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Types of knowledge (epistemology) and research approaches

Does your research attempt to prove through experiment, look for cause and effect (a positivist approach)

Does your research attempt to derive meaning of social interaction – eg from observation, interviews, stories (an interpretivist approach)

Do you start with a theory/ hypothesis and try to see if it is true in your research – this would be a deductive approach

Do you start with a general area of research and try to make sense of what emerges – this would be an inductive approach

Do you prioritise numerical techniques to investigate and present your findings; do you refer to ‘data’?, do you use large data samples which you attempt to make statistically significant?  – if so your research methods are probably quantitative

Do you rely upon non-numerical methods – eg in depth interviews which you attempt to code into themes, perhaps of a limited number of people; are you interested in opinions, attitudes, values of individuals – if so you may be conducting qualitative research.

You may be using any of a variety of specific methods – eg surveys, observations, interviews, case studies, experiments, reviewing existing documents, etc.

Research aim

The aim of the research is to analyze the impact of the working environment on employee performance.

Research objectives

The research objectives are

To understand the concept of working environment and employee performance

To identify the factors of working environment and employee performance of Tesco

To assess the association between working environment and employee performance for Tesco

To provide suitable recommendations for improving the working environment in Tesco

Research questions

The research questions are:

What do you mean by working environment and employee performance?

What are the factors affecting working environment and employee performance in Tesco?

What is the association between working environment and employee performance in Tesco?

What are the suitable recommendations for improving working environment in Tesco?

Research hypothesis

The formulated research hypothesis is:

H0: Working environment has no impact on employee performance

H1: Working environment has an impact on employee performance

Types of knowledge (epistemology) and research approaches

The employees form the backbone of the business organizations that determine the overall success. It is the hard work, effort, commitment and dedication of the employees that ensure organizational success. Thus, it is important for the business organizations to identify the need of the employees and fulfill them (Anitha 2014). There are various factors that affect the performance of the employees. Out of the various factors, the positive working environment is one of the most important factors that determine employee performance. The business organizations comprise of a diversified workforce that has employees of different background, culture, ethnicity, habits and behaviors. The diversified work force demands working environment that facilitates the performance of all the employees. This is because the combined effort and hard work of the employees determine the success of the business organizations (Karatepe 2013).

Identifying the factors that result in establishing positive working environment provides an opportunity for the business organizations to enhance the performance of the employees. This allows the business organizations to strengthen the commitment of the employees by providing them suitable working environment. As mentioned by Elnaga and Imran (2013), positive working environment results in employee satisfaction that has several benefits for the business organizations. It can be said that the satisfied employees are the most productive ones thereby, leading to improved performance of the organizations. In addition to, the positive working environment provides an opportunity for the business organizations sustain in the competitive environment. As the employees are satisfied due to the working environment, they tend to give their best towards their job roles and responsibilities (Cascio 2018). Thus, unable to provide suitable working environment hampers the performance of the employees thereby, resulting in potential threats and issues for the business organizations.

Tesco is a British multinational general merchandise and grocery company has expanded globally since its establishment. Welwyn Garden City, England, United Kingdom houses the head quarter of Tesco. Keeping in mind the revenue and profit, Tesco is considered as the third-largest grocery retail. Tesco has retail outlets all over Europe and Asia along with its presence in over 12 countries. The estimated employees of Tesco that are currently working is 4, 76,000. However, recently the performance of the employees of Tesco has been an issue due to the current working environment. This has resulted in deterioration of the performance of the employees. Thus, the research is commented in order to analyze the impact of positive working environment on the performance of employees (Tesco.com 2018).

Issues in terms of the working environment of Tesco have been identified that is affecting the performance of the employees. As a result, the overall performance of the organization has hampered. The employees spend almost 8 hours of their shift in the organization that has a diversified workforce. Thus, the business organization becomes a crucial part of their daily life thereby, having a huge impact on them (Singh, Winkel and Selvarajan 2013). In Tesco, lack of positive working environment has been noticed that has affected the performance of the employees. Tesco is a multinational business organization that has a diversified workforce. Lack of respect has been noticed among the present workforce in Tesco thereby, resulting in conflicts. The present employees of Tesco lack adequate respect towards each other due to their distinctive and varied ethnicity, background and habits. Another issue identified in Tesco in terms of the working environment is lack of cooperation and support for each other. As a result, the unity among the present work force of Tesco is highly questioned, as the performances of the employees are hampered. Lack of support, cooperation and respect among the work force of the employees of Tesco has hampered the performance of the employees. The employees do not communicate effectively as well as maintains distance from the fellow employees. It becomes difficult for the employees to handle and work effectively during their shift timings due to lack of positive working environment.

