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The 5 levels of the Ecological System Theory

Discuss about the Social Work and Ecological System Theory.

Ecological system theory is an approach that provides the answers on how a person’s mental and physical development is affected by the environment he or she stays in. By meeting people and the place where the person basically grows up in, all the related factors affects in the thought process and this impacts the overall development. This environment can be divided into 5 different levels, which consist of the microsystem, mesosystem, the exosystem, the macrosystem and the chronosystem. A child goes through all of these levels when he or she is growing up and the results are reflected once that person has grown up into an adult. If a child has a very traumatizing childhood, when he or she grows up, the aftereffects still remain on the way that person speaks and in the overall behaviour. The three basic variables for sound, physical and mental improvement of a child's are development, contact and association with other people. They are fundamental tactile data sources that are of most extreme significance for a child's advancement of his function and connection frameworks, hardship of which causes obliterating results. A person in this manner neglects to associate with the macrosystems of Bronfenbrenner's structure accordingly being denied of companions, family, neighbors of the way of life inside. A child normally ends up all the while enmeshed in various biological systems, from the most private home natural framework moving outward to the bigger educational system and the most far reaching framework which is society and culture. Every one of these frameworks unavoidably associate with and impact each other in each part of the person's life. When a child meets someone on a regular basis and has a frequent direct interaction or contact, that person makes an influence on the others behaviour. Theses interactions and changes are vital for a person not only these are the major factors for development but also on how he or she would see other people in later life.


These changes are vital for a person not only these are the major factors for development but also on how he or she would see other people in later life. By concentrate the distinctive frameworks that at the same time impact a youngster, the Bronfenbrenner's Ecological Theory can show the decent variety of interrelated effects on the child's improvement. Attention to settings can sharpen us to varieties in the way a person may act in various settings. Other individuals and places which a person may not specifically cooperate with but rather may in any case affect him or her, involve the exosystem. Such places and individuals may incorporate the working environments, the bigger neighborhood, and more distant family individuals. Meeting new people gives a person more knowledge about the environment and the overall behaviour as many things can be learned from others. This can be someone from the family, school or work, depending on the place where the person visits on a regular basis. This influences the person’s decision making ability as well. All the interactions are interconnected in the brain and functions the microsystem accordingly, this development change defines both psychological and physical development in an individual from infancy, childhood adolescence to adulthood. Social work with children, the young and families are of the significance in the life of social workers as every stage of development of a human being requires a different approach as way to meet the needs of such individuals in the society (Alkema et al., 2013). In the case study of “Askin Family”, under child care, Justin the first born is a big problem towards the family and the society towards his behavior. Gill, on the other hand suffered postnatal depression and is heartbroken since Fred, her husband walked away from her to marry Susie. Other extended families have other problems from medical, financial and social issues to deal with, therefore the need to offer a lasting solution as a social worker to the household of Gill Askin. The report first overviews development theories such as attachment theory and Piaget’s Stages of development and stages of psychological development (Garbarino, 2017). Second, the theories will be of value in assessing the development stages of Justine and Gill and children. After that provide a summary and conclusion that reflects an understanding of the social work with the kids, the young and families in the society.

Interaction of the Individual with the Environment

Social work concept aims at providing lasting solutions to individuals or group problems within the society as a way to reduce suffering and people’s problem hence increase their advantages and happiness. From Erikson’s theory lays more emphasize on psychological stages of development hence discussing more on the ego of an individuals to be the force behind the course of a person behavior. Adolescent period as a stage of development according to Erickson is of interest since it is at adolescent that an individual may present some strange behaviors. From Erickson’s eight stages of development, the social workers should understand why Philip likes staying home with her mother (Bagley & Ramsay, 2015). Philip as a kid lays more trust on her mother than other people in the society. Therefore, the social worker should know that Philip at his age in under Trust and mistrust stage of development. Hannah, on the other hand, in undergoing the school age child also called the industry versus inferiority stage. According to Bowlby’s attachment theory, the age of birth and the sixth year is called the pre-attachment and then six to eight years is the attachment-in-the-making (Hale et al., 2014). At the tender ages of Justin, being at the grandparent’s home or the daycare was a point of detachment from the parent. At points of detachment of the primary caregiver as the parents, bring confusion to the child. The child learns to recognize the smell and voice hence the formation of attachment. When the process is disputed, detachment may occur as postulated by the Attachment theory. The separation of Justin’s parents was a further form of detachment, and he did not want to listen to the mother thinking that her mother is the source of the problem and did not permit her to be with the father. Justin’s current stage of development that is the age of twelve is likened to adolescence stage according to Erikson (Fraser, Galinsky & Richman, 2014). According to Erikson’s psychological development theory, the child struggles with identity. In the process of identity search, the child try to try out different things to see if one fits. Justin feels he is in command and wishes to do just as her think. He yells at her siblings and other children in class to the extent of hitting them. Justin feel he should be with his father to continue going out watch movies and have fun with the father, but her mother opposes every attempt because Susie does not like the idea. The care workers must, therefore, understand the adolescence stage of development to help Justin understand the current situation their family is in and act accordingly with respect towards her mother who means well for his future.

