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## WiMAX and Encryption Standards

Discuss About The Spatiotemporal Dynamics Of Human Movement?

The technology known as the WiMAX, known as the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, is used to facilitate wireless connectivity among devices by using the IEEE 802.16 standard.  The technology is used to command a wide ranges in connection by using the core principles of multiple input multiple outputs (MIMO) and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) techniques (Rengaraju, Lung and Srinivasan 2012). The less time for feasibility and the fewer requirements in cost is the main motivational need for the acceptance of this technology. The main encryption standards for these technologies are the DES, TripleDES and RC2.

The Data Encryption Standard (DES) is termed as a symmetric key algorithm which is used for the encryption of the data. The main use of the technology is in the application of cryptography. The operational method of DES includes the transformation of a text bit of a specific length to a cipher bit text of the same length. The cipher block size is 64 bits. The method of encryption includes the presence of a key for decrypting the ciphered texts (Rengaraju, Lung and Srinivasan 2012).

The symmetric key algorithm of the TripleDES is the same as that of the DES with the sole difference in its mode of operation. The application of encryption is usually done three times. The concept of this technology is used to cause an increase in the key size without applying any changes in the algorithms. This method uses two different keys (j, k) and applications of encryption are done by each of them (Kamali, Bennett and Cox 2012). As the two key methods are vulnerable to middle key threats and risks, the use for three keys is adopted to mitigate them.

The RC2 algorithm is also termed as a symmetric key algorithm for encryption standards. However, the size of the key is 40 bits. The main developer of this standard is Ron Rivest. The size of the key is supposed to be variable (Kamali, Bennett and Cox 2012). The main specifications of the standards are the presence of 18 rounds where 16 of them are of one type and the remaining two are of another type. The two types are either MIXING or MASHING.

 Algorithm Developer Key size Block size Algorithm Rounds Compatibility to WiMAX DES IBM 56 bits 64 bits Feistel Network 16 Yes TripleDES IBM 112 bits 64 bits Feistel Network 48 Yes RC2 Ron Rivest 8-128 bits 64 bits Heavy source Feistel Network 18 Yes

Table: Comparison between the three standards

Personal area network (PAN) is basically used to connect among various devices present in the vicinity. The devices can range from computers to mobile devices with connectivity access. In addition, the devices can also be connected to the internet where one of them is used as the router for internet connections. As the technology is used to provide connectivity in the vicinity, the rage of connection is up to a few meters. This section discusses about the various PAN technologies namely the Bluetooth and the ZigBee.

## Personal Area Network and Bluetooth

The use of ultra high frequency (UHF) band is used to provide communication features accepting a short range in connectivity. The range used for communication is 2.4 GHZ and the modulation techniques used is the Gaussian Frequency shift keying (GFSK) and 8DPSK.

Due to the advancement in technologies, the presence of various risks is evident in communicating with Bluetooth (Carpenter, Fowler & Adler, 2012). These are default configuration of the device, loss or theft, person-in-the-middle, denial of service and service mapping.

The default configuration is the presence of pre-installed configurations in the system which is already applied by the manufacturers during its development. Due to the complex nature of the configuration, people often neglect their reconfiguration. When the Bluetooth is in ON mode, the BD_ADDR and clock will be noticed by the other devices present in the vicinity of the user. This is the main problem where unethical attackers can get access to the systems to steal information.

Loss or theft of information is another concern for risks in the systems. A Bluetooth device always stores the access keys of the other devices in their memory. In case a device falls into wrong hands, it can be used to get access to all the paired devices (Versichele et al. 2012). This is a main concern and the security implications are to be addressed. This can also be used to eavesdrop into the systems and steal information.

The person-in-the-middle attack is also another security challenge of Bluetooth. Due to the advancements in technologies, attackers can get access to the private keys of devices in the vicinity. Their device can then be used to get access to the other devices in vicinity. The main mode of operation includes the mimicry of the attacker’s device to act like normal devices. When they try to establish connection to the other device, it is usually seemed to be a known device and thus connection is established. This is also another reason for unethical access and eavesdropping.

The denial of service (DOS) attacks, are another risks of Bluetooth technologies. Although these attacks are not reported, it can be used to lock a user from accessing their devices. This implies that the device will not be able to do the normal operations. In addition, due to the presence of various home appliances in the system, the signal jamming is a common method for use against such devices. Moreover, the attacker may also try to drain out the battery of the device by sending constant requests to connect.

## ZigBee and Security Implications

The last method of attacking includes the service mapping techniques. In general, when a device has to connect, it sends out signals to connect to look for an open signal. This is mainly done by the service discovery protocol (SDP) which is the most universal method used by all devices (Versichele et al. 2012). This technique can be used to get the lists of devices in the vicinity and connect accordingly. However, for this attack to work, the attacker needs to stay close to the devices.

ZigBee technologies have compliance to the IEEE 802.15.4 standards to facilitate small range connectivity. The main applications of these technologies are in home automations.