Research aim

It is important to analyze the impact of working environment on the performance of the employees, as the employees are the main resources of the business organizations. In accordance with the gap that has been identified for the working environment of Tesco and its impact on the performance of the employees of Tesco. The research is significant, as this will provide an opportunity for the researchers to analyze the potential reasons of lack of positive environment for the employees of Tesco. Thus, recognizing and addressing the potential reasons of appropriate working environment will also allow the researcher to access the relationship between the working environment and performance of the employees. Thus, it will be possible for the researcher to compare and contrast the performance of the employees with and without the presence of positive working environment.

Structure of the dissertation

Five main chapters mainly comprise the overall structure of the dissertation. The five chapters are introduction, literature review, research methodology, data analysis, conclusion and recommendations.

Introduction: This chapter is the introductory chapter that introduces the research topic in terms of the issue that will be investigated throughout the research. This chapter has the research aim and objectives based on which the research hypothesis is formulated. This chapter also mentions the purpose of conducting the research in terms of the selected organization.

Literature review: The researcher identifies the independent and dependent variables in this chapters followed by highlighting the concept of the variables. In addition to, this chapter analyzes critically the various factors of both the variables along with relevant theories and models.

Research methodology: This chapter highlights the varied methodological tools that can be used for carrying out the research. After mentioning the different methodological tools, the researcher states the selected methodology for this particular research along with justifying its selection.

Data analysis: This chapter analyzes the data that has been collected by the researcher by the application of particular data analysis techniques that is selected based on the research topic.

Conclusion and recommendations: In this last chapter the researcher deduces the conclusion that mentions the gap that has been identified and the significance of mitigating the gap by referring to the results derived from the previous chapter. The chapter also highlights the suitable recommendations for mitigating the identified gap.

In this chapter, it can be summarized that establishing and ensuring a positive working environment is essential for the business organizations in order to influence the performance of the employees. The employees are highly satisfied and motivated when they are provided with a positive and suitable working environment. This is because positive working environment results in higher rate of cooperation, support, respect and trust for each other in the existing work force. In accordance with the significance of working environment on employee performance, the chapter identifies the recent issue for Tesco and its impact. Additionally, the researcher has justified the importance of carrying out this research with respect to the performance of the employees of Tesco.

In this chapter, the researcher identifies the dependent and the independent variable that is followed by in-depth discussion. The in-depth discussion provided an opportunity for the researcher to develop the understanding of the variables and access the relationship with each other. In addition to, the researcher discusses the concept of both the variables along with analyzing critically the factors affecting both the variables. Also, the researcher refers to relevant theories that shed light on considering the varied factors that can help in establishing positive and suitable working environment for the employees thereby, improving the performance.

Research objectives

Work place is an integral part in the lives of the employees, as they spend the normal shift hours daily at workplace. Thus, the environment of place the employees work needs to be positive and efficient that facilitates them to work. As commented by Tehn et al. (2013), the working environment is defined as the place where the individuals work for the respective employer. However, as argued by Awan and Tahir (2015), the concept of working environment highlights the combination of the forces and actions that are developed by considering the maximum output from the employees. The above two definitions have been further criticized by Kumar et al. (2013), stating that the working environment mainly highlights three major components that include technical environment, organizational environment and the human environment.

The working environment is composed of diversified workforce due to which it is affected by different factors. The different factors that affect the working environment are job aids, support, cooperation, physical working environment, mutual trust, respect, performance feedback and the leadership and management style.

Job aids are defined as the tools provided to the employees for support in step-by-step manner that mentions the method and process of doing a particular task. As commented by Tims, Bakker and Derks (2014), the main purpose of job aids is to provide required guidance to the employees thereby, facilitating improved performance from the employees. Adequate job aids ensures positive working environment, as the employees get the assistance and guidance they require to complete their job roles and responsibilities. However, as argued by Platis, Reklitis and Zimeras (2015), apart from providing guidance and support, the job aids also aim to motivate the employees by ensuring that they have the ability to perform the tasks given to them. It is important for the business organizations and the management to develop and design the job aids for the employees appropriately so that the performance of the employees are improved. In this case, it has been seen that Tesco has been unable to develop and design job aids appropriately thereby, hampering the performance of the current employees.  

In addition to job aid that is provided by the management, support and cooperation from the fellow colleagues is also important in establishing positive working environment. As commented by Mowday, Porter and Steers (2013), support and cooperation from the fellow workers provide an opportunity to use each other's strength and cover the weaknesses. For instance, the strength of an employee can be used to cover up the weakness of another employee. However, as argued by Dane and Brummel (2014), support and coordination helps in improving the performance of the employees, as they are able to learn from each other. Thus, it gives rise to a friendly and supportive working environment that highlights each other’s support thereby, improving the performance of the employees. In addition to, supportive and cooperative attitude from the fellow workers results in greater employee engagement and commitment towards their job roles and responsibilities. Tesco has been unable to ensure cooperative and supportive nature from the employees thereby, hampering the employee performance.

