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Social and Political Changes during the War Period

Question:

Discuss about the forms that power takes differ through history and according to place.
 

From the past few decades, there is an adequate change that has been observed in the societal aspects. It was also notified that due to the changes within the social prospect the perception of various people has been modified towards others. It could also report that with the time the changes are mainly observed in the political as well as social domain, which has been able to bring massive revolution within the customs. In a simple word, the revolution is mainly described as a fundamental change that made the positive impact on the social, political as well as organisational structure. In this regard, the condition of women during the period of war and post-war will take into the consideration. In this respect, the gradual empowerment of the concept of feminism is also taken into account (Seifert, 1996). 

The prime intention of the study is to elaborate the transformation of the social fabric. However, the study also evaluates the condition of women and their sufferings during the period of war. The study will also highlight the relationship between gender discrimination as well as violence against women.

During the situation of war, the societal condition of the various countries was undergoing through various turmoil. Due to such disturbing conditions of war, people belonging to that particular era were facing huge problems in living with their healthy lifestyle. Basically, during the war situation the political power has been playing an important role in influencing and controlling the behaviour of the people living within the similar society. In this regard, during the period of World Wars as well as Civil War, the conditions of women were considered as one of the prime concern. During the era, the Violence against Women (VAW) was deemed to be a major concern that mainly harmed their fundamental rights (Lock & Scheper-Hughes, 1987).

During the period, people suffered from several social disputes that could make a negative impact on their living condition. The law, wealth distribution as well as political stability were quite unable to manage the volatile social status. To control the unstable situation, the proper implementation of social power was necessary, as it is quite efficient in managing the entire process efficiently (Morrison, 1995). Also, application of social power is needed for enhancing the overall condition of the people suffering from the social disharmony. During this period of distress, the social harmony was destroyed by the various people through their physical forces, who were involved in speeding terror activities within the society. To take control over the physical power, the implementation of social power was considered to be more important regarding bringing social harmony within the community as well as among the people (Esping-Andersen, 1990). 

At the time of war and political instability people within that particular society has been suffering from a considerable number of issues. The biggest problem is associated with the community of individuals. During political instability, the fundamental rights, as well as the security of people has been affected in a negative manner (Rhoads, 2012). It will be eminent to state that women were considered to be the prime sufferer during the period of war as well as riots. During that particular war process, women were considered to be vulnerable to the inequality as well as disproportionate condition. This could be resulted in the breakdown of social network and social harmony. As there has been lack of proper care regarding managing social harmony, so it makes women and girls more vulnerable to the sexual violence (Davis, 1997). 

Condition of Women during the Period of War and Post-War

For instance, during the year 1971, Bangladesh had dealt with a vulnerable war condition, that has further ensured a significant discomfort as well as political instability. Therefore, this particular phase include, the criminal activities within that particular society seem to have increased. The issues related to public secrecy is considered to be a primary concern. More apparently, it could state that during the phase of Bangladesh war in 1971, the central question had raised over the issues of women security (Rhoads, 2012). The incidences of rape during that particular time frame has been considered as one of the primary concern in the national as well as general schedule.  Apart from this, women who were the victim of rape during the phase of Bangladesh war were referred as ‘war heroines’. Moreover, apart from the security of women and other people, another major question is arises over the secrecy of the public data. Based on the data acquired, the country has declared those women who were raped during the Bangladesh war 1971 as ‘Birangona’ that has its association with the secrecy of public information (Crossley, 1996).

The study is not only revealing during and post-war condition of Bangladesh, but it also focuses on the state of the entire world and its developing countries. For instance, similar condition has been shown in Indonesia. It could also note that during the year of 1965 as well as 1966 the Bali province of Indonesia was witnessing the similar kind of security issues (Esping-Andersen, 1990). The major safety concerns associates with the aspect that social power and its proper implementation within that particular region. Women belonging to the provinces of Bali have been witnessing the enormous size of the problem related to their security. By studying the problem associated with violence and sexual harassment faced by women during 1965-1966 has created an overview regarding the importance of feminism within the society (Crossley, 1996). 

