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Reasons of tram becoming the best current transportation

Discuss About The Swansea And Mumbles Railway In South Wales?

 The assignment focuses on one of the light rail service that is tram. It is identified that tram or trolley systems were very much common in the world of industrialization that is in the late 19th and 20thcentury (Siemiatycki, 2016). The first tram was started on Swansea and Mumbles railway in south Wales.  It is identified that in the year 1804, the act of Mumbles railway was passed by the British parliament and the first tram was established in the year 1807. It is found those trams were mainly utilized in various urban areas before the adoption of universal electrification (Passalacqua, 2014).  The advent of different types of motor vehicles as well as cars led to the disappearance of tram.

The assignment illustrates the benefits of tram in short distance travelling. The paper illustrates the benefits of tram on CBD and the various specifications that are required for designing the system of tram. The paper also provides information about the cost of operation. It is identified that tram system helps in minimizing waste as well as pollution.

 Tram is considered as the best current means of transportation for short distances. This is because tram is one of the modern transport systems that are comfortable as well as environmental friendly at the same time (Sierpinski,  Celinski & Staniek, 2014). This system of transportation does not cause pollution and the direct emission of carbon dioxide from tram is identified to be Zero gr.  In addition to this, the accessibility criteria of tram are quite high as it can be accessed directly at street level.

The coalition Government announces free tram travel in Melbourne for the people of Mornington Community. This helps in attracting more people towards the facility of tram (Carey, 2014).  It is identified that this initiative would not help in providing cost saving for the people but it also beneficial for the people to move from one place to another. In this way, the coalition government will help in improving the system of public transportation network.

The specification of the transport is provided below:

Size: The trams are mainly 30-35 meters long.

Capacity: The tram systems mainly have a capacity of 210 passengers.

Speed: The average speed of tram is around 70 Km/hr (Ceraolo et al., 2016).

Noise: It is identified that trams produces less noise as compared to cars and it is found that if there is grass planted between the various tracks then the level of noise became much lower.

Benefits of tram on CBD

The inflation calculator of RBA is used in order to work out the various prices in 2006 dollars, it is identified that the cost off Box Hill is around $30.46 million, Vermont south is around $31.58 million and Docklands drive is $7.77 million. This helps in yielding an average per kilometer cost of $10.87 million in the year 2006 (Zuniga, Liu & Bunker, 2013). The increase in the prices of various equipments is dependent on the consumer price index, which is not an index of infrastructure cost as it is very much conceivable.  On the other hand, in the year 2016, the government has shifted its entire language on the cost of light rail and it is suggested to be around $614 million (Xinmiao et al., 2015).  If inflation runs at the rate of three percent then the construction cost of the light rail in the year 2019 is around $760 million.

 Metropolitan Service

Labor

Maintenance

New rolling stock lease payments

Other

Total operating expenditure

Tram

512

368

152

172

1204

Trains

736

774

375

366

2251

Total

1248

1142

527

538

3455

Over the five years, the entire operating cost of trams is around $1204 million or $ 240.8 million as per year assuming no inflation (Newman, 2014).  This cost mainly includes lease payments for new rolling stock, which is not an operating cost. This helps in yielding the entire operating cost per annum is around $210.4 million.

In order to build tram station including all the public facilities, it is estimated that the approximate cost that is needed for construction is around $456 million (Jacobson et al., 2016).The cost estimation are provided with the help of the table.

Facilities

cost

Tram Station

$ 210 million

Wi-Fi service

$23million

Parking

$14million

Ticket window

$4million

Toilet

$7million

Ramp for Foot-over Bridges

$20 million

The total estimated cost for the electricity and water will be around $198 million. The cost of electricity as well as water is separately provided in the below table:

Resources

Cost

Electricity

$100 million

Water

$98 million

In order to construct a route track, it is identified that the entire needed cost will around $210 million (Frondel, Sommer & Vance, 2015). The construction cost of the route is the entire budget that is required for completing the development of route track.

The various types of mavarious types oterials that are utilized for constructing the tram system includes relay rail, OTM, track accessories, Tin plates, spikes, bolt and more. The costs of all the materials are provided in the table below:

 Materials

Cost of the materials

Relay rail

 $171,500

OTM

$121,300

Track accessories

$40,000

Tin plates

$34,000

Spikes

$27,000

Comb bars

$19,000

Bolt

$16,000

The different types of materials that can be used include:

Bio-fuel: The production cost of bio-fuel is around $0.55 and its efficiency is 1%.

Biodiesel:The production cost of biodiesel is around $0.53l as predicted. It is identified the entire efficiency of the chain of biodiesel is around 1% (Suzuki & Cervero, 2014).

Specification of transport

Solar power system: The production cost of the solar power system is around $0.72 per watt and its efficiency is about 22% efficient.