Research questions

The physical working environment can result an employee to fit or misfit in the particular working environment. Thus, there are several factors of the physical working environment that results in effective performance of the employees. The factors affecting the physical working environment are floor configuration, lightning, office layout and layout of the furniture used in the office premises. As mentioned by Lee, Park and Lee (2013), the impact of physical working environment is crucial, as the visual appearance of the place they work tend to motivate them by satisfying their needs in terms of the place they work. For instance, if the employees are dissatisfied with their physical working environment it becomes stressful for the employees. Workplace becomes a burden for the employees, as they do not like the appearance and physicality of the place they work thereby, hampering their performance (Bakker and Demerouti 2014). Similar issue has been noticed in the case of Tesco where the physical nature of the working environment is not up to the mark of the employees.

The workplace is composed of diversified work force with employees of varied background, behavior, nature and ethnicity. Thus, it is important to have mutual respect and trust for each other in the working environment. As mentioned by Salin (2015), mutual respect and trust is essential, as this saves humiliation and conflict towards each other at workplace. Employees working together need to respect each other as individuals and as the community they belong. Being disrespectful and bias based on the background of the employees results in conflicts in the working environment. In addition to, it gives rise of negative working environment in terms of unhealthy competition and inadequate support for fellow employees thereby, hampering the performance of the employees. However, as criticized by Asadzadeh et al. (2013), mutual respect and trust helps in attracting and retaining talented employees thereby, gaining competitive advantage. However, it has been seen that Tesco has failed to develop a working environment that highlights mutual respect and trust that has hampered the performance of the employees.

Performance feedback

Interactive working environment also helps in improving the performance of the employees. As commented by Proctor and Van Zandt (2018), it is important for the managers and the supervisors to give feedback to the employees so that they can identify their faults and improve them accordingly. Feedback on the performance of the employees provides an opportunity for the employees to improve by taking necessary actions. However, as argued by Duffy (2016), feedback on the performance of the employees also helps in motivating them, as the feedbacks are provide based on their effort and hard work towards their job roles and responsibilities. Inadequate feedback results in lack of enthusiasm and urge among the employees thereby, hampering the performance of the employees. Similarly, lack of performance feedback in Tesco has resulted in establishment of negative working environment thereby, declination in the employee performance.

Management and leadership style

The management and leadership style plays a crucial role in developing a positive working environment thereby, improving the performance of the employees. As commented by Jayaweera (2015), effective leadership style allows the employees to have a clarity of the vision as well as following the appropriate vision for achieving the vision. In addition to, effective management also helps in establishing a positive working environment, as this helps the working environment to be organized. Effective leadership and management ensures adequate support and cooperation from the employers thereby, creating required enthusiasm and urge for the employees to work thereby, improving the performance (Kujawinska, Vogt and Wachowiak 2015). In this case, the gap in Tesco has been identified that highlights ineffective leadership styles and management thereby, compromising the performance of the employees.

Research hypothesis

The business organization can follow and implement Maslow’s hierarchy of needs for establishing a positive working environment for the employees thereby, deriving the best out of them. According to Cao et al. (2013), Maslow’s hierarchy of needs consider the various needs of the employees such as psychological, security, safety, social, esteem and self-actualization. The business organizations should aim towards fulfilling the needs of the employees starting from the bottom level of the needs that has been identified. The business organizations can establish a positive working environment by fulfilling the psychological needs of the employees such as job security, allowances and flexibility in the workplace. In addition to, making the employees feel safe and secured at their workplace also results in establishing positive working environment, as the employees can work without the fear of any accidents thereby, working freely (Jerome 2013). Furthermore, fulfilling the social and esteem needs of the employees in terms of self-respect and healthy working environment also helps in establishing the positive working environment thereby, influencing better and improved performance from the employees.

Hertzberg’s two factor theory highlights the factors that results in employee satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Thus, the considering the factors that results in employee satisfaction provides an opportunity for the business organizations to establish a positive working environment thereby, deriving the best out of the employees in terms of their performance. As mentioned by Alshmemri, Shahwan-Akl and Maude (2017), some factors in the working environment results in employee satisfaction that if absent results in employee dissatisfaction. According to the theory, the different factors that results in employee satisfaction might vary based on the characteristics of the individuals; however, respect is mandatory for all the employees. Thus, based on the theory, it can be said that one of main factor that the business organizations can consider is respect for establishing a positive working environment that affects their performance. The working environment is a diversified place that comprises of employees from different background and ethnicity. Therefore, having a mutual respect for each other in the working environment results in healthy bonding, support and cooperation thereby, affecting the performance of the employees directly (Yusoff, Kian and Idris 2013)

The performance of the employees is largely dependent on the willingness and broadness of the individual employees towards their job roles and responsibilities. The willingness and broadness of the individual employees results in maximizing the productivity of the employees due to improved performance. However, different studies have defined employee performance differently. According to Carter et al. (2013), the performance of the employees is defined as the result of their behavior. However, as argued by Elnaga and Imran (2013), the performance of the employees is defined as the action itself and not the result of the action or the consequence. However, it has been suggested by Reb, Narayanan and Chaturvedi (2014), that the performance of the employees can be improved by controlling the factors that helps in establishing positive working environment and influencing the behavior of the employees.

