Part 1: The Present
Discuss about The Future of Sport for Organisation and Structure.
Australian sports sector is enriched with talented sports persons and has always been on the top of sports charts. Over the years, Australian sports persons from various sectors have performed excellently well in their respective platforms and garnered respect and praise for themselves as well as their country. Australia is undoubtedly a pool of talent when it comes to sports sector, hence, the name of the country can be found among the top listed teams in any international sports event. With supreme command over their preferred sports, Australian sports persons have emerged as the best in many renowned international sports events, making their country and countrymen proud. To support the pool of sports talents in Australia, the Government should implement favourable sports policies so that the sports persons and sports enthusiasts are benefitted from the developed sports infrastructure of the country (Brockett, 2017). This essay is all about the overview of Australian sports structure with thorough assessment of some important and relevant aspects of the same. The first part of the essay deals with the structure of 4 pyramids of Australian sports and how the pyramid represents the management, organisation, and structure of Australian sport. The second part of the essay highlights on the impact on the sport organisation, management, and delivery in the future.
Sport industry is one of the major industries of Australia, from which a vast number of excellent and skilful athletes are emerging every single year. Although the participation in mainstream sports was declined in 2005-2010, the Australian sports industry has been able to put up with the changing scenario of the sports sector and has taken a relatively faster pace afterwards. Action sports are found to be showing a higher growth rate, both in terms of demand and supply, around the world than that of the other type of sports. Freestyle BMX and inline skating are tow most popular action sports around the new generation and have climbed the ladder of popularity quicker than ever (Willem and Scheerder, 2017). The risk and individualism which revolve around these action sports are considered as the reasons for which their popularity is sky-high among the generation Y of Australia. The country is having a long history of sporting clubs. The present sports system of Australia started to evolve in 1972, when the Government of Australia invested in sports infrastructure and programming for the first time. Although initially there was very little support from the end of Government, the country generated a successful participation base and international sporting record. The current sport structure of Australia is referred as the four pyramids of Australian sport (Reis et al. 2017).
Factors affecting the sports industry
Australian sports industry is having a number of influential factors which directly or indirectly affect the growth of this particular sector. Four pyramids of Australian sports is one of the most important aspects of the sports industry and sports structure of Australia. Each of the pyramids represents a hierarchical system which considers sports for four different segments of the sector;
- Government (local, state and national)
- The traditional sports club system (state sport organisations, regional associations, national sports organisations and clubs)
- The elite sports system (institute of sports)
- Corporate teams (Professional leagues)
The given figure of four pyramids of Australian sport illustrates that the communication flow moves vertically within each of the pyramids, and horizontally between each of the pyramids clearly. In accordance to the theory, it can be said that the mainstream sport system provides for a clear understanding of coordination among provider, participant, policy and funding sources, unlike the action sports industry (Charles-Edwards, 2017). From the four pyramids of Australian sport, a deeper understanding regarding the development process and structure of the Australian sports system can be obtained. The outer ring illustrates the community level sport activities, also reflecting the basic level or local level groups. Local authorities around Australia are important to develop the sports infrastructure and render maintenance so that sports participation is positively affected. The rest of the segments up to the elite level are fed and nurtured by the source formulated from this ring. The foundation of the sport system is also formed with the help of the elements of the outer ring. The local level groups are generally owned by respective local sports authorities. At this level, a critical part is formed by the club system, and voluntary participation is preferred. This level is comprised of managers and participants among whom most of them are deprived of required skills, knowledge and experience to handle the sports and resources.
A systematic progression towards a more organized and skillful segment of the sports industry is reflected by the inner rings of the model. Career improvements of the Australian athletes through a structured sports development system is represented by the progression for the outer rings to the inner rings (Beck et al. 2017). The coordination and interrelation among the network of rings and stakeholders, illustrate the structure which makes the sport development process in Australia stronger. Resources are believed to play a pivotal role in order to ensure that the sports system is started to grow right from the local authority level. Emerging dynamics and rapidly changing aspects of sports industry in Australia have to be embraced by sport infrastructure and suitable network of stakeholders so that the Australian sports system can be flourished and become successful in future.
