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Research Study

Topic: Evaluation Of Skinfold Thickness In Triceps For Body Fatpercentage

Skinfold measurement technique has been used as a fat percentage measurement for a long period of time. This technique is used for the measurement of body fat percentages in many people (Chenet al. 2018). People are aware of the fact that the triceps are a major site of fat storage. In other words, it can be said that this site of fat storage, plays a major role in increasing the body fat and makes the triceps appear loose also (Babuet al. 2021). Therefore, the use of triceps site for the measurement of skinfold and its relationship with the body fat percentage can be stated to be justified.

The current experimental research study will be focussed on the determination of body fat percentage by measuring the skinfold thickness of right-hand triceps. A singe hand-based measurement is used for this experiment. In other words, it can be said that the use of this technique is specifically justified for a solo researcher and has also increased the speed of the experiment process. This is the overall aim of the experiment (Burns, Fu and Constantino 2019). However, the aim of this investigation is to measure skinfold thickness of right hand triceps and to find out its relationship with the body fat in both genders.

There are two hypotheses for the experiment. The hypotheses are given below.

H1 (Alternate hypothesis) - Skinfold thickness of right hand triceps is dependent on the body fat of an individual. This is the alternate hypothesis of the experiment.

H0 (Null hypothesis) - Skinfold thickness of right-hand triceps is not dependent on the body fat of an individual. This is the null hypothesis of the experiment.

The young adults to middle aged population of community was selected. Fifty-four participants were selected for this research study. Both male and females were selected for the experimental study. There were 10 different ethnicities associated with the participants chosen for the research study. They were – White, Mixed, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Other Asian, Black Caribbean, Black African, Chinese and finally other ethnic groups (Jayawardenaet al. 2018).

For the experiment, the shoes as well as socks were removed for weight as well as height measurements and finally, they were also used for BIA tests. The higher was specifically taken to the nearest mm using the specific scales which were provided. These measurements were specifically taken in every case. Using the Tanita BIA, researchers can enter the height and stepping of BIA with their feet correctly placed on metal plates. Data was then collected and further examined on Excel as well as the mean value of the skinfold measurements.

Every manual error was targeted for prevention in the experimental method, which could have created alterations in the results section or the study outcomes. However, since the aim was to check whether SKT of triceps measurement is an effective indicator of body fat percentage, male and female based comparative analysis was not performed.

Regression table showing the relationship between Triceps thickness and Body fat percentage

Table 1: Regression statistics

Experiment Methodology

SUMMARY OUTPUT

Regression Statistics

Multiple R

0.738767

R Square

0.545777

Adjusted R Square

0.536507

Standard Error

5.053383

Observations

51

ANOVA

df

SS

MS

F

Significance F

Regression

1

1503.508

1503.508

58.87641

6.06E-10

Residual

49

1251.297

25.53668

Total

50

2754.806

Coefficients

Standard Error

t Stat

P-value

Lower 95%

Upper 95%

Lower 95.0%

Upper 95.0%

Intercept

-2.30357

2.177558

-1.05787

0.295302

-6.67954

2.072392

-6.67954

2.072392

X Variable 1

0.764749

0.099666

7.673096

6.06E-10

0.564462

0.965036

0.564462

0.965036

Table 2: Demographic profiles of the study participants

Gender

Number of participants

Percentage

Average age

Average heights

F

21

38.90%

29.62

165.2

M

33

61.10%

28

158.1

Graphical representation of the change in body fat percentage with triceps thickness

 Relationship between B/A body fat percentage and triceps skinfold

Figure 1 Relationship between B/A body fat percentage and triceps skinfold

Figure one shows the relationship between the Triceps thickness and the body fat percentage. The R2can be stated to be 0.53 and thus the R value is 0.72 showing a strong positive linear correlation.