The personality and the characteristics of the individual employees differ largely thereby, resulting in different factors that affect their performance. The different factors that affect the performance of the employees are clarity of the goal, motivation, motivation, organizational culture and commitment.

Background on Tesco

It is important for the business organizations to align the employees with the organizational goals and objectives. As commented by AbuKhalifeh and Som (2013), having clarified goals allows the employees to strategize and plan the actions that need to be undertaken for achieving the required goals. However, as argued by Saeed et al. (2013), adequate support and guidance from the managers and the supervisors is necessary along with clarity in the goal. Adequate support and cooperation from the supervisors provides an opportunity for the employees to clarify their doubts and misunderstandings in the process of achieving the goals. As the employees have a deeper understanding of the goals, they tend to develop interest, urge and enthusiasm for working towards it and completing it successfully. As a result, improved employee performance is noticed. In this case, Tesco has been unable to ensure clarity in the goal thereby, hampering the performance.

Motivation is extremely crucial for the employees and their performance. The monotonous nature of the work tends to demotivate the employees thereby, hampering the performance. As commented by Njanja et al. (2013), motivating the employees results in boosting up the employees morale and self-esteem. As a result, the employee feel charged up and work effectively that is highlighted in their performance. The business organizations need to identify the factors that motivate the employees. Identifying the factors that motivate the employees’ results in improved performance as the employees enjoys their job roles and responsibilities. Tesco has been unable to motivate the employees appropriately that has hampered the performance of the employees.

Working environment

The working environment is a major factor in the lives of the employees, as they spend minimum 8 hours daily in that environment. Thus, having a appropriate working environment affects the performance of the employees largely. The various factors that help in establishing positive working environment are job aids, support, cooperation, mutual respect and trust. As mentioned by Muogbo (2013), a positive working environment results in healthy and friendly atmosphere for the employees. As a result, the employees tend to enjoy their work and shows greater level of urge, enthusiasm and dedication towards their job roles and responsibilities. In Tesco, lack of adequate working environment has been encountered thereby, hampering the performance of the employees.

Organizational culture and commitment

The culture and the commitment of the organization towards the employees largely affect the performance of the employees. As commented by Arifin (2014), the employees are the main resources and backbone of the business organizations, as they are the ones that represent the company in the market. As the employees give so much for the betterment of the business organizations, it is essential for the business organizations to value the employees. Thus, the culture of the business organization needs to align considering the employees thereby, showing higher level of organizational commitment for the employees. The current organizational culture and commitment of Tesco fails to satisfy the employees that affects their performance.

The working environment that encompasses different factors affects the way the employees perform their work. The working environment is a diversified place that consists of employees from different background and ethnicity. As commented by Epstein and Buhovac (2014), proper working environment results in greater enthusiasm, dedication and engagement from the employees towards their job roles and responsibilities thereby, deriving the best out of the employees. As the employees are satisfied with their working environment, they tend to take extra initiatives and dedicate more time thereby, improving organizational performance. Currently, Tesco has been unable to establish a positive working environment due to which the performances of the employees are compromised.

Issues with the working environment in Tesco

According to the nature of the workforce, it becomes difficult to ensure positive working environment that affects the performance of the employees. As commented by Wong and Laschinger (2013), it becomes difficult for the business organizations to identify the factors that helps in establishing a positive working environment based on the individual nature of the employees. As a result, it is not possible for the business organizations to create a working environment that fulfills the requirement of all the employees. However, as criticized by Bono et al. (2013), in spite of considering the factors that results the establishment of positive working environment, the attitude and nature of the employees affect the successful implementation of positive working environment.

In this chapter, it can be summarized that working environment plays a significant role in affecting the performance of the employees. The employees spend a majority of their time at the workplace and the working environment tends to have an impact on their performance. Adequate supports, cooperation, trust, respect and communication helps in improving the performance of the employees. The aforementioned factors allow the employees to show dedication, commitment and engagement thereby, improving their performance. The chapter highlights the gap that has been identified in terms of the working environment of Tesco thereby, hampering the performance of the employees.

This chapter sheds light on the various tools and methods that are used for carrying out the research works. Out of the various methods that are used for research, the researcher selects specific methods for this particular research. In addition to, the researcher also provides suitable reasons for choosing the particular method for this research. The use of appropriate research methodologies provides an opportunity for the researcher to complete the research successfully by implementing suitable research philosophies, approaches, designs, sampling techniques, data collection and analysis techniques. Furthermore, the researcher also mentions the ethics that are important to follow along with the issues faced in terms of accessibility while carrying out the research.

Based on the research topic, the researcher has chosen positivism philosophy, deductive approach and descriptive research design. In addition to, the researcher uses random probability sampling technique for selecting 100 employees of Tesco that took part in the survey in order to determine the impact of working environment on their performance. The use of survey justified the selection of primary data collection technique and quantitative data analysis technique. Thus, the particular research methodologies chosen by the researcher helped in analyzing the impact of working environment on the performance of the employees of Tesco.

