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Neo-liberalism and its impact on social policy

Discuss about the Social Policy for Economic Social and Political Factors.

Social policy aims to enhance people's welfare and father is especially concerned for the well being of those who experience some form of marginalization or disadvantage in the society. The role of social policy can be associated to the economic social and political factors present in the society. The quest for co-ordination is balance coherence of policies should take into consideration the fact that the notions related to social policy along with its role in the improvement and progress have transformed over the years for the indicating the complexities in order to look for transparency on the approaches to social finding poverty alleviation as well as equity (Spolander et al., 2014). The rule of social policy significantly refers to the procedures guidelines and interventions for the transformation preservation all creation of living conditions that the conducive to human well being. Social policy however is referred to the study of social services social work and the Welfare of the state however in generality intense to look at the notion of social welfare along with its association to politics and Society as a whole (Brady & Bostic, 2015). The essay intends to study the various theoretical discourse related to social policy by further focusing on ideologies like neo liberalism and new conservatism that concentrates on the concept of social policy by evaluating the issues and controversies related to the development of social policy in New Zealand.

It is to be noted that the last few decades have witnessed several societies to experience political economic and cultural transformation that have altered the communities through the utilization of less regulated models of capitalism, repairing of welfare state alterations to the structure along with the responsibility of organizations in the public as well as private sectors (Di Cesare et al., 2013). The ideology of neo liberalism can be defined as a theory of political, economic practices that suggest that human welfare can be most effectively developed by invigorating individual entrepreneurial autonomy and expertise within an institutional outline characterized by well established private property possessions and free market trades. At this juncture it is significant to recognize, that neo liberalism has considerable influence on the social work or the concept of social policies over recent decades. However, the role of social policy has been dominated to the demands of managerialism with its focal point being based on setting social policy makers to complete bureaucracy in order to ration resources and at the same time evaluate relative risks and challenges.

New Conservatism and its impact on social policy

The early phase of 1980s witnessed that neo liberalism has surrounded the political landscape of western democracy and remove the demolished social establishment, inequality, economic deficiency privatization and individualism (Miletzki & Broten, 2017). However it is further to note that this recent movement has embraced advanced technologies and a transition from state direct to market power and further from community responsibility to private liability further expressing a classic liberal tradition related to individualism (. However, it is important to recognize that the case of New Zealand shed light on the realities of neo liberalism in the utilization of neoliberal policies considered as a new colonizing double movement. However double movement presupposes Polanyian hope that the liberalization of markets suggests its own protective counter (Robertson & Hill, 2014). Though neo liberalism in New Zealand is not only referred as the triumph of economic capital over productive capitalism rather it is regarded as a victory of that portion of the capitalist class has funded in transnational forms of capital increase over the fraction that has been invested in independent or local growth.

Furthermore, the Keynesian Welfare Model effectively indulge in free and universal health systems with the purpose of accomplishing equality of opportunity while ascertaining the distribution of healthy and well educated labourers needed for a productive economy. However in the domain of neo liberalism the New Zealand health system has undergone transformations with commercial lines through fundamental decentralization, cost productivity along with user pay expenditures for the marginalized sections. Regardless to incessant  support for global factors of the welfare state New Zealand has been favouring selective social programs whereby the aged and impoverished have been regarded as more justifiable in comparison to the lower level income families with the former thus, encouraging more consistent acknowledgement from the public (Hermann, 2014). However at this juncture it must be noted that the Keynesian model witnessed a definite impact of government in guaranteeing the ones in need had a standardized way of living.

In the context of new conservatism, the significant conservatives should reconsider their perceptions in accordance to the fundamental notion that individuals not governments have the authority to exercise and further determine the itinerary of their own lives (Bockman, 2013). However several conservatives particularly within New Zealand impressed issues such as school preferences whereby offering authorization to parents related to the preference order method of schooling that is most productive for their child demands  and    requirements (Apple, 2013). Further to this, there has been several vital conservative positions of which many has been associated with the essential principles of individual preferences have been continuing on the factors such as property authority, Independence from association and the freedom of speech. However when the context of gay marriage arises several conservatives have been witnessed to remain inconsistent or avoid to pay any consideration towards it. Argumentative discourses based on marriage within the constitutional monarchy has been possessed those who anticipate to pimples their perceptions and lotions onto the others (Rottenberg, 2014). However in spite of processing significant, traditionalist notions some within the constitutional party have taken to support for the notable liberal or oppressive approach. However, such forms of insincerity or hypocrisy did not lose its presence in the electorate. The section of millennials in New Zealand pose severe condemn to the obvious conservative-centric constituency, whereby the issues related to ‘gay marriage’ are being criticized by the ‘conservative’, oppressive voices (Hooghe & Meeusen, 2013).. Furthermore, several religious conservatives have continued to confound the concept of civil marriage with the forms of religious sanction of the church or the synagogue.