Source: MS Excel

The results have shown that there is a moderately strong correlation between the triceps thickness and the body fat percentage. The same is evident from the correlation coefficient or the R value – 0.72. This value is near to 0.99, or the correlation coefficient associated with the strongest association. As the triceps thickness in terms of skinfold has been found to have been increased, it can be said that the body fat percentage also increases. The increase has been found to be associated with the fact that, triceps fat percentage also increases, which increases the skin fold of the triceps and therefore it is a sign of increase in body weight also.

As per the findings of the research study, there is a very strong relationship between Triceps skinfold thickness and body fat percentage. Associated with the same, it can be said that the experimental hypothesis, that the body fat percentage is dependent on triceps skinfold thickness (González-Ruízet al. 2018). A strong association was observed in the form of R value as 0.73. Higher the triceps fat percentage, higher will be skin fold and in turn it will be a symptom of high percentage of body fat. SKT has already been shown to be a very good method for analysing the body fat percentage for the human beings.

As shown by Ruiz et al.(2019), body fat condition can be estimated by the thickness of triceps. Therefore, the thickness of the triceps and its skin fold have been found to be a major indicator of body fat. Kogureet al. (2020) showed that skinfold thickness is a major indicator of body fat percentage among Brazilian women. The methods of evaluation have been found to be effective in showing the strong correlation between body fat percentage and skinfold thickness. However, this study has not shown any specific consideration of triceps thickness measurement, as an indicator of body fat percentage. The observed R value for this research was 0.78.

From the above findings, the standard error of the collected data has been observed to be high. This means that the deviation is also high and some of the values are far away from the mean value of the collected data (Jayawardenaet al. 2019). The use of skin-fold measuring technique has been found to be specifically effective for increasing the chances of correct analysis of the body fat percentages. Research studies have shown that this method is very much effective in the measurement of body fat percentage (Henryet al. 2019).Previous research studies have shown that the body fat increases; the skin folds also increase at various body parts (Tekus et al., 2018). In other words, it can be said that this research study has also proved the fact that triceps are one of the best positions for the analysis of the fact that whether the fat content of a human body is high or not. Since the findings of the present research study findings have matched with the findings associated with the previous research studies, it can be stated that the findings of the present research study can be justified.

Results and Analysis

The current experimental research investigation measures the skinfold thickness of the right-hand triceps in order to determine body fat percentage. This experiment can be said to have employed a single hand-based measurement (Ye?il, Köse and Özdemir 2020). To put it another way, the employment of this approach is especially warranted for a solo researcher, and it has also sped up the experimentation procedure. This is the experiment's overarching goal. However, it should be noted that the purpose of this study is to determine the skinfold thickness of the right-hand triceps and its connection to body fat.

However, the R value was not observed to be fully 0.99. This issue came from either human based error in the data collection process, or the actual lack of relationships a very strong relationship between the two variables. The future experiments can focus on every other aspect of the study apart from the analysis done for this research study. The future research studies should focus on finding the relationship between the two variables, depending on the two genders. A comparative analysis can be done in the future studies.

Conclusion

The assessment of triceps skinfold has been found to be avital component for the measurement of body fat percentage. Associated with the present research study, it can be said that triceps skinfold measurement was successful in the identification of body fat percentage of human beings. The study has proved that triceps skinfold measurement and body fat percentage are specifically effective in establishing the relationship between triceps skinfold and body fat percentage. The conduction of tests in the early morning was found to give beneficial results only. The determination of triceps as the best site can only be done on the basis of the results, observed for the other sites also. The research study has been found to show that the alternate hypothesis is accepted and the null hypothesis is rejected. The aim and objectives of the research study were well addressed and one of the hypotheses was selected for acceptance. Future research studies should focus on the determination of best single site, which needs to be explored by future researchers for increasing the reliability of SFT measurements.

References

Babu, G.R., Das, A., Lobo, E., Deepa, R., John, D.A., Thankachan, P., Khetrapal, S., Benjamin-Neelon, S.E. and Murthy, G.V.S., 2021. Mid-upper arm circumference in pregnant women and birth weight in newborns as substitute for skinfold thickness: findings from the MAASTHI cohort study, India. BMC pregnancy and childbirth, 21(1), pp.1-11.