The three most widely used research philosophies that have been used while commencing with research work are interpretivism, positivism and pragmatism research philosophy. The pragmatism philosophy has both the characteristics of positivism and interpretivism philosophy. The use of positivism philosophy allows the implementation of scientific approach and the interpretivism philosophy allows considering the viewpoints and perspectives of different authors (Neuman 2013).

The researcher has used positivism philosophy for this research. The use of positivism philosophy has been justified for this research, as this allowed the researcher to use scientific approach for analyzing the impact of positive working environment on the performance of the employees of Tesco. The use scientific approach ensured data accuracy and validity for the researcher. In addition to, the use of positivism philosophy allowed the researcher to make sure that the accuracy of the employees of Tesco is maintained when they share their viewpoint and perspectives. Referring to the scientific approach also allowed the researcher to justify the findings of the employees of Tesco by analyzing the impact of positive working environment on their performance by the application of statistical tools. The other two philosophies has not been used, as it would result in further complications thereby, hampering in finding the aim of the research and proving the hypothesis.

 Deductive and inductive approaches are the two most used research approaches while commencing with research works. In the case of inductive approach, the researcher has to develop new theories and concepts based on the observations that have been made (Taylor, Bogdan and DeVault 2015). However, on the contrary, in the case of deductive approach, the researcher has to refer to literatures, theories and concepts based on the research topic and the observations that have been made (Mackey and Gass 2015).  

In this case, the researcher has applied deductive approach. The use of deductive approach is justified for this research, as this allowed the researcher to refer to already existing literatures in respect to positive working environment and employee performance. In addition to, the use of deductive approach allowed the researcher to transform general information from already existing literatures to working environment and employee performance thereby, analyzing the impact on each other. The researcher has also been able to refer to theories and models in terms of establishing effective working environment and its impact on the performance of the employees of Tesco. In the case of inductive approach, as the researcher has to develop new theories and concepts based on the observations, aim of the researcher shifts from achieving the aim from developing theories. Thus, the use of deductive approach is justified, as the researcher is able to analyze the impact of positive working environment on employee performance by identifying the current gaps in Tesco.

Explanatory, exploratory and descriptive are the three research designs that are used by the researchers mostly while commencing with research work. The use of explanatory research design allows the researcher to explain the reasons of the presence of the specific phenomenon in the research whereas the researcher is able to explore the issues in the research by applying exploratory research design (Lewis 2015). Descriptive research design has both the characteristics of explanatory and exploratory research designs.

The researcher has used descriptive research design for this research. The use of descriptive research design is justified, as this allowed the researcher to explore the issues in terms of the present working environment of Tesco and its impact on the performance of the employees. In addition to, the use of descriptive research design allowed the researcher explains the potential reasons for the presence of particular phenomenon in the research. As a result, the researcher has been able to identify the potential reasons of the issues that have been identified in the working environment of Tesco and its impact on the performance of the employees.

Action research, case study, interview and survey are majorly used research strategies while commencing with research works. The use of case study research strategy allows the researcher refer to refer to similar research that has been conducted previously. Action research allows researcher to find the issues in the particular research (Vaioleti 2016). The use of interview allows personal communication between the researcher and the interviewee thereby, developing in-depth understanding of the situation. Survey allows data collection from an entire population and selecting the required numbers accordingly (Panneerselvam 2014).

 Survey has been chosen by the researcher in the case of this research. The use of survey has been justified, as this allowed the researcher to collect data from all the employees of Tesco. The use of survey research strategy allowed the researcher enabled the researcher to collect raw data from the selected organization and the participants. As a result, the researcher is able to consider large data sets for commencing the research thereby, reducing biases. The use of survey research strategy allowed the researcher to understand the viewpoint of the Tesco employees in terms of present working environment and developing methods of mitigating it in order to derive better employee performance.  

Out of the various probability techniques, random probability sampling technique and non-probability sampling are highly facilitated by the researcher while commencing with the research works. Random probability sampling technique allows equal opportunities for all the participants to be a part of the survey whereas in non-probability sampling technique the researcher selects the respondent based on the eligibility and suitability of the individual in respect to the research topic (Ledford and Gast 2018).

Random probability sampling technique has been used by the researcher for determining the impact of positive working environment on the performance of the employees of Tesco. The researcher has been able to select the entire population of the employees of Tesco that are currently working in order to determine the gap in terms of the current working environment of Tesco that is hampering their performance. As a result, the researcher has provided equal opportunities to all the employees of Tesco to be a part of the data collection technique and consider the current data for this research. Out of the current employee population of Tesco, the researcher has selected 100 employees of Tesco in order to determine the impact of working environment on the performance of the employees.

