled down in monasteries with an objective to preach Christianity. In the process of doing so history has encountered a number of strong women figures just like all those male figures in history. The notion of equality appears at the surface while beneath it lays a deep sense of inequality among both the genders.

Each of the empire that existed during the rise of Christianity was somehow tied by violence and they were continuously under the threat of being attacked. In such a situation their faith in the church turned out to be one way for them to live. There has been a number of conquests right from the beginning of Christianity to that of the middle ages. They have been classified in a number of ways by both Christians and non-Christians. Those belonging to the faith have always been of the opinion that these conquests for expansion were not violent and these were necessary. While the non-believers have time and again highlighted the fact that each of these invasions has been violent, barbaric and has led to extreme bloodshed and loss of life to a large extent. There were times when Christians have suffered, lives have been massacred and both men and women have equally faced the situations.

The members of the Church were generally pacifists by nature and they abstained themselves from violence. Still evidences show the presence of violence during the early centuries. These include “Justin Martyr of Caesarea” and they have been of the faith that even if the killing is justified, people should not be killed.  Still the earlier texts do reveal some amount of relation that the spread of a religion had with violence. There has been an environment of conflict, one that has supported violence as an aid to spread Christianity while the other has stood as a barrier to prevent violence from taking place. “Ambrose of Milan” is another example of how Christian apostles had worked to prevent violence. The mass destruction and killing in Thessalonica under the order of emperor Theodosius is one such example of violence. It is true that the disciples of Christ have abstained from violence but that does not confirm to the fact that their followers have done something similar.

Christianity's relationship with political power and civil authorities from the 4th to 13th century

When we think about violence in the history of global Christianity, one thing that repeatedly comes to our mind is the Crusades. The Crusades were the wars between the Muslims and the Christians in order to get hold of each of the religious sites. The evidences show that there have been eight crusades and they lasted from 1096-1291. The first Crusade took place from 1096-1099. This crusade saw a huge amount of bloodshed and Jews were killed in huge numbers. The conflict between the Jews and Christians had been further fueled by this attack. The ultimate result of this crusade was the capture of Byzantine by the Christian forces. Despite a promise that Tancred had made about provide protection to the common citizens, this was violated. People were slaughtered irrespective of their identity. The violence was extreme leading to the death of innumerable men, women and even children. It was represented as a victorious trance of the crusaders.

The second Crusade was short as it lasted for only two years and was mainly a “Jihad” organized by the Islamic ruler. It saw much of violence and ended in the defeat of the crusaders. The third crusade was much late in 1187 and ended in a peace treaty. The fourth crusade was of much importance as it led to the downfall of Constantinople. This was quite devastating like the first crusade and was followed by immense bloodshed of common people. Property was looted and the entire capital of Byzantine was left in a condition of almost destruction. The final crusade ended with the end of the 13th century. This was not projected only towards the Muslims but towards every other community that had no faith in Christianity. The Crusades have been seen to be of utmost importance to those belonging to the Christian faith. They believed that this has allowed them to spread Christianity further. On the other hand, those belonging to other faith saw them to be violent and something that resulted only in bloodshed. This violence brought about a clash between all the communities. Texts do serve as evidence that the crusaders in their urge of conquests often forgot the main reason behind the war. This was supposed to be a holy war in order to gain hold of the various holy sites for the spread of their religion. With the passage of time these holy wars turned into actual wars and were meant to conquer more number of lands defeating others.

Answer B.

The relation between Christianity and Islam dates back to the time of inception of Islam as a religion. These two religions do occupy much of the global space and at the same time they do share a similar historical past. The basic ground of similarity is that both of the religions did have their beginning in the middle-east, which had even been the seat of Judaism. Both of these religions belief in the worship of a single God and hence are monotheistic in nature. The difference lies in the fact that one flourished much earlier while the other took much time. Christianity had its advent in the 1st century itself while Islam became prominent during the 7th century. There is a basic difference that exists between these two faiths is the form of the scripture that they follow. The holy book of the Christians is the Bible while the holy book of the Muslims is Quran.  The Christians are the followers of Jesus and the Muslims pray to Allah. Despite a majority of differences in perception some similarities in faith have always been there. They believe the prayer to be centralized as they follow one God and hence he remains to be the creator of everything. The other values as well as ideologies too remain to be same between these two religions.

