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Literature review

Over this period, one of the most significant social issues faced by society and its people was race discrimination. Following the literature, race discrimination refers to treating people based on their race, ethnic origin, and skin colour. In other words, whenever people are being less favourable due to their ethnic origin, skin colour, and race, it is considered a form of race discrimination. According to an article, until 2018, race discrimination was a contemporary social issue in the entire United States. Statistics show that the US police force harassed 88% of the people due to their race and skin colour; Tongue among them, 70% of the people were innocent still the US police were doubtful about them due to their black skin colour [3].

Further, this harassment had not only limited to the citizens or adult people only; even the students had also been judged based on their race and skin colour. In the financial year 2015-2016, US school authorities had maintained only 15% of students as the representative of the black student groups, though in the entire US region, there were more than 36% of students belonging to the black community [3]. The students were also being suspended due to their skin tone or even for their ethnic origin.

Concerning this social issue, the essay will critically explore the origin of the issue by summarising the literature. Additionally, a detailed discussion about the related theories in this human behaviour will also be disclosed in a structured manner. Further, the essay will critically define the application of the theories within the social issue area so that readers can gather a deep understanding of it. Finally, the essay will be concluded by summarising the key discussions.   

Pedulla, David S. "How race and unemployment shape labour market opportunities: Additive, amplified, or muted effects?." Social Forces 96, no. 4 (2018): 1477-1506.

This research publication investigates how African Americans and job inconsistencies produce unfavourable preconceived classifications that compound negative consequences. The first is additive effects, in which one class produces similar results in the other. The next is enhanced concord [5], which occurs when the second category exacerbates the additive effects' unfavourable repercussions. In addition, muted congruence is a new alternative class introduced in this article. Evidence obtained by the author in field studies that explore agglomeration structures that conspicuously imply racial prejudice is used to construct muted congruence. It finishes by addressing the data's implications for a greater grasp of how aggregating various things perpetuates inequality.

Gullickson, Aaron. "The significance of colour declines A re-analysis of skin tone differentials in post-civil rights America." Social Forces 84, no. 1 (2005): 157-180.

The focus of this scholarly magazine is on skin differences among African Americans that are connected to racial stratification. The hereditary benefits of a "mulatto" aristocracy and contemporary preferences for light skin African Americans are highlighted by differences in skin colour or hue in income status. The study, on the other hand, found no significant differences in skin colour or hue disparities in terms of schooling, job, or assortative spousal or partner contentment [6]. This study aims to confirm the presence of colourism in African American communities and the consequences of cultural racism. The researcher hopes to find any substantial decreases in skin tone or hue distinctions in terms of education and work, but not in terms of spousal achievement, by evaluating the existing data sources.

Theory and Application

Deckhouse, Laurel. "Race, party, and representation in criminal justice politics." The Journal of Politics 81, no. 3 (2019): 1143-1152.

This scholarly publication explains racial disparities in crime and criminal justice policies. Furthermore, the author claims the need for political participation for both White and African American Republicans. Despite having equal rates of drug usage, White and Black Americans are treated and punished differently by the judiciary [7]. Furthermore, as a resolution, the skewed cognitive processes of particular officers are largely focused on. Finally, the author points out that a rising corpus of research stresses the link between political activity and police repertoires. The author raises two main points: intraparty divides among White and Black Liberals and major political differences between White Democrats and White Republicans. Politicians will constantly fail to represent their views.

Hunter, Margaret. "Colorism in the classroom: How skin tone stratifies African American and Latina/o students." Theory Into Practice 55, no. 1 (2016): 54-61.

This scholarly publication discusses skin tone disparities in African American and Afro Latina/o populations, as well as how colourism contributes to wider racial trends. Racism based on skin colour, tint, or hue impacts many facets of African American and Afro Latina/o life, as the author points out. This colourism, for example, can have a detrimental impact on schooling, job, housing, marital status, criminal law punishment, or even feelings of low self [8]. Theorising normal social practices in schools, as well as colourism among diverse ethnicities and racial backgrounds, is the focus of this study. This essay calls our attention to the fact that educational academics have paid very little attention to skin tone stratification. It highlights the disparities between lamp Latina and gloomy Latina and African-Americans within the educational environment.

Gasman, Marybeth, and Ufuoma Fabiola. "Colorism within the historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs)." Theory Into Practice 55, no. 1 (2016): 39-45. 

This scholarly magazine investigates the importance of colour bias at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs), as well as its historical roots, expressions, and harmful consequences. Even though HBCUs were established after the Civil War to educate African Americans, just 11% of Black students in the US are enrolled in them today [9]. The writers of this scholarly magazine review colourism's history concerning and after slavery. This mindset leads to elite HBCUs functioning as a barrier or conduit for obtaining social acceptance and influence in the black community. Unfortunately, one's ability to succeed was primarily determined by the colour or tint of one's skin, family position, and other factors. As a result of this characteristic, the Black bourgeoisie was born.

Uzogara, Ekeoma E., Hedwig Lee, Cleopatra M. Abdou, and James S. Jackson. "A comparison of skin tone discrimination among African American men: 1995 and 2003." Psychology of men & masculinity 15, no. 2 (2014): 201.