Evaluation of social policy in New Zealand


At this juncture, the factors related to the evaluation of social policy must be highlighted as organized and effective scientific procedures that primarily aim for the attainment of reliable and authenticate information related to the précised societal problems and the range of consequences of certain regulations and policies designed to deal with them (McCarty, 2014). The growth of social policies further employs policy investigation in order to design substitute policies to accomplish identical aims and objectives in an improved and efficient manner or further to achieve varied objectives derived from several value premises. Legitimate and reliable investigation of social policy legislatures with the support of a policy framework taken from the conceptual and theoretical model requires substantial resources, including the ability and competence of the analysts in various social and behavioural sciences along with idea of substantive problems dealt by certain social policy legislatures in particular (Paton et al., 2014). While evaluating the fundamental significance of ideologies and values for social policy analysis and progress, it must further be explored that public discourse of such social policies in New Zealand tends to avoid certain essential factors. Rather than situating emphasis on important and exclusive factors the social policy tends to accentuate on technical matters and on means further shoving the goals and principles to the background (Denhardt & Denhardt, 2015). Furthermore, while ideologies, values, traditions have remained inflexible in any human society, transforming policies are often considered as a complex matter.

The governing beliefs and ideologies of societies tend to be formed and defended by cultural elite, employed mainly from the dominant, immensely powerful and affluent strata (Brady & Bostic, 2015). As a result, such beliefs and ideologies are anticipated to reflect and further aid the interests of these increasingly privileged sections. Further employing the conceptual tools of social policies in the growth of substitute policies that involve purpose and determination of the nature and scope of alterations which further must be made in the chief policy variables of resource development as well as the authority to attain chosen policy aims and objectives. Recent discourses regarding social policy legislature in New Zealand have revealed the low level of orientation of the expertise and further positions public in issues of social policy. On the other hand, change and alterations in recent decades have been considered common to both developed and developing nations. Furthermore, the magnitude of transformation experienced by advanced industrialized economies dwarfed by the enduring policy amendments that had its occurrence in Europe, New Zealand in the 1990s (Denhardt & Denhardt, 2015). It must be noted that the speed of privatization along with the magnitude of policy transformations have differed dramatically across the nations. However, at this occasion, the inability of social policy legislatures to aid child poverty must be taken into consideration (Payne, 2015).

The role of ideologies, values, and traditions in social policy analysis and progress

The Child Poverty Action Group’s (CPAG) report has revealed despite of efforts from social welfare agencies like WFF (Working for Families) along with other family oriented policies, the children belonging to the poorest and unprivileged section of the society experience severe neglect and avoidance to their peers. It should be noted that the essential benefits of the WFF have greater inclination to the employed families and the rest belonging to either the deserving or the ‘undeserving’ sections of the society (O'Brien, 2013).  However, there is not much altered in order to correct such conditions but at the same time, New Zealand has been suffering from a prolonged recession along with some severe natural disasters. As job growth and opportunities for single parents and youth evaporated in the economic recession, the rhetoric around the welfare reliance thoroughly intensified. The Minister of Social Development’s Future Focus Literature along the Welfare Working Association final report, for instance provides more or less exclusive precedence to paid work as the route out of poverty. Though it has been accepted that remunerated or rewarded work is an essential factor in family welfare, the aim however would not be able to solve the issue of child economic deficiency. In recent decades what tends to function is the broad array of policy areas that is not child-centric nor is socially inclusive to the realm of children.

The issues regarding children appearing in the policy discourse in compound ways, as burdens and tensions on the parents, as victims of adult preferences regarding their relationships as well as threats and menace to social order and solidity. The WFF in 2011 has encouraged sponsoring and aid unprivileged and poor children in New Zealand similar to the deprived children aided overseas. Regrettably, dependency on charity is considered as an attachment and on insecure means of support (Blakemore & Warwick, 2013). On the other hand, it must be noted that New Zealand’s dedication and commitment to its global human rights obligations has been explicitly reflected on the way the nation has been developing. The Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) have a vital role to play on supervising the human right activities. The United Nations has further made well-established statements about the significance of CSOs and noting that few have their accreditation to the UN. The CSOs in New Zealand further contribute autonomous explanations on the reports of the country and supervise the utilization of the ultimate observations of the committee (Vedung, 2017). Correspondingly, the influence of worldwide human rights in New Zealand is directly associated to the significance of the local civil-society community and their idea of human rights law. Furthermore, the nation has been effectively aiding the growth and development of international activities of human rights law though the UN. It further played a vital role in the discussions on the declaration in 1948, and presently positioned the Working Party on the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (McClure, 2013).

Challenges faced by social policy legislatures in contemporary times


The nation has a unique interest and participation in the endorsement and safeguard of human rights in the Pacific. These actions of human rights are further considered as the fundamental stability within the region (Blakemore & Warwick, 2013). However, there have several developments in addressing problems related to human rights in the Pacific, the safety has been explained as ineffective and efforts to encourage human rights as variable. However, it is to be noted that the Pacific has not been able to develop a national human rights apparatus. Human rights sanction instruments have been lower with a correspondingly low level of association with the treaty bodies (Vedung, 2017). The Asia Pacific Forum, the Office of Pacific Islands Forum along with the New Zealand Commission that has played a significant role in endorsing and safeguarding human rights in area. The 1988, Royal Commission on Social Policy further concluded that the citizens of New Zealand required to access to an adequate share of earnings and other resources which permits them to involve in societal activities with indisputable opportunity to accomplish their competence and to live according to the fulfilments of life (Came, 2014).

