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State the topic (attitudes towards immigrants and refugees) and write a 100 word paragraph as to why it is important for social science research to address this issue in Australia (100 words max). Include 1 academic reference.

  1. Understanding our variables and the “typical” survey respondent 

Researchers often use the background characteristics of survey respondents to help understand patterns in the data. Here are a list of background characteristics that will be important for political engagement. For each variable below, state which measure of central tendency is the most appropriate and why.

  1. Age measured in years
  2. Gender measured as “male” or “female”
  3. Political leaning measured by the questions: In political matters people tale of “the left” and “the right”. How would you place your views on a scale of 10 where “10” is politically right and “1” is politically left?
  4. Number of dependent children measured by the question: Have you had any children? No children “0” to 8 or more children “8”.
  5. Educational Achievement measured by the question: What is the highest education level you have obtained? No schooling “0” to doctoral degree “9”.

For each of the characteristics in question 2, write one sentence as to why it might be important to think about the relationship between the characteristic and attitudes towards immigrants?

I randomly picked 10 respondents from the 2016 Australian Election Survey and wrote down their ages (variable X). Calculate the mean, median and standard deviation for this set of 10 ages in the table below. For the standard deviation, you can use the table used in lecture to break down your calculation.

Background Characteristics Relevant for Attitudes

Immigration has a positive social and social effect on Australia, where transients and displaced people have demonstrated versatility to new environment. Australia centers on talented movement and gives integrative measures to settlement process alongside help to hone their social traditions (Ueffing, Rowe, and Mulder, 2015). The nation has accomplished significant ability to figure, create, present and work sound and viable strategy.

Arranged migration approach of the nation has been related with more prominent acknowledgment of movement and its socio-social displaying inspirational states of mind towards worker flow. But, society and politicians have high prevalence of prejudicial outlook towards migrants (Canetti, Snider, Pedersen, & Hall, 2016).

Variable Name

Measure of Central Tendency

Reasons

Age (years)

Mean

Continuous data

Gender

Mode

Nominal Variable

Political leaning

Median, Mode

Ordinal data

Number of dependent children

Median, Mode

Ordinal data

Educational Achievement

Mode

Nominal variable

Age: Young generation generally has less positive attitude towards immigration due to increase in competition for education and employment.

Gender: Attitude towards immigration may or may not vary significantly with gender, with women having somewhat less optimistic opinion.

Political leaning: Political scenario varies country wise, difference in detrimental attitude and constructive outlook is an important factor in policy framing.

Number of dependent children: Immigrants with two or more number children are rarely welcomed as an immigrant, but again that also depends on the financial status of the immigrant.

Educational achievement: Probably the most important aspect of immigration, as skilled workforce is a necessity in many countries.

  1. Mean =

Median: Ascending arrangement of data: 18, 22, 27, 32, 34, 38, 41, 43, 56, and 65 (even number of observations). So median is average of and observations. Hence, median is .

Mode is the observation with highest frequency. Here all the observations are non repetitive in nature, hence mode of the data does not exists.Median:

Table 1: Frequency Distribution Table

Frequency

Cumulative Frequency

1

230

230

2

395

625

3

403

1028

4

143

1171

5

6

15

6

1186

1192 =N

N = 1192 (even), N/2 = 1192/2 = 596th observation, which is in between the observations 1 and 2. Hence median is the average of the observations, which is equal to 1.5.Mode: Observation with highest frequency is mode. Here mode is 3 with frequency 403.