The security implications of the ZigBee technologies are the absence of any security in physical access. In case a device is stolen, it can be used to get access to the home network (Rohitha et a., 2012). The technology mainly integrates the key in the physical hardware of the device which is used to get access. Thus, this is a big problem for the ZigBee network.

The key attacks are other security implications of the technology. The technology uses two types of keys, the pre-shared keys and the over the air keys. Due to the lack of security measures and intruder detection in the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, access is easily acquisitioned.

The devices now-a-days need to utilize the various energy coefficients required for implementing the internet of things concept. As the presence of vulnerabilities and threats are increasing with each modernization trends, it is required for the devices to stay under working conditions for a long time (Energy harvesting in wireless sensor networks: A comprehensive review, 2017). The need for harvesting the surrounding energy is the main aim for an energy harnesser. In case when a certain node of a particular device goes offline, the work to be done is also removed. This creates a need for the devices to stay in working conditions for a long time. In addition, the provide source tells about the various sources for the energy harvesting. These sources are either natural or man-made. Moreover, the disadvantages of the systems are also considered in the document. The main considerations along with their installation, implementation of prototypes and compliance to the various standards or protocol are to be considered before commencing with the development of the technology required (Energy harvesting in wireless sensor networks: A comprehensive review, 2017). Furthermore, the journal concludes by showing the various advantages of the applied systems.

## Energy Harvesting in Wireless Sensor Networks

The different contributions in the area of wireless communications are talked about in the journal. Along with this, the conceptual networks for implementing the connections as well as the resources needed and their compliance with the existing standards and policies are also included in the journal. In addition, the theoretical calculations for the process are also referenced in the provided journal (Energy Harvesting Wireless Communications: A Review of Recent Advances, 2017). In addition, the provide source tells about the various sources for energy harvesting which includes either natural or man-made sources. The main objectives of these advancements are their applications in the areas of medical science, environmental and safety related aspects. The summary of the theoretical recommendations are included in section 2 whereas the section 3 discusses the throughput optimization (Energy Harvesting Wireless Communications: A Review of Recent Advances, 2017). Moreover, the various considerations to be taken care of are referenced in the next sections in a sequential order.

References:

Carpenter, C., Fowler, M. & Adler, T., 2012. Generating route-specific origin-destination tables using Bluetooth technology. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, (2308), pp.96-102.

Energy harvesting in wireless sensor networks: A comprehensive review. (2017). [ebook] Faisal Karim Shaikh a,b,n , Sherali Zeadally c. Available at: https://1712033_1136814880_2016Energyharvestinginwireless.pdf [Accessed 22 Sep. 2017].

Energy Harvesting Wireless Communications: A Review of Recent Advances. (2017). [ebook] Available at: https://1712034_414472103_2015EnergyHarvestReview.pdf [Accessed 22 Sep. 2017].

Kamali, B., Bennett, R.A. & Cox, D.C., 2012. Understanding WiMAX: An IEEE-802.16 standard-based wireless technology. IEEE Potentials, 31(5), pp.23-27.

Li, S.H., Cheng, K.A., Lu, W.H. & Lin, T.C., 2012. Developing an active emergency medical service system based on WiMAX technology. Journal of medical systems, 36(5), pp.3177-3193.

More, S. & Mishra, D.K., 2012, November. 4G revolution: WiMAX technology. In Internet (AH-ICI), 2012 Third Asian Himalayas International Conference on (pp. 1-4). IEEE.

Olexandr, L. & Sergiy, G., 2013, April. Slot allocation model and data burst scheduling in downlink WiMAX technology. In Electronics and Nanotechnology (ELNANO), 2013 IEEE XXXIII International Scientific Conference (pp. 455-459). IEEE.

Rengaraju, P., Lung, C.H. & Srinivasan, A., 2012, August. Communication requirements and analysis of distribution networks using WiMAX technology for smart grids. In Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC), 2012 8th International (pp. 666-670). IEEE.

Rohitha, P., Kumar, P.R., Adinarayana, N., Venkat, T. & Narayana, R., 2012. Wireless networking through ZigBee technology. International Journal of Advanced Research in Computer Science and Software Engineering, 2(7).

Sergey, G. & Abed, A.H., 2013, February. Slot allocation model and data burst scheduling in downlink WiMAX technology. In Experience of Designing and Application of CAD Systems in Microelectronics (CADSM), 2013 12th International Conference on the (pp. 97-100). IEEE.

Talaviya, G., Ramteke, R. & Shete, A.K., 2013. Wireless fingerprint based college attendance system using Zigbee technology. International Journal of Engineering and Advanced Technology (IJEAT) ISSN, 2249, p.8958.

Versichele, M., Neutens, T., Delafontaine, M. & Van de Weghe, N., 2012. The use of Bluetooth for analysing spatiotemporal dynamics of human movement at mass events: A case study of the Ghent Festivities. Applied Geography, 32(2), pp.208-220.

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