The perceptions of different skin colours or hue discrimination among adult African American men are investigated in this published scientific article. According to research, (white Americans) regard lighter or fair complexion African Americans more positively than their darker-skinned or hued peers due to unfavourable African American stereotypes [10]. Medium & black-toned African American men felt the least prejudice from in-group members regarding skin shade or hue discrimination. African Americans with lighter and darker skin tones, on the other hand, felt more persecution within their group. Surprisingly, the researchers noted that African American men's perceptions of out-group treatment were consistent. This research looked into the relationships of African American males from various socioeconomic backgrounds. A phenotype is a useful tool for dividing people into groups.

Key Discussions

Landor, Antoinette M., Leslie Gordon Simons, Ronald L. Simons, Gene H. Brody, Chalandra M. Bryant, Frederick X. Gibbons, Ellen M. Granberg, and Janet N. Melby. "Exploring the impact of skin tone on family dynamics and race-related outcomes." Journal of Family Psychology 27, no. 5 (2013): 817.

This scholarly publication aims to broaden the definition and knowledge of cultural racism, as well as its negative consequences on family dynamics and race-related outcomes. Racial inequality is worried about skin colours or hues and disregards the racial or ethnic enlistment element, as academics define racial prejudice as "beliefs, attitudes, institutional arrangements, and acts that denigrate individuals or groups because of phenotypic characteristics or ethnic affiliations" [11]. Colourism, according to the authors, is the distribution of privileges vs. disadvantages based on lighter skin tones in contrast to darker skin tones. Furthermore, family members' racial socialisation messages may impact unfavourable mental health difficulties in families with different skin tones. The writers examine race through the prism of critical race theory (CRT).

Hall, J. Camille. "No longer invisible: Understanding the psychosocial impact of skin colour stratification in the lives of African American women." Health & Social Work 42, no. 2 (2017): 71-78.

This scholarly publication investigates skin colour differentiation, often known as colourism, and how it impacts African American women's emotional well-being. According to the findings, African American women of various skin tones and tints have varied events that shaped their self-worth and defined their connections with others. Moreover, the employment of common vernacular terms within the African-American society only highlights the psychological abuse of subconscious biases and their consequences [12]. These colourist ideals in African American society intensify skin colour stratification, a system that gives lighter complexions a leg up on brown or dark and is still in use today. The author discovers that lighter skin toned people have a higher identity using semi-structured interviews and self-esteem assessments. Further compared to their darker counterparts, lighter-coloured women felt more valued in their social ties.

Shihadeh, Edward S., and Darrell J. Steffensmeier. "Economic inequality, family disruption, and urban black violence: Cities as units of stratification and social control." Social Forces 73, no. 2 (1994): 729-751.

The dearth of empirical research examining structural circumstances that lead to aggression in urban African American communities as segregation and social control aspects is examined in this scholarly journal. The findings would aid in establishing the social disorganisation of high levels of inequality as a system generated by the contradiction between what should be and what is feasible. Furthermore, the findings of this paper may endanger the potential of African American internal groups to generate "successful" people who are driven to take on leadership responsibilities at work and in their families [13]. The severe lack of racially differentiated empirical analysis on the systemic variables contributing to violence in urban African American neighbourhoods exacerbates the issue. Finally, the contrast between traditional criminological traditions of distinguishing offenders and no offenders is highlighted in this work. Instead, the researcher aims to identify sociocultural mechanisms that result in varying levels of criminality.

Monk Jr, Ellis P. "Skin tone stratification among Black Americans, 2001–2003." Social Forces 92, no. 4 (2014): 1313-1337.

Scholars who have studied the issue of skin colour in the African American population are included in this scientific magazine. The analysis focuses on the fact that colouration significantly impacts many stratification outcomes. Questions like whether skin colour or hue affects stratified consequences decades later are investigated [14]. According to the findings, skin tone is strongly positively correlated with academic satisfaction, total income, and job development. The findings of this study demonstrate that skin tone stratification exists in modern times. This research begins with a well-documented history of disparities between African Americans and their white counterparts, as well as ethnic disparities inside the Black and Brown communities.

Critical race theory:

The critical race theory states that the social institutes of the global region in terms of the criminal justice system, labour market, education system, and housing market are bound by racism within the regulations, practices, procedures, and even laws. This inclusion of racism in the practices, laws, and rules has resulted in dissimilar results. In addition to this, the theory has also stated that racism has not only been included in individual biased natures but has also been embedded in the essential legal systems and policies of many countries including, the US, the United Kingdom, etc. [4]. Further, the theory has also been explored to critically examine the presence of racism and the structured manner of the nations' legal systems. One of the key concepts of the theory is inter-sectionality. It represents how the different forms of identity crisis and inequality are being affected by the interconnections of class, gender, race, and disability. Experts have often interrupted critical race theory as the ideal format to form legal procedures and practices with zero obligation to biological biases.  