  1. Table 3 and Table 4 contain the row-wise and column-wise percentages.

Table 2: Row Wise Percentage of Data

Processing and re-settlement of asylum seekers

Gender

 

 

 

Female

Male

Total

Process and Resettle offshore

44.16%

55.84%

100.00%

Process off-shore and resettle in Australia

52.97%

47.03%

100.00%

Process and resettle onshore

59.21%

40.79%

100.00%

None of these

51.96%

48.04%

100.00%

Total

50.74%

49.26%

100.00%

Table 3: Column Wise Percentage of Data

Processing and re-settlement of asylum seekers

     Gender

 

 

 

Female

Male

Total

Process and Resettle offshore

34.86%

45.41%

40.05%

Process off-shore and resettle in Australia

16.04%

14.67%

15.37%

Process and resettle onshore

28.19%

20.00%

24.15%

None of these

20.91%

19.92%

20.43%

Total

100.00%

100.00%

100.00%

  1. ependent Variable is dependence of processing and re-settlement of asylum seekers on gender.
  2. Row-wise and column-wise percentages have been provided in Table 2 and Table 3.
  3. Immigrants who are coming by boat can be best managed by offshore resettlement (P = 40.05%) and women are opining more (P = 50.74%) about the correct alternative for settlement of asylum seekers in Australia.
  4. The percentages denote the proportion of gender distribution in each process (row-wise) and gender-wise proportion of processing of asylum seekers. These percentages make it easy for the researcher to observe patterns across rows and columns.
  1. Variable label: D1_7, Storage type: integer, and display format: %8.0g
  2. Frequency Distribution of D1_7, E1, E2_1 & E5 are as follows:
  3. Mean of c1_1 = 15.61, Median = 5, Range = 999 (with outliers)

Mean of c1_1 = 4.15, Median = 5, Range = 10 (without outliers) Mean of c2_1 = 18.88, Median = 5, Range = 999 (with outliers) Mean of c2_1 = 2.25, Median = 2, Range = 10 (without outliers)

The frequency of the h17 data has been plotted in the histogram. Mode of the data had frequency of 237, where the histogram was observed to have three local modes. frequency of the b8_1 data has been plotted in the histogram. The distribution was unimodal with mode having frequency as 786. The shape was normally distributed with negative skewness.

  1. Only 13.34 percentages of respondents strongly agree with the statement “immigrants increase the crime rate”.

Respondent’s confidence in

  1. The legal system was considerably unprejudiced between confidence and no-confidence. The variable was discrete and categorical in nature, median was the appropriate measure of central tendency. The median was 3, which indicated that most of the people did not have much confidence in the judiciary.
  1. The police department was considerably high. The variable was discrete and categorical in nature, median was the appropriate measure of central tendency. The median was 2, which indicated that most of the people had a quite a lot of confidence in the police force.he Federal Government in Canberra was considerably unprejudiced between confidence and no-confidence. The variable was discrete and categorical in nature, median was the appropriate measure of central tendency. The median was 3, which indicated that the majority of the people did not have much confidence in the Federal Government.

On an average Police department enjoyed the highest public confidence.

Most agreement with the variables was 8.15% for f6_1, 3.85% for f6_2, 13.47% for f6_3, and 14.88% for f6_4. Hence, Australia’s trading future lies with Asia was the statement with most agreement.

Least agreement with the variables was 0.83% for f6_1, 7.03% for f6_2, 1.78% for f6_3, and 4.84% for f6_4. Hence, people were least confident about the fact that Australia’s defense is stronger now than it was 10 years ago.

Considering Australian being able to defend itself and views about providing military support for the war on terror as interval/ ratio measures, independent t-test for two samples was conducted, after removing the outliers.

Considering the f6_2 and f6_4 as categorical variables, the comparison was conducted using cross tabulation and Chi-Square statistics (Hox, Moerbeek, & Van de Schoot, 2017). The Chi-Square value was significant to conclude that variation in views in the two variables was considerable.

Considering the data as interval / ratio nature, pair wise comparison of people’s views was done using paired t-test. The results signified that variation in opinions in g6_2 and f6_4 was significantly different, where the box plot confirmed greater variation in f6_2. People’s views were accumulated towards the view that Australia should help in fight against terrorism.The comparison is clear from the following box plots, where the t-test results were affirmed.The correlation between f6_2 and f6_4 indicated that there was not agreement between the categorical levels of views of the respondents.