At this juncture it is important to note the alterations of risks and attitudinal changes towards risks and welfare in turn has transformed recent challenges and threats by exposing the limitations of existing policies as well as institutions in dealing with several social as well as economic issues. The association between international commitments and the growth of economic as well as social policy tends to be ineffectively comprehended. Hence, social policy is often depended exclusively on necessities and needs, instead of relying on human rights (Gates, 2015). However, it must be noted that needs and authorities are not regarded as mutually exclusive and further complement each other in several ways. The challenges and threats related to social policy can be related to the issues related to the growing inequality. Though it is regarded as an old phenomenon, its importance has certainly achieved the historic proportions. However, the influence of development on poverty is indomitable by the way wealth and earnings are shared (Kugler, Jost & Noorbaloochi, 2014). Certain aspects of financialization that is saving and effective investment has been disassociated by the intensification of financialization that is enhancing the role of economic objectives, financial markets along with the economic institutions in the functioning of national as well as international economies.


Therefore, from the above discussion it can be concluded that the near global utilization of social policies or social welfare system reform as a consequence of the ideologies of neoliberal economic development or restructuring that has influenced on the concept of social justice as well as society wellbeing. This essay have effectively evaluated the conceptualizations of social policy and welfare by further focusing on the way varied ideologies such as neo liberalism and the neo conservatives have concentrated on the issues related to gay marriage and health in New Zealand.

References

Apple, M. W. (2013). Interrupting the right: On doing critical educational work in conservative times. In If Classrooms Matter (pp. 61-80). Routledge.

Blakemore, K., & Warwick-Booth, L. (2013). Social Policy: An Introduction: An Introduction, United Kingdom: McGraw-Hill Education.

Bockman, J. (2013). Neoliberalism. Contexts, 12(3), 14-15.

Brady, D., & Bostic, A. (2015). Paradoxes of social policy: Welfare transfers, relative poverty, and redistribution preferences. American Sociological Review, 80(2), 268-298.

Brady, D., & Bostic, A. (2015). Paradoxes of social policy: Welfare transfers, relative poverty, and redistribution preferences. American Sociological Review, 80(2), 268-298.

Came, H. (2014). Sites of institutional racism in public health policy making in New Zealand. Social science & medicine, 106, 214-220.

Denhardt, J. V., & Denhardt, R. B. (2015). The new public service: Serving, not steering, New York: Routledge.

Gates, G. J. (2015). Marriage and family: LGBT individuals and same-sex couples. The Future of Children, 25(2), 67-87.

Hermann, C. (2014). Structural adjustment and neoliberal convergence in labour markets and welfare: The impact of the crisis and austerity measures on European economic and social models. Competition & Change, 18(2), 111-130.

Hooghe, M., & Meeusen, C. (2013). Is same-sex marriage legislation related to attitudes toward homosexuality?. Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 10(4), 258-268.

McCarty, T. L. (2014). Ethnography and language policy, NY & London: Routledge.

McClure, M. (2013). A civilised community: a history of Social Security in New Zealand 1898-1998, New Zealand: Auckland University Press.

Miletzki, J., & Broten, N. (2017). Development as freedom, London: Macat Library.

O'Brien, M. (2013). Welfare reform in Aotearoa/New Zealand: From citizen to managed worker. Social Policy & Administration, 47(6), 729-748.

Paton, D., Johnston, D., Mamula-Seadon, L., & Kenney, C. M. (2014). Recovery and development: perspectives from New Zealand and Australia. In Disaster and development (pp. 255-272). Springer, Cham.

Robertson, L. H., & Hill, D. (2014). Policy and ideologies in schooling and early years education in England: Implications for and impacts on leadership, management and equality.Management in Education, 28(4), 167-174.

Rottenberg, C. (2014). The rise of neoliberal feminism. Cultural studies, 28(3), 418-437.

Spolander, G., Engelbrecht, L., Martin, L., Strydom, M., Pervova, I., Marjanen, P., & Adaikalam, F. (2014). The implications of neoliberalism for social work: Reflections from a six-country international research collaboration. International Social Work, 57(4), 301-312.

Vedung, E. (2017). Public policy and program evaluation New York: Routledge.

Kugler, M., Jost, J. T., & Noorbaloochi, S. (2014). Another look at moral foundations theory: Do authoritarianism and social dominance orientation explain liberal-conservative differences in “moral” intuitions?. Social Justice Research, 27(4), 413-431.

Di Cesare, M., Khang, Y. H., Asaria, P., Blakely, T., Cowan, M. J., Farzadfar, F., ... & Oum, S. (2013). Inequalities in non-communicable diseases and effective responses. The Lancet, 381(9866), 585-597.

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