Elucidation of the 4-ring model for present study
The inner-most ring represents the national level governing bodies such as NSOs and policy formulation and funding providers such as ASC. The institutions in elite sports system are of much importance as they are responsible for rendering needful training, coaching, relevant sports related opportunities and concept or framework about sports science. The skilled performers are highly benefitted by these institutes which helps them to acquire new sports techniques and also sharpen their existing skills (Bradbury and O’Boyle, 2017). Thus, with all the rings consisting of various important factors related to Australian sports system, the four pyramids of Australian sports is of much importance while creating a strong foundation for the Australian sports structure and providing base for the possible changes in the future of sports industry. National leagues provide a pathway to elite competition whereas the state and national sports institutes provide necessary coaching and knowledge about sports science infrastructure to the eminent performers belonging to state and national level (Hopwood and Skinner, 2017).
National Sports Organisations or NSOs are responsible for managing and coordinating Australian sports. NSOs are referred as national representatives of Australian sports. The NSOs basically implement the policies which are formulated by Australian Sports Commission (ASC). On behalf of the federal government, the ASC administers and funds sports nationally. Both ASC and Federal Government play crucial roles in formulating sports policies and provisioning finance in different sports sectors. Australian Institute of Sports (AIS) is responsible for providing training and coaching to the best athletes (individually or in team) to upgrade their performance level by enhancing their skills. For the development purposes in sports sector of Australia, sport science, funding, medical services, and also sports scholarship programs on 26 sports are integrated by AIS. The federal government aims to achieve a continued growth rate in the performance level of Australian athletes in international level (Jamieson and Ostermeyer, 2017). The primary focus of ASC is to take Australia to the peak of success in international sports level and also ensure that Australia reaches a reputed height in the context of excellence in sports. Sports Development Group (SDG) focuses on increasing the number of Australian participants in various events related to sports and physical activities. Sports Excellence and Sport Development grant programs of ASC, which provided necessary funding to NSOs to carry out organisational operations, are administered by SDG (Hassan, 2018).
Australian athletes showed an improved participation level in sports events in 2000-2001, the key performance indicators of the same was:
- Total number of Australian athletes who were participating in the sports,
- Participation level in organised sports,
- Community awareness level of the advantages of playing sports,
- Demographic trends in participation,
- The total number of organisations who provided programs in order to support participation (Burton and Leberman, 2017).
NSO and its affordability
As for the participation level among the Australian athletes, the participation rate among children was more than that of the participation rate among the adults in Australia (Huxley et al. 2017). As per a study conducted in 2007, it was found that Australian football was having participants as huge as 615,549. Athletics Australia has a total of 34,000 athletes, coaches and sports officials registered with them (Godber, 2018). Most number of Australian sports persons are said to be connected with basketball, making it one of the most popular sports of the country. In accordance to the National Cricket Census, a total of 1,311,184 people played Cricket in 2015-2016, which is an 8.5% increase on the total number of Australian cricketers in 2014-2015 (Rossi, 2017). Cricket is currently at the top of the most favourite sports chart of Australia.
The Australian Government opts for huge investment in the sports sector of the country to ensure a better and developed sports infrastructure for the athletes. More than $357 million have been invested in order to support sport and recreation activities in 2016-2017. This level of investment is made to make sure the desired value is achieved and also the value placed upon in sports sector by the society is reflected accurately (Erb and Hautbois, 2018). In order to understand expectations of the sports sector of Australia, National Sport Plan is introduced by the Government of Australia. Australian Government is working closely along with other departments, agencies and policies to make an impact on the planning and development of sporting facilities of the country.