Burns, R.D., Fu, Y. and Constantino, N., 2019. Measurement agreement in percent body fat estimates among laboratory and field assessments in college students: Use of equivalence testing. Plos one, 14(3), p.e0214029.

Chen, Y., Liang, X., Zheng, S., Wang, Y. and Lu, W., 2018. Association of body fat mass and fat distribution with the incidence of hypertension in a population?based Chinese cohort: a 22?year follow?up. Journal of the American Heart Association, 7(6), p.e007153.

Forte, G.C., Rodrigues, C.A.S., Mundstock, E., Santos, T.S.D., Detoni Filho, A., Noal, J., Amaral, M.A., Preto, L.T., Vendrusculo, F.M. and Mattiello, R., 2021. Can skinfold thickness equations be substituted for bioimpedance analysis in children?. Jornal de Pediatria, 97, pp.75-79.

González-Ruíz, K., Medrano, M., Correa-Bautista, J.E., García-Hermoso, A., Prieto-Benavides, D.H., Tordecilla-Sanders, A., Agostinis-Sobrinho, C., Correa-Rodríguez, M., Schmidt Rio-Valle, J., González-Jiménez, E. and Ramírez-Vélez, R., 2018. Comparison of bioelectrical impedance analysis, slaughter skinfold-thickness equations, and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for estimating body fat percentage in Colombian children and adolescents with excess of adiposity. Nutrients, 10(8), p.1086.

Hastuti, J., Rahmawati, N.T., Suriyanto, R.A., Wibowo, T., Nurani, N. and Julia, M., 2020. Patterns of body mass index, percentage body fat, and skinfold thicknesses in 7-to 18-year-old children and adolescents from Indonesia. International Journal of Preventive Medicine, 11.

Henry, C.J., Shalini, D., Ponnalagu, O., Bi, X. and Tan, S.Y., 2018. New equations to predict body fat in Asian-Chinese adults using age, height, skinfold thickness, and waist circumference. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 118(7), pp.1263-1269.

Jayawardena, R., Waniganayake, Y.C., Abhayaratna, S.A. and Ranasinghe, P., 2020. Prediction of body fat in Sri Lankan adults: Development and validation of a skinfold thickness equation. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews, 14(2), pp.147-150.

Kogure, G.S., Silva, R.C., Ribeiro, V.B., Mendes, M.C., Menezes-Reis, R., Ferriani, R.A., Furtado, C.L.M. and Reis, R.M.D., 2020. Concordance in prediction body fat percentage of Brazilian women in reproductive age between different methods of evaluation of skinfolds thickness. Archives of endocrinology and metabolism, 64, pp.257-268.

Nikolaidis, P.T., Rosemann, T. and Knechtle, B., 2020. Skinfold thickness distribution in recreational marathon runners. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(9), p.2978.

Shen, F., Wang, Y., Sun, H., Zhang, D., Yu, F., Yu, S., Han, H., Wang, J., Ba, Y., Wang, C. and Li, W., 2019. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms are associated with triceps skin fold thickness and body fat percentage but not with body mass index or waist circumference in Han Chinese. Lipids in health and disease, 18(1), pp.1-8.

Tekus, E., Miko, A., Furedi, N., Rostas, I., Tenk, J., Kiss, T., Szitter, I., Balasko, M., Helyes, Z., Wilhelm, M. and Petervari, E., 2018. Body fat of rats of different age groups and nutritional states: assessment by micro-CT and skinfold thickness. Journal of Applied Physiology, 124(2), pp.268-275.

Ye?il, E., Köse, B. and Özdemir, M., 2020. Is body adiposity index a better and easily applicable measure for determination of body fat?. Journal of the American College of Nutrition, 39(8), pp.700-705.

Zhang, H., Liu, A., Li, X., Xu, W., Shi, R., Luo, H., Su, G., Dong, G., Guo, G. and Wang, Y., 2019. Genetic analysis of skinfold thickness and its association with body condition score and milk production traits in Chinese Holstein population. Journal of dairy science, 102(3), pp.2347-2352.

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