The variability of the two variables was noteworthy in nature, where variation in answers of f6_4 was significantly less than that of the views in f6_2. From Table 11 the confirmatory results can be obtained.

  1. Cross tab of views about giving equal opportunities to migrants (E2_1) by gender, including the appropriate percentages are given in Table 12.
  1. Equal opportunity to migrants was dependent and it was cross tested with gender of the respondents, which performed as an independent variable. The opportunities to migrants were significantly different with gender ( , p < 0.05). Most of the people (45.80%) were good enough with the fact that Australia is rightly providing equal opportunity to both the genders, whereas, rest of the respondents views were scattered among different opinions.
  1. Pair wise correlation between, satisfaction with present condition of economy (d10) and democratic functionality (c5), in Australia was significantly negative. It implied that people satisfied with economic condition were rather dissatisfied with current democratic culture of the country.
  2. Level of gross annual income (h17) and current economic situation (d10) in the country were positively associated with signification correlation. Hypothetically, this implied that with economic growth of Australia, gross annual income of people was also enhancing.
  3. The correlation in (a) and (b) were statistically significant. The negative correlation in (a) was numerically greater than 0.3 and considered just strong. However, the positive correlation in (b) was less than 0.3, and considered as a weak correlation or almost no correlation.
  1. The outlook towards the immigrants was not entirely adverse, very few of the respondents strongly agreed with the fact that immigrants increase the crime rate. Most of the Australian people agreed about the fact that equal opportunity has been provided to both the genders of the immigrants. People were satisfied with present economic condition of the country and income level of individuals. Hypothetically, this implied that with economic growth of Australia, gross annual income of people was also enhancing. Views about Australia’s trading future implied the necessity of strong relation with Asia. People were considering the countries of Asia as the source of main trade partners.
  2. Residents were found apprehensive about the current democratic culture of the country. About social security, respondents were highly confident on the police department, whereas view on the judiciary was not on the same line. Most of the people did not have much confidence in the judiciary and in the Federal Government. Regarding defense supremacy of the country, many expressed their concern about the fact that Australia’s defense power has not grown in last 10 years. In general, respondents communicated their support towards the government in fight against terrorism. Overall analysis revealed the concern of the residents about the social security and external threats for the country due to immigration. But, people were satisfied with economic growth and salary levels (Kosny, Santos, & Reid, 2017).

Reference List

Canetti, D., Snider, K. L., Pedersen, A., & Hall, B. J. (2016). Threatened or threatening? How ideology shapes asylum seekers’ immigration policy attitudes in Israel and Australia. Journal of refugee studies, 29(4), 583-606.

Hox, J. J., Moerbeek, M., & Van de Schoot, R. (2017). Multilevel analysis: Techniques and applications. Routledge.

Kosny, A., Santos, I., & Reid, A. (2017). Employment in a “land of opportunity?” Immigrants’ experiences of racism and discrimination in the Australian workplace. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 18(2), 483-497.

Ueffing, P., Rowe, F. and Mulder, C.H., 2015. Differences in attitudes towards immigration between Australia and Germany: The role of immigration policy. Comparative Population Studies, 40(4).

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My Assignment Help (2021) The Essay On Australian Attitudes Towards Immigrants And Refugees Highlights The Importance Of Social Science Research. [Online]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/socy2339-introducing-quantitative-research/create-present.html
[Accessed 23 July 2024].

My Assignment Help. 'The Essay On Australian Attitudes Towards Immigrants And Refugees Highlights The Importance Of Social Science Research.' (My Assignment Help, 2021) <https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/socy2339-introducing-quantitative-research/create-present.html> accessed 23 July 2024.

My Assignment Help. The Essay On Australian Attitudes Towards Immigrants And Refugees Highlights The Importance Of Social Science Research. [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2021 [cited 23 July 2024]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/socy2339-introducing-quantitative-research/create-present.html.

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