Different types of sports are played across Australia with varied number of participants for each of them depending upon their popularity level in the country. Cricket, football, basketball, rugby, swimming, horse riding are some of the most popular sports of Australia (Weed, 2017). Not only adults, children are having equal enthusiasm in the sports sector. With more number of Australian children are prone to become athletes, it is clearly seen that the country has sports as a significant aspect of their overall development process. As more Australian athletes are being produced each year from different sports institutions, the numbers of participation from the end of Australian athletes are increasing rapidly. As more Australian athletes are interested in or are joining national and international events, the country is seeing a rapid change in their economy as well. Also, the success of more Australian athletes in international level of sports events, the country is gaining immense reputation and recognition in sports sector globally (Gowthorp et al. 2017).
With the help of sports scholarship programs implemented by the Government of Australia, more skilful youths are being part of sports organisations at ease. Money or power is not an obstacle anymore to explore ones skills in sports sector in Australia (Sherwood et al. 2017). The young athletes, on the basis of their respective talents related to sports or physical activities, are considered for the sports scholarship so that their path towards success becomes free from thrones. The girls are also a crucial part of Australian sports sector with a huge number of female athletes participating in national and international sports events. As both the Australian teams of cricket and football are very much popular across the countries because of their successful qualification for World Cup cricket and football tournament respectively each of the year, the girls are not far from achieving this kind of success (Eime and Harvey, 2018). With so many woman cricket and football players, it can be assumed that Australian women’s team in both the sports category will be emerging as one of the strongest teams in these tournaments.
In Australia, traditional sports is properly managed and accurately organised while being compared to the new sports categories. Formal structures are generally used to define mainstream sport. The mainstream sport is comprised of a network of support stakeholders which includes Government, clubs and the sport associations (Hargreaves, 2014). Australian sports have been witnessing an increased number of participation in sports events along with continuous success by the Australian athletes. Being inspired the back to back success and more participation from the Australian athletes, the government of the country has invested a large sum of money for the development of the sports infrastructure of the country and also the individual betterment and growth of the athletes (Hoye et al. 2015). With more investment coming in, the sports sector of the country is flourishing day by day, exploring vast opportunities and scopes for the new as well as experienced athletes. The old systems and infrastructure was unable to provide efficiency and required directions to the athletes as per as the requirement of meeting the national and international standards of the sports sector. The present sports structure of Australia is one of the best when it comes to upgrading the sports standard and quality of athletes within the country (Pedersen and Thibault, 2014).
The four pyramids model of Australian sports is not only responsible for generating more participation in different sports sector, but also implementing relevant and fruitful programs and policies to help in betterment of the Australian athletes. When it comes to social aspect, sport plays a crucial role in generating harmony among communities having different cultural as well as religious background. A particular team can be comprised of players coming from various community and religious groups, existing in Australia (Eime et al. 2015). Also, sometimes, a non-australian athlete is a part of Australian team as that individual is having the citizenship of Australia. Thus, that athlete might face discrimination in the ground as well as team (Schulenkorf et al. 2016). But with the current sports structure, this type of discrimination can be eliminated and players can be at peace with their teammates. When a team represents a country, all the players in it forget their personal differences and focus on strategies to bring out the best version of themselves, making their country proud. This way, a sport can spread harmony and peace through their performance and attitude during the game.
Australian sports structure is believed to be the best possible sports structure globally (Hums and MacLean, 2017). The reason can be its varied functions and coverage to different aspects of sports. However, the country is aiming to implement more effective and fruitful policies and programs to motivate their athletes to attain more success in sports sector. In a country like Australia, sports is considered as a crucial aspect and a better and more effective sports infrastructure can benefit the athletes causing overall development of the sports sector of the country. The present sport models of Australia are providing amazing results and it can be assessed that in future the country will be witnessing further progress in the sports sector.
Given your knowledge of the evolution of the management, organisation and delivery of sport thus far, how will sport organisation, management, and delivery be impacted into the future? Refer to information about emerging models of sport creation and delivery, and sport clusters as the basis for your analytical discussion (as seen in your textbook).
Create the next evolution of the 4 pyramids diagram.
Sport and economic development of a nation is closely connected. Through the close observation it can get noticed that a nation with strong sport regime is much stronger than any other nation. On the other words, it can be said that proper sport regime has the power to represent and pave a great place of the nation in the international platform. And when it comes to Australian economic development then here sport plays a great role.