Understanding violence in the history of global Christianity from the 3rd to 13th century

Despite certain differences which turned out to be major in the later ages, these two religions are tied at point. There is a common belief that Muhammad was the last prophet like Jesus and he too is the son of God. At the same time there are even exceptions that resist from believing this concept. All the three religions, Judaism, Christianity and even Islam were thought to be Abrahamic religions. The main reason behind this fact was that there originated from the same place. These two religions have been through a number of conflicts but at the same time there have been instances where they have maintained solidarity. As Islam rose after Christianity and became quite prominent as a religion, therefore it posed a threat to the already established religion of Christianity. The changes in view within these two communities have mainly resulted due to the distance that exists between them. There is always a difference in the attitude of those Christians who live in close proximity with Muslims in comparison to those who are distant. Both these religions believe in helping those who are in need and approaching justice within the society. The major reason behind the conflicts is that people belonging to each of these faiths fail to notice the minute similarities and move ahead to judge the differences that exist.  

There have been a number of instances of conflicts between these two communities and the main reason behind it is the fear. This fear gets initiated from a series of misunderstandings that have continued from the past. The crusades that have taken place over the years resulting in huge amount of bloodshed and destruction are the best examples of the conflicts that these two religions have faced. Both followers of Christianity and Islam tend to judge the other on the basis of the crusades. Moreover, in order to keep themselves in the positive light, they push the other into negativity. The views that Christians have about Muslims have been developed less from personal encounters and more from literatures. The general perception that Christians have about Islam is that it is intolerant and hence violence is common. Still the common ground of belief is that they belief that God has created this entire world and its sustenance is dependent on him.  

The views about both the religions have undergone certain changes over time. The bond that began as a threat, with time came to a position of mutual understanding. Later on, with the advent of the crusaders, the scenario deteriorated further. An air of tension was filling up both the religious faiths and their followers were drifting much apart. The religious conquests for the holy sites soon turned into some other conquest where capturing new territories became the goal. It has ultimately been discovered that conversation is the key. When two people belonging to these two faiths would be coming into conversation, only then would the misunderstandings get cleared. It is true that every religion has a belief and they aim to preach it to everyone but that never makes it necessary that each one of them cannot coexist. It is coexistence that enriches the bond and the recent changes that have taken place with time tries to ensure this further.

Coakley, John Wayland, and Sterk, Andrea. Readings in World Christian History. Orbis Books, Maryknoll, New York, 2004.

Irvin, T. Dale, and Sunquist, W. Scott. History of the World Christian Movement. Orbis Books, Maryknoll, New York, 2007.

Cite This Work

To export a reference to this article please select a referencing stye below:

My Assignment Help. (2021). Christianity From The 2nd To 13th Century: Monasticism, Gender, Politics, And Essay. (70 Characters). Retrieved from https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/rhbb03-history-of-religions-and-religious-behavioural-science/monastic-movement.html.

"Christianity From The 2nd To 13th Century: Monasticism, Gender, Politics, And Essay. (70 Characters)." My Assignment Help, 2021, https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/rhbb03-history-of-religions-and-religious-behavioural-science/monastic-movement.html.

My Assignment Help (2021) Christianity From The 2nd To 13th Century: Monasticism, Gender, Politics, And Essay. (70 Characters) [Online]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/rhbb03-history-of-religions-and-religious-behavioural-science/monastic-movement.html
[Accessed 17 April 2024].

My Assignment Help. 'Christianity From The 2nd To 13th Century: Monasticism, Gender, Politics, And Essay. (70 Characters)' (My Assignment Help, 2021) <https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/rhbb03-history-of-religions-and-religious-behavioural-science/monastic-movement.html> accessed 17 April 2024.

My Assignment Help. Christianity From The 2nd To 13th Century: Monasticism, Gender, Politics, And Essay. (70 Characters) [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2021 [cited 17 April 2024]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/rhbb03-history-of-religions-and-religious-behavioural-science/monastic-movement.html.

Get instant help from 5000+ experts for
question

Writing: Get your essay and assignment written from scratch by PhD expert

Rewriting: Paraphrase or rewrite your friend's essay with similar meaning at reduced cost

Editing: Proofread your work by experts and improve grade at Lowest cost

loader
250 words
Phone no. Missing!

Enter phone no. to receive critical updates and urgent messages !

Attach file

Error goes here

Files Missing!

Please upload all relevant files for quick & complete assistance.

Plagiarism checker
Verify originality of an essay
essay
Generate unique essays in a jiffy
Plagiarism checker
Cite sources with ease
support
Whatsapp
callback
sales
sales chat
Whatsapp
callback
sales chat
close