Both primary and secondary are used for for collecting data while commencing with research work. The researcher selects the data collection technique based on the research topic. The secondary data is collected from secondary resources such as books, journals, articles and other internet facilities. Thus, the researcher refers to data that is collected by someone else for justifying own findings (Smith 2015). On the other hand, primary data is collected by the researcher itself from the respondents selected for the particular research.

In this case, the researcher has used primary data collection technique. This allowed the researcher collect the data by his own from the employees of Tesco and determine the impact of positive working environment on the performance of the employees. The use of primary data collection technique has been justified as the researcher has been able to collect recent and raw data in large numbers in order to achieve the research aim and prove the formulated hypothesis, that is whether positive working environment has an impact or not on the performance of the employees thereby, aligning it with the current gap that has been identified in terms of Tesco.

Both qualitative and quantitative data analysis techniques are used by the researchers for carrying on a research (Choy 2014). The researcher selects the data analysis technique based on the data collection technique that has been selected.

 In this case, the researcher has used quantitative data analysis technique. The use of quantitative data collection technique is rationalized, as this allowed the researcher to consider the response of the employees in terms of the numbers. Thus, the researcher has been able to determine the importance of positive working environment in terms of considering the number of employees that agree with the significance of it is affecting their performance. The researcher has used SPSS tool for analyzing the quantitative data.

Abiding by the ethical considerations of the research determines the successful completion of the research work. One of the most important research ethics is to maintain and ensure data confidentiality. The researcher has to ensure that the collected data and the identity of the participants are kept confidential and cannot be disclosed without their consent (Battiste 2016). In addition to data confidentiality, the researchers are strictly prohibited to make forceful participation. Thus, signing the consent forms by the survey participants is one of the methods that ensure the willing participation of the respondents. Apart from the above-mentioned research ethics, it is important for the researcher to collect data from authentic resources. Data manipulation is strictly prohibited while carrying on a research. The researcher has to present the data that has been gathered and support the findings with relevant information and data. The researcher has to ensure that the information collected has to be used only for academic purposes (Faden et al. 2013).

The researcher encountered some issues in terms of accessibility of while commencing with this research work. As the data collection technique used close-ended survey questions, the respondents were unable to share their viewpoints and perspectives completely. They had to select the options given to them due to which some of the answers were similar but not exactly what the employees wanted to say. In addition to, another accessibility issue found in terms of the research topic is lack of updated information. Recently, research has not been done that analyzes the impact of positive working environment on the employee performance due to which the researcher had to use the information that has been available previously and relate it with the topic accordingly.

Thus, in this chapter, it can be summarized that the researcher has been successful in giving suitable reasons for choosing the particular methods for commencing this particular research and complete it successfully. As a result, the researcher has been able to analyze the impact of positive working environment on the employee performance by considering the present working environment and employee performance of Tesco. In addition to, the researcher has been able to address the gaps that have been identified in the previous chapters and find potential reasons and solutions of the gaps.

What is your gender specification? * Does checklist affect your performance? Cross tabulation

Count

Does checklist affect your performance?

Total

Strongly agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly disagree

What is your gender specification?

Male

6

16

2

3

1

28

Female

24

43

3

2

0

72

Total

30

59

5

5

1

100

Chi-Square Tests

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

6.443a

4

.168

Likelihood Ratio

6.143

4

.189

Linear-by-Linear Association

5.486

1

.019

N of Valid Cases

100

a. 6 cells (60.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .28.

The Chi-Square test helps in determining the dependent and the independent variable in a statistical manner. The result of the above test has come to be .168 whereas the minimum value of the test has to be .28. This shows that there is no statistical significance between the gender of the participants and the checklist that helps in increasing their performance level. It can be stated that both the gender agrees to the fact that the use of checklist helps in increasing their performance level.

What is your gender specification? * Does an individual difference affect your performance? Cross tabulation

Count

Does an individual difference affect your performance?

Total

Strongly agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly disagree

What is your gender specification?

Male

4

16

2

4

2

28

Female

14

52

3

1

2

72

Total

18

68

5

5

4

100

Chi-Square Tests

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

8.996a

4

.061

Likelihood Ratio

8.041

4

.090

Linear-by-Linear Association

5.644

1

.018

N of Valid Cases

100

a. 6 cells (60.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.12.

The result of the test has come to be .061 whereas the minimum result of the test had to be 1.12. This shows that there is no statistical significance between the gender of the employees and their personal differences that may affect their level of performance in the company. Thus it can be stated that most of the employees have agreed to the fact that the individual differences in dealing with the customers affect their level of performance in the company as well.

What is your gender specification? * Does tactfulness have an impact on your performance? Cross tabulation

Count

Does tactfulness have an impact on your performance?

Total

Strongly agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly disagree

What is your gender specification?

Male

7

13

2

5

1

28

Female

31

33

4

3

1

72

Total

38

46

6

8

2

100

Chi-Square Tests

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

7.019a

4

.135

Likelihood Ratio

6.511

4

.164

Linear-by-Linear Association

6.159

1

.013

N of Valid Cases

100

a. 5 cells (50.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .56.