Conflict theory

The basis of the conflict theory states that discrimination & prejudice in modern society has their root in perceived conflicts of interest between groups. This perceptive theory of social discrimination & racism was developed by Levine & Campbell in 1972. From per theoretical perspective, a large amount of struggle and discrimination was obtained against the minority group in modern cities ruled by the white people [1]. Though in the late nineteenth century, the rise o black Americans right after the civil war had resulted in 'draconian Jim Crow laws", which specifically served the black social & political power. This inclusion of the law & practice for protecting the rights of black peoples had offered a perceived threat towards the dominant group from the minority group of people.    

Concerning the critical race theory, the social institutes, including the labour market education system and many other significant authorities, are effectively bound by racism as it has been included in laws and practices also. The theorists' perspective can be considered a very rational perspective as this conclusion of racism is still obtained in today's modern society. Many articles and government reports had strictly reported racism in the education system obtained in many modern countries, like the US, the United Kingdom, and even India. An article has pointed out that more than 60,000 racist cases were obtained in the schools of the UK in the previous five years [2]. In terms of incidents, it interprets that some students face skin tone discrimination, while some face direct suspension from the school authorities due to racism.

Following the conflict theory of discrimination, the root of racism was obtained in previous conflicts between people’s groups. The conflicts that had happened in past circumstances between black people and white people continue and resulted in modern-day skin tone or even another type of discrimination. Following this theoretical perspective, it had been obtained that 15.8% of the US students had faced discrimination in the past five years [3]. This discrimination rate among black or dark skin tone students indicates that the theoretical perspective is right.  

Conclusion 

Thus, the study concludes that there is still numerous racial discrimination obtained for the dark skin tone people in many social institutes like the labour market, education system, and housing market. Further, following the theoretical perspective the presence of these issues in the social institutes or even laws and regulations obtained due to the pre-perceived conflicts of interest between the white group of people and the black group of people. To eliminate these social issues, an entire change of concept in the human mindset is required and this needs to be performed by the governing body of the countries.

Reference list

  1. Theories of Race and Ethnicity. 2022. "Theories Of Race And Ethnicity | Introduction To Sociology". Lumenlearning.Com. https://courses.lumenlearning.com/sociology/chapter/theories-of-race-and-ethnicity/.
  2. David Batty, and Nazia Parveen. 2022. "UK Schools Record More Than 60,000 Racist Incidents In Five Years". The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/education/2021/mar/28/uk-schools-record-more-than-60000-racist-incidents-five-years.
  3. 11 FACTS ABOUT RACIAL DISCRIMINATION. 2022. "11 Facts About Racial Discrimination". Org. https://www.dosomething.org/us/facts/11-facts-about-racial-discrimination.
  4. Delgado, Richard, and Jean Stefancic. "Critical race theory." In Critical Race Theory (Third Edition). New York University Press, 2017.
  5. Pedulla, David S. "How race and unemployment shape labor market opportunities: Additive, amplified, or muted effects?." Social Forces96, no. 4 (2018): 1477-1506.
  6. Gullickson, Aaron. "The significance of color declines: A re-analysis of skin tone differentials in post-civil rights America." Social Forces84, no. 1 (2005): 157-180.
  7. Eckhouse, Laurel. "Race, party, and representation in criminal justice politics." The Journal of Politics81, no. 3 (2019): 1143-1152.
  8. Hunter, Margaret. "Colorism in the classroom: How skin tone stratifies African American and Latina/o students." Theory Into Practice55, no. 1 (2016): 54-61.
  9. Gasman, Marybeth, and Ufuoma Abiola. "Colorism within the historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs)." Theory Into Practice55, no. 1 (2016): 39-45.
  10. Uzogara, Ekeoma E., Hedwig Lee, Cleopatra M. Abdou, and James S. Jackson. "A comparison of skin tone discrimination among African American men: 1995 and 2003." Psychology of men & masculinity15, no. 2 (2014): 201.
  11. Landor, Antoinette M., Leslie Gordon Simons, Ronald L. Simons, Gene H. Brody, Chalandra M. Bryant, Frederick X. Gibbons, Ellen M. Granberg, and Janet N. Melby. "Exploring the impact of skin tone on family dynamics and race-related outcomes." Journal of Family Psychology27, no. 5 (2013): 817.
  12. Hall, J. Camille. "No longer invisible: Understanding the psychosocial impact of skin color stratification in the lives of African American women." Health & Social Work42, no. 2 (2017): 71-78.
  13. Shihadeh, Edward S., and Darrell J. Steffensmeier. "Economic inequality, family disruption, and urban black violence: Cities as units of stratification and social control." Social Forces73, no. 2 (1994): 729-751.
  14. Monk Jr, Ellis P. "Skin tone stratification among Black Americans, 2001–2003." Social Forces92, no. 4 (2014): 1313-1337.
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My Assignment Help. 'Race Discrimination: Literature Review And Application Of Related Theories - An Essay.' (My Assignment Help, 2022) <https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/soc101-introduction-to-sociology/social-discrimination-file-A1E7DA2.html> accessed 02 March 2024.

My Assignment Help. Race Discrimination: Literature Review And Application Of Related Theories - An Essay. [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2022 [cited 02 March 2024]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/soc101-introduction-to-sociology/social-discrimination-file-A1E7DA2.html.

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