There are enormous problems associated with the security of women around the world. The countries categorised under the first world nations were able to take proper control over the social condition as well as human safety. However, unlike the first world nations, the underdeveloped countries were unable to take appropriate and adequate steps regarding the social and public safety (Davis, 1997). With the destructive policies, those countries were gradually able to take proper control over the unstable condition of society and public security. The studies based on human security and the concept of feminism has further created a revolution during the era. Through implementation of the revolutionary law, rules and regulations will enable the legal authority to bring the sufficient importance of feminism within the society (Abrams, 1988; Lock & Scheper-Hughes, 1987).

Another major problem is associated with the perception as well as the mentality of a human being towards the social constitution. By reviewing the overview regarding trauma related with post-war condition is also noted to be critical in nature. It will help them to make the shift in the social process (Butler, 1993). The experiences associated with the aftermath war traumatic condition influences a radical change in the speaking process, living style as well as cultural aspects.  It has also notified that due to the war and political instability, the society has been witnessing terror experiences, which forces people to depth in a traumatic condition. The traumatic situation will make a negative impact on the mental condition of various people (Barnett & Adger, 2007).

Importance of Social Power in Managing Unstable Society

After the revolutionary implications of the formation of new policies, there is a notable change has been observed in the constitution of revolution. There has also been a significant change in terms of an existing structure. With the adequate revolution, the Indonesian government has played a useful role in enhancing the state constitution over the society. Apart from this, the Indonesian government has also influenced the people to keep harmony by involving themselves within the political matter (Skeggs, 2004; Seifert, 1996). Adequate stability has been able to bring the various local populations of Indonesia as well as various other countries by bringing the real progress in gender mainstream. To maintain harmony, the political, as well as legal authority, has tried to use new strategies, which has enabled them to highlights the positive factors relating to their memory. Providing unique benefits to those people will enhance those people to overcome the psychic trauma that they had witnessed during that particular time (Rhoads, 2012; Boose, 2002). 

Conclusion

By reviewing the entire study, it could also notify that feminism is one of the major concerns within the society. What it could also notify by the overall study is that the development of new policies has been able to bring harmony to the community. The development of new systems has also influenced the political stability as well as converts the entire political and social situation into a stable position. Earlier women belonging to that particular era were suffered from violence. Due to the terror activities, the women were sexuality assaulted. However, with proper support of the revolution, the new policies have been experienced by the society. Therefore, it can be concluded that with the proper application of revolution within the modern society the political as well as social scenario of the country has been changed gradually. These changes have been able to bring adequate prominences of feminism within the society.   

References 

Abrams, P. 1988. Notes on the Difficulty of Studying the State.  Journal of Historical Sociology, Vol. 1, No.1, pp. 58-89.  

Barnett, J. & Adger, W. N., 2007. Climate Change, Human Security and Violent Conflict. Political Geography, Vol. 26, pp. 639-655.

Boose, L. 2002. Crossing the River Drina: Bosnian Rape Camps, Turkish Impalement and Serb Cultural Memory. Signs, Vol. 28, No. 1, pp. 71-96.

Butler, J. 1993. Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limits of ‘Sex’. Routledge.

Crossley, N. 1996. Body-Subject/Body-Power: Agency, Inscription and Control in Foucault and Merleau-Ponty. Body & Society, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 99-116.

Davis, K. 1997. Embodied Practices: Feminist Perspectives on the Body. Sage.

Esping-Andersen, G. 1990. The Three Political Economies of the Welfare State.  International Journal of Sociology, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp. 92-123.

Lock, M. & Scheper-Hughes, N. 1987. The Mindful Body: A Prolegomenon To Future Work In Medical Anthropology. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 6-41. 

Mookherjee, N., 2006. Remembering To Forget’: Public Secrecy and Memory of Sexual Violence in the Bangladesh War of 1971.  Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute, vol. 12, pp. 433-450.

Morrison, K. 1995. Marx, Durkheim, Weber. Sage.

Rhoads, E., 2012. Women’s Political Participation in Indonesia: Decentralisation, Money Politics and Collective Memory in Bali. Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs, Vol. 2, pp. 35-56.    

Seifert R. 1996. The Second Front: The Logic of Sexual Violence in Wars Women's.  Studies International Forum, Vol.19, pp. 35-43.

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