It is noticed that sport and economic development of the country incorporate numbers of various issues. In order to align the assignment with the future scenario of the Australian sport and its impact on the nation, having clear idea on the entire related facts is important. Actually, there are four identified areas of limitation which Australia can face if it comes to contribution of economy to the economy of the nation in near future. (Routledge et al, 2015)
Before discussing the four areas of limitation, understanding the structure and importance of sport management is important. A nation can expect great outcomes from the sport teams when it avail the perfect sport management regime for all the sport teams. Without proper management system nothing can shine or make place in the market of competition. Sport management can be accepted as a regime where business deals with business and activity. It is an all accepted fact that without the efficient managers, a management system cannot run and it is also application to the sport management system. It is not that all the sport teams at the beginning stage are capable of playing in the international level (Filo et al, 2015). Regardless of the level type, availing proper management system and efficient managers at every level is important. Proper guidance and management can make a team stronger to play in the highest levels. There are few specific places where the need of a sport manager is prominent such as front office system of professional sports, college sport management, recreational sport, marketing of sports, facility and event management, sports economics, sport financing and sport information.
Both the nation and countrymen get profited thorough the proper sport management options. At the first place, it can be stated that through the proper management setting the nation can win a lot of international levels easily on the contrary, it adds new dimension to the economic development of the nation. The benefit of sport management is not limited here. A proper setting or regime can attract a lot of young people to take part in and it is also applicable to the sport management setting of Australia. Sport management can offer various job opportunities to the eligible countrymen. When a country is too much interested about the sport regime then it is very common fact that its management setting automatically attracts a large number of people.
Sport management in a modern context is often seemed complicated. On the contrary, it can be said that the complication takes place due to the changing nature of the related factors. When it comes to completely business regime then management can get accepted as a set of act or skill through which controlling and forming decision in a business context of sport is possible. Sport management is related with a lot of other major factors such as-
Growth of sport- the idea of sport management is directly connected with the stages through which the sport regime has reached the present platform. It can get seen through the close observation a lot of games are from the ancient times and in the past days the regime followed undeveloped rules and regulations. For instance it can be stated that in the earlier time Tennis got played in an hour glass shaped court and this is truly illogical. And Rugby was also played by the hundreds of men and this too is completely illogical but the continuous growth and technology and evaluation power of the sport management has concealed the yeasts. The overview of 1896’s Olympic regime and the over view of 2016 Olympics’ overview, can help to identify the exact eras of development. A lot of effective discipline, rules and regulations have taken place in the modern setting and these can be accepted as the utmost things to enrich the sport culture of a nation. (De Bosscher et al, 2015)
Sport organisations- it is noticed that modern sport organisations generally follow two types of objectives, the first one is about the promotion and development of the sport and the second one is about the collecting revenue and making more profits. Here a sport club can be assumed as a sport organisation. Actually, it is noticed that the sport clubs do not follow any selected form of organisation when it comes to accelerating the sport regime. In near about all the countries, there are a lot of sport clubs and few of them have gotten the lime light and the rests are still trying. A sport organisation should be of flexibility so that a large number of people can get the chance to show their talent in front of the entire world. Reservation, partiality during the selection makes narrow the scope for real talents and a nation always requires the best talent in order to represent it in the international sport levels. It is not that from the very earlier stages, the sport organisations were with the present setting and image rather they gained it through years of development. (Taylor et al, 2015)
Personal requirements- the sportsmen or the athletes are the major components which can ensure the winning chance of a nation. A sport organisation and the government should always take care of the personal requirements of the sportsmen and the athletes in order to make them more efficient. On the contrary, it can be said that sport is all about performance enhancement and management. If an athlete is not getting proper care, treatment and supplements then automatically his/her energy level will not reach the level through which it can ensure the winning chances. All the developed countries like Australia, USA prefer to enable proper care regime to their sportsmen and athletes so that they can easily win at any level.