Social Work Practices

Gill Askin is the ex-wife to Fred Askin. She is the mother of Philip, Hannah and Justin. According to Erickson’s psychological development theory, Gill was in the sixth stage of development when she was at the University. Gill is from a very religious background whereas Fred’s family did not have much active involvement with the church. Even till this say, Gill visits the church on a regular basis and Fred avoids the place for over a year (Carr, 2014). The sixth stage of development defines intimacy versus isolation. Gill fell in love with Fred back at the University, got pregnant with Justin and soon married Fred to which the parents through was rush. It was mentioned by Gill that Fed’s father died a few years ago. It was told that both of them were very close and his demise hit Fred very hard. Gill’s parents actually think that it is because of the death of Fred’s father, he became broken and had he been alive, he would have never left her in the first place (Al-Bahrani et al., 2013). One of the primary things both of the families have in common is that they believe that family is the most important thing in the world.  Both of them got their values and morals towards life and religion from their respective families. Both Gill and Fred are very close to their parents and even their siblings. Gill is very close to Sarah, her sister and Jack her younger brother and Fred is very close to Tom, his brother. Gill was a very studies child from the start, according to her parents and she did very well at school.

 The success of intimacy versus isolation stage may lead to Love as it was in the case of Gill and Fred.  The family of Fred Askin experience challenges that that separation between Fred and Gill, and Gill as finally left to care for the children. At generative versus stagnation stages of development, individuals settle down to see the bigger picture. It is not like they had a problem overnight, but it actually took a long time for the distance to be created between them. They as a couple does not consider the method of abortion as an alternative because they believe that an unborn baby has the right to live. Gill is a humble person who keeps to herself and her morals, to her family is important and she pursues various avenues of help for children grow well in the society more so Justin. However, both of them have tried their utmost to make Justin a better and brighter boy, however they have not been successful (Padgett, 2016). Nothing worked with Justin, pampering, rewarding, coming down hard or even smacking him, nothing have worked with their son. Gill has a character of never giving up, and she goes ahead to consult with the social care workers and others women to advise her on Justin’s behaviors. She has also mentioned that she does not do any kind of socializing other than her visits and affiliations with the church, her husband, her children and other wives of the neighborhood (Alexander et al., 2013). Gill due to her current conditions of dealing with her children issues and immediately after seek help for her children. The social workers should thus learn understand the development stage to help family of Askin.   

Development Theories in Assessing the Askin Family Case Study

Conclusion

Children at an early age of development require the attention, love and attachment with their parents. A child brought up in the presence of the mother and father will often be easy to handle and grow up rationally. Therefore, the social workers have the mandate to understand various stages of development theirs to help children such as Justin, Hannah and Philip deal with their issues. Development stages theories would enable the social workers also to effectively help parents in the society such as Fred and Gill Askin to nature their children without difficulties. These theories are Piaget’s Stages of development, stages of psychological development by Erikson and Bowlby’s attachment theory (Weick et al., 2017). The theories of development stages are fundamental to the social workers to help people living with most advantages live a life of comfort and advantageous. For instance, understanding the stages of development theory, the social workers will understand how to effectively help Justin who is at adolescent stage manage his temper and listen to the workers to improve his behavior. Finally, social caregivers in the current society help parents a great deal as parent more, so the single families mange stress of bringing up children on their won.

References

Al-Bahrani, M., Aldhafri, S., Alkharusi, H., Kazem, A., & Alzubiadi, A. (2013). Age and gender differences in coping style across various problems: Omani adolescents' perspective. Journal of adolescence, 36(2), 303-309.

Alexander, J. F., Waldron, H. B., Robbins, M. S., & Neeb, A. A. (2013). Functional family therapy for adolescent behavior problems. American Psychological Association.

Alkema, L., Kantorova, V., Menozzi, C., & Biddlecom, A. (2013). National, regional, and global rates and trends in contraceptive prevalence and unmet need for family planning between 1990 and 2015: a systematic and comprehensive analysis. The Lancet, 381(9878), 1642-1652.

Bagley, C., & Ramsay, R. (2015). Sexual abuse in childhood: Psychosocial outcomes and implications for social work practice. Journal of Social Work & Human Sexuality, 4(1-2), 33-47.

Carr, A. (2014). The evidence base for family therapy and systemic interventions for child?focused problems. Journal of Family Therapy, 36(2), 107-157.

Fraser, M. W., Galinsky, M. J., & Richman, J. M. (2014). Risk, protection, and resilience: Toward a conceptual framework for social work practice. Social work research, 23(3), 131-143.

Garbarino, J. (2017). Children and Families in the Social Environment: Modern Applications of Social Work. Routledge.

Hale, N., Picklesimer, A. H., Billings, D. L., & Covington-Kolb, S. (2014). The impact of Centering Pregnancy Group Prenatal Care on postpartum family planning. American Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology, 210(1), 50-e1.

Padgett, D. K. (2016). Qualitative methods in social work research (Vol. 36). Sage Publications.

Weick, A., Rapp, C., Sullivan, W. P., & Kisthardt, W. (2017). A strengths perspective for social work practice. Social work, 34(4), 350-354.

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