Electricity: The entire production of electricity is 21.56 cents per kilowatt-hour. It is identified that the efficiency of electricity is around 99% (Arvidsson & Browne, 2013)

Diesel: The entire cost of diesel is around $1.39 per gallon. It is identified that the efficiency of diesel is 56%.

The tram is a means of transport that is very much convenient as well as accessible. It is identified that the tram service is speedy, cheap as well as reliable (Ahmed & Al-saud, 2016).  The main aim of this transportation is to provide proper comfortable system of transport, which is not disrupted by congestion.

Trams are considered as environment friendly as they do not emit any fumes. Trams mainly operate by utilizing electricity and the emission from those power stations can be managed appropriately, as it does not require any extra equipment (Jensen, 2017).  It is identified that the modern trams are so much silent that while moving they must gong for warn the pedestrians.

It is identified that tramways mainly operates by utilizing electricity and thus the emitted carbon dioxide is identified to be zero Gr. Tramways are considered one of the common transport system that is pollution free as well as environmental friendly (Suzuki & Cervero, 2014). The utilization of car as well as buses in the road creates lot of pollution whereas the tramways do not create any-waste production after its operation. Thus, it is considered as one of the means of transport that is both comfortable as well as environment friendly.

With the operation of tramways, it is identified that trams does not emit toxic gases like carbon dioxide in the air and as a result, tramways are considered as one of the transport system that is pollution free as well as environmentally friendly (Jensen, 2017). After proper research it is found that tramways helps in removing thousands of car journeys per day from the roads which further reduces the input of pollutants.

Conclusion

It can be concluded that tramways are one of the most efficient means of transport that not only helps in providing comfortable service to the travelers but also are also environmentally friendly. It is identified that trams does not emit any time of harmful gases and a result it does not create any waste.  This system of transportation does not cause pollution and the direct emission of carbon dioxide from tram is identified to be Zero gr.  In addition to this, the accessibility criteria of tram are quite high as it can be accessed directly at street level. It is also identified that the modern trams are so much silent that while moving they must gong for warn the pedestrians.

References

Ahmed, A. R., & Al-saud, K. A. (2016, June). Towards Environmental Sustainable Neighborhoods in Riyadh City. In Int’l Conference of 5th International Conference on Advances in Engineering and Technology (ICAET'2016) (p. 56).

Arvidsson, N., & Browne, M. (2013). A review of the success and failure of tram systems to carry urban freight: the implications for a low emission intermodal solution using electric vehicles on trams.

Barajas, J. M., Chatman, D. G., & Agrawal, A. W. (2016). Exploring Bicycle and Public Transit Use by Low-Income Latino Immigrants: A Mixed-Methods Study in the San Francisco Bay Area.

Carey, G. W. (2014). 1 THE NEW YORK METROPOLITAN REGION. Urban Problems and Planning in the Developed World (Routledge Revivals), 32.

Ceraolo, M., Lutzemberger, G., Frilli, A., & Pugi, L. (2016, June). Regenerative braking in high speed railway applications: Analysis by different simulation tools. In Environment and Electrical Engineering (EEEIC), 2016 IEEE 16th International Conference on (pp. 1-5). IEEE.

Frondel, M., Sommer, S., & Vance, C. (2015). The burden of Germany’s energy transition: An empirical analysis of distributional effects. Economic Analysis and Policy, 45, 89-99.

Jacobson, R. A., Keefe, R. F., Smith, A., Metlen, S., Saul, D. A., Newman, S. M., ... & Inman, D. (2016). Multi?spatial analysis of forest residue utilization for bioenergy. Biofuels, Bioproducts and Biorefining, 10(5), 560-575.

Jensen, P. (2017). The accessibility of tramways in cold climates: A case study of the Helsinki tramway system

Newman, M. (2014). High speed rail in Australia: a case study for a Sydney-Wollongong link.

Passalacqua, A. (2014). Reluctant capitals: transport mobility and tramways in London and Paris 1830-1950. Town Planning Review, 85(2), 203-216.

Siemiatycki, M. (2016). Cycles in Megaproject Development. The Oxford Handbook of Megaproject Management, 39.

Sierpi?ski, G., Celi?ski, I., & Staniek, M. (2014). Using trip planners in developing proper transportation behavior. International Science Index, 8(11), 482-490.

Suzuki, H., & Cervero, R. (2014). Transit and the Metropolis: Finding Harmony. Sustainable Urban Development Reader, 153.

Xinmiao, Z., Quanxin, S., Lu, L., Yong, D., & Ruijia, S. (2015). Analysis on Operational Cost of Modern Tram.

Zuniga, K. D., Liu, Y., & Bunker, J. M. (2013, October). Making the train: re-conceptualising accessibility for intra-urban rail travel. In Proceedings of the 36th Australasian Transport Research Forum (p. 5B). Queensland University of Technology

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