Government initiatives- in the earlier section, it is mentioned that a nation’s economy and its sport regime is closely connected. On the other words, it can be said that, a strong economic condition of a nation can easily make the sport regime stronger than ever. The strong sport regime can also enrich the economy of a nation. When the sport regime is this much related to the development of an entire nation then the government has here major role to play. With the proper legislation and regulations, the government can make prominent the sport regime to all the countrymen. Along with these, with appropriate initiative, the government can attract a lot of people towards the sport regime and through this the sport organisation can easily get the right and efficient future sportsmen and athletes.
Sport Education- it is another important thing to make strong the sport setting of a nation. And this is also directly connected with sport management. There is great impact of sport education in order to develop the sport setting of a nation (Dowling et al, 2014). Actually, even in the ten years earlier a lot of people are not proper aware of joining sport and its career opportunities in Australia. But the appropriate sport management, continuous success and enriched economy has just changed the regime of sport setting of the nation. It is not that the sport education regime is limited to the developed countries rather the developing countries too are pouring concentration on the sport education in order to make great sport figures in near future. (Green and Bowers, 2016)
Lastly, it can get be stated that sport management is not based on a single approach rather it is based on the different types of managements affect the sports.
According to the assignment criteria, it can be assumed that in the future time, all of these factors related to sport management can get affected due to few issues. In the earlier section, the topic of four identified areas was mentioned. Those four identified areas which can leave impact on the sport organisation, management, and delivery of sports in the future. (Jeston, 2014)
Australia is an economically developed country and it can automatically gather lots of investment than the developing countries. It can be assumed that in the future time the quality and quantity of the investment will be higher and it can automatically enrich the sport setting of the nation. (Hums and MacLean, 2017)
Here protection of the child rather the potential future sportsman or athlete is important. There should be proper regime for the underage players. The sport organisation should avail nutrition, health and performance checking regime by the professionals. Actually, it is noticed that in the earlier days, due to lack of proper health and protection regime, a lot of talented people had to separate their domain from the sport genre (Arnold et al, 2015). With the advancement in treatment and nutritional care it can be assumed that Australia will avail best protection to the young potentials.
With practice of sport, a lot of local market or businesses have paved a strong place. In the future time, more businesses can get formed based on this sport regime. And this can be another great attraction of the people to attend the sport events.
Sport is directly connected with the better employability option. And in the future, it will come with a lot of other employability options. (Hoeber et al, 2015)
Apart from these factors there are a lot of other components which can leave impact on the future sport regime of Australia. First of all, it can be said that political interruptions always take place in the economy of the nation and the sport and economy are closely connected. It is not that political interruptions only affect the economy system rather it’s affect the entire things of a country even the sports. There is no assurance that in the future time there will be no political interruption in Australia. Maybe it is a developed country although it can get affected due to the political interruptions and it can leave serious impact on the sport regime.
A single factor or a single type of factor is not the entire political regime of a nation rather it is a combination of a lot of other factors. Legislations, acts and any type governmental initiative require political support (Elliott and Drummond, 2015). On the contrary, the proper setting of politics in a nation can build the future political places more strongly. Enabling proper acts, regulations are falls under the duty of the government and this task can get best accelerated by the supportive setting of political factors of a nation.