The result of the test has come to be .135 whereas the minimum value of the test has to be .56. This shows that there is a statistical significance between the gender of the employees and that of the level of tactfulness that they show in the organization, which helps in increasing their level of performance. Thus it can be stated that most of the female employees are of the opinion that they have better results in the organization due to the tactfulness that they show while dealing with the customers.

What is your gender specification? * Does the language given in the feedback affect your performance? Cross tabulation

Count

Does the language given in the feedback affect your performance?

Total

Strongly agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly disagree

What is your gender specification?

Male

12

7

1

5

3

28

Female

35

30

3

2

2

72

Total

47

37

4

7

5

100

Chi-Square Tests

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

10.762a

4

.029

Likelihood Ratio

9.691

4

.046

Linear-by-Linear Association

5.717

1

.017

N of Valid Cases

100

a. 5 cells (50.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 1.12.

The result of the Chi-Square test has come to be .029 whereas the minimum value of the test has to be 1.12. This shows that there is no statistical significance between the gender of the employees and that of the language that is used by the customers in giving the feedbacks. Thus it can be stated that both the gender that is male and female employees are of the view that the language used by the customers in the process of feedback helps in improving their level of performance to a great extent.

Which age group do you belong to? * Do diagrams affect your performance? Cross tabulation

Count

Do diagrams affect your performance?

Total

Strongly agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly disagree

Which age group do you belong to?

18-22 years

8

2

1

0

0

11

23-26 years

17

16

0

5

1

39

27-31 years

21

19

2

2

2

46

32 years and above

2

2

0

0

0

4

Total

48

39

3

7

3

100

Chi-Square Tests

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

10.147a

12

.603

Likelihood Ratio

12.190

12

.431

Linear-by-Linear Association

.215

1

.643

N of Valid Cases

100

a. 15 cells (75.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .12.

The result of the test has come to be .603 whereas the minimum value of the test had to be .12. This shows that there is statistical significance between the dependent and the independent variable. Thus it can be stated that the employees belonging to 27-31 years of age will benefit from the diagrams that are being used to illustrate their jobs and responsibilities within the organization.

Which age group do you belong to? * Do situational factors affect your performance? Cross tabulation

Count

Do situational factors affect your performance?

Total

Strongly agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly disagree

Which age group do you belong to?

18-22 years

8

2

1

0

0

11

23-26 years

22

10

0

4

3

39

27-31 years

29

11

2

1

3

46

32 years and above

3

1

0

0

0

4

Total

62

24

3

5

6

100

Chi-Square Tests

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

8.394a

12

.754

Likelihood Ratio

10.495

12

.573

Linear-by-Linear Association

.039

1

.843

N of Valid Cases

100

a. 15 cells (75.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .12.

The result of the test has come to be .754 whereas the minimum value of the test had to be .12. This shows that there is a statistical significance between the age group of the employees and the situational factors that help them in increasing their level of performance. Thus it can be stated that the employees belonging to 27-31 years of age relies on the situational factors that helps them in increasing their level of performance.

Which age group do you belong to? * Does motivation affect your performance? Cross tabulation

Count

Does motivation affect your performance?

Total

Strongly agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly disagree

Which age group do you belong to?

18-22 years

7

3

0

1

0

11

23-26 years

20

11

1

2

5

39

27-31 years

26

14

4

1

1

46

32 years and above

3

1

0

0

0

4

Total

56

29

5

4

6

100

Chi-Square Tests

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

9.500a

12

.660

Likelihood Ratio

10.650

12

.559

Linear-by-Linear Association

.765

1

.382

N of Valid Cases

100

a. 15 cells (75.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .16.

The result of the test has come to be .660 whereas the minimum value of the test had to be .16. This shows that there is a statistical significance between the age of the employees and the motivational factors that help in increasing their level of performance. Thus it can be stated that employees who belong to the age group between 27-31 years feels that keeping them motivated in the work place will result in increasing their level of performance.

How long have you been working in Tesco? * Does store lighting affect your performance? Cross tabulation

Count

Does store lighting affect your performance?

Total

Strongly agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly disagree

How long have you been working in Tesco?

0-2 years

8

2

1

1

0

12

3-5 years

16

11

2

1

3

33

6-9 years

22

15

1

5

2

45

10 years and above

9

1

0

0

0

10

Total

55

29

4

7

5

100

Chi-Square Tests

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

11.925a

12

.452

Likelihood Ratio

13.987

12

.302

Linear-by-Linear Association

.454

1

.500

N of Valid Cases

100

a. 14 cells (70.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .40.

The result of the test has come to be .452 whereas the minimum value of the test that was expected had to be .40. This shows that there is a statistical significance between the age of the age of the employees and the factor of lighting that will help in increasing their level of performance. Thus it can be stated that the employees between the ages of 27-31 years of age have agreed to the fact that the use of the correct lighting techniques will help in increasing their level of performance, as they can explain the customers the details about the product as well.