Not only the political factors but also social factor can leave impact on the future sport making regime of a nation. An economically developed country automatically is in an advanced social setting. And it is also applicable to the mentioned country, Australia. Advanced social setting ensures the better growth of skill and participation areas in the future. Actually, society has a great contribution towards the sport regime of a country (Gard and Dionigi, 2016). For instance it can be stated that a country with poor social setting where lack of education, religious interruptions have taken place greatly, cannot act as a developed country when it comes to sport. In India, sport is still a neglected part as most of the people of a society think that in the sport regime there is very few chance of employability. But in Australia, the social setting encourages the sport regime and here is proper chance of sport education which already has attracted a lot of people to build their career in the sport field. (Australian Sports Commission, 2015)
Technological factor is another great thing which can enable great changes or adding facilities to the sport regime of Australia. According to the experts, an economically developed country can avail more technological benefits in comparison with a developing country (Weed et al, 2015). Invention and experimenting regimes too require economical support. And an economically developed country can contribute in this fact better. It is not that technological enhancement only enrich the sport regime rather it enriched all the main areas of a nation such as, business, education, health care and so many other important areas of a country. In the present era, people are enjoying live telecasting of any sport at their residences and this has become only possible through the contribution and invention of technology (Moston et al, 2015). The entire facts of a sport event gets recorded nowadays and that’s why the sport has become fairer than ever and due to the fair play opportunity a lot of people are taking interest in the sport in all across the world. In can be assumed that in the near future, the technological factors of Australia will be more advanced and will come with more and more superiority options and these will directly leave impact or make the sport regime unique and superior than any other country. (Fahlén et al, 2015)
These are accepted as the major factors which can affect the future sport regime of Australia. On the other words, it can be said not only Australia but also a lot of other developing and developed countries can face the same impacts on the sport regime in the future. Apart from these, there are some minor factors which too are capable of leaving impact on the future sport regime of Australia. In the next lines, those are discussed in the appropriate manner. (Eime et al, 2016)
The increase in number and category of facilities, events and participation can be accepted as a minor factor which can influence the future sport regime. Actually, it is noticed that when there is limited scope or limited sport options then automatically a lot of people feel distracted from the sport due to more competition (Rowe, 2016). But if there are increased facilities, events and participation options then a large number of people can easily join the sport regime without feeling reluctant. Secure employability is another thing which is directly connected here and the increased options can ensure the better employability of the Australian in the sport regime.
The increase in demand of sport related goods and service in the various markets also has the ability to influence the future sport regime of Australia (Paul et al, 2016). It is not that this influential factor is only limited to the Australia rather it is applicable to all the economically developed countries.
In the discussion part of sport management, it was mentioned that sport management come with a lot of employability options and the nation too enjoys proper setting of the sport teams (developed by the sport management regime) (Ryan et al, 2017). Generally, there are some common profession options come with the sport management in Australia, are employees and sports men for various levels of sport, fitness professions, and employees to maintain and accelerate recreational activities.
There are a lot of increasing factors in some particular areas such as due to diversity of the population there is chance of increase in sports, more sponsorship and funding of sports, more endorsement contracts, increase and modernization of sport and entertainment education, more profit and increase in the technological factors can directly influence the future sport regime of a country. (Malone et al, 2017)
There is another minor fact which has increased the demand of sport in all across the world and that is nowadays, sport is getting accepted as an entertainment option to the audiences. On the other words it can be said that sports and entertainment act as the consumer products. No doubt this has positive impact but there are chances of some negative facts too. (Sullivan et al, 2014)
The competition has risen in a greater level in the present market and it can be assumed that it will take more violent form in the near future and in this condition maintaining a sport organisation will seem difficult and all the time there will be requirement of best strategies. (Salamanna et al, 2015)
Along with these, the globalization of sports and global market will leave impact on the sport regime of Australia. An economically developed country can easily take advantage of the globalization rather can use it as the best way to represent the sport strength in the international levels. (Hogan and Stylianou, 2018)
All of these minor influential factors are accepted as the about emerging models of sport creation and delivery, and sport clusters as the basis of this analytical discussion.
The next evolution of the 4 pyramids diagram owing to the future sports development in Australia is as follows;
After the long discussion, the assignment has reached its conclusion point. Through the entire assignment it is getting clear that the four pyramid of Australian sport is directly connected with the management, organisation, and structure of Australian sport. Actually, there is very less components in a nation which stay accurate in all the era. But there are a lot of factors rather models which take place into the genre according to the requirement. On the other words it can be said that the effective sport models, sport structures are there to ensure the performance of a sport team in the international level. In order to make stronger the team, a nation or the sport management team has to enable a lot of models and regimes. Estimating the potential impact of the related factors on the sport management, organisation and delivery of sport is also important. Having an idea on the future facts always results in positive and saves from serious collapses.
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