How long have you been working in Tesco? * Does congeniality have an impact on your performance? Cross tabulation

Count

Does congeniality have an impact on your performance?

Total

Strongly agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly disagree

How long have you been working in Tesco?

0-2 years

7

4

1

0

0

12

3-5 years

14

13

1

1

4

33

6-9 years

19

18

3

4

1

45

10 years and above

8

2

0

0

0

10

Total

48

37

5

5

5

100

Chi-Square Tests

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

13.044a

12

.366

Likelihood Ratio

14.523

12

.269

Linear-by-Linear Association

.373

1

.541

N of Valid Cases

100

a. 15 cells (75.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .50.

The result of the test has come to be .366 whereas the minimum value of the test had to be .50. This shows that there is no statistical association between the work experience of the employees and the congeniality that is present among them that affects the level of performance in the organization. Thus it can be stated that employees who have an experience of 6-9 years think that friendliness with other employees help in increasing their level of performance.

How long have you been working in Tesco? * Does the biasness affect your performance? Cross tabulation

Count

Does the biasness affect your performance?

Total

Strongly agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly disagree

How long have you been working in Tesco?

0-2 years

3

7

1

1

0

12

3-5 years

13

14

1

2

3

33

6-9 years

13

24

2

4

2

45

10 years and above

1

9

0

0

0

10

Total

30

54

4

7

5

100

Chi-Square Tests

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

9.984a

12

.617

Likelihood Ratio

11.868

12

.456

Linear-by-Linear Association

.005

1

.945

N of Valid Cases

100

a. 14 cells (70.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .40.

The result of the test has come to be .617 whereas the minimum value that was expected from the test had to be .40. This shows that there is a statistical association between the experience of the employees and the level of biasness that is shown towards them affects their level of performance. Thus it can be stated that employees who have an experience of 6-9 years have stated that biasness towards the customers has helped them in increasing their level of performance.

How long have you been working in Tesco? * Does positive working environment has an impact on your performance? Cross tabulation

Count

Does positive working environment has an impact on your performance?

Total

Strongly agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly disagree

How long have you been working in Tesco?

0-2 years

7

3

0

1

1

12

3-5 years

20

8

1

3

1

33

6-9 years

29

9

2

2

3

45

10 years and above

6

4

0

0

0

10

Total

62

24

3

6

5

100

Chi-Square Tests

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

5.120a

12

.954

Likelihood Ratio

6.585

12

.884

Linear-by-Linear Association

.575

1

.448

N of Valid Cases

100

a. 14 cells (70.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .30.

The result of the test has come to be .954 whereas the minimum value of the test had to be .30. This shows that there is a statistical significance between the experience of the employees and the positive nature of the working environment. Thus it can be stated that the employees who have an experience of 6-9 years have stated that the working environment within the organization is positive in nature that has helped them in increasing the level of performance.

How long have you been working in Tesco? * Does the culture and commitment of the organization affect your performance? Crosstabulation

Count

Does the culture and commitment of the organization affect your performance?

Total

Strongly agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly disagree

How long have you been working in Tesco?

0-2 years

8

2

1

0

1

12

3-5 years

17

10

1

1

4

33

6-9 years

19

18

2

2

4

45

10 years and above

7

3

0

0

0

10

Total

51

33

4

3

9

100

Chi-Square Tests

Value

df

Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square

7.005a

12

.857

Likelihood Ratio

8.855

12

.715

Linear-by-Linear Association

.126

1

.723

N of Valid Cases

100

a. 14 cells (70.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .30.

The result of the test has come to be .857 whereas the minimum value of the test had to be .30. This shows that there is a statistical association between the culture and commitment that the employees have towards the organization with that of the work experience. Thus it can be stated that the employees who have an experience of 6-9 years within the organization are more committed towards the organization, which has helped them in increasing their level of performance.

Conclusion and recommendation

From the above chapters, it can be concluded that positive working environment has an impact on the performance of the employees. It can be seen that Tesco has been unable to provide positive working environment to the employees that is hampering their performance. The employees at Tesco have not been receiving job aids, cooperation, support, mutual trust, respect, management and leadership and adequate performance feedback in terms of appraisal and acknowledgement. As a result, the performance of the employees in Tesco is deteriorating thereby, affecting the overall business and customer base. The employees regardless of their age, gender and duration of being employed with Tesco have agreed that the company has been unsuccessful in providing suitable working environment due to which their performance is hampered. For instance, the data analysis highlights that lack of suitable working environment in terms of increased individual differences due to minimized mutual trust and respect is affecting the behavior of the employees with the customers thereby, affecting the business and customer satisfaction.

On the other hand, another gap that has been identified that affects the performance of the employees of Tesco is lack of motivation due to lack of suitable leadership and management. Customer service is a tedious job, as the employees has to handle customers with varied requirements and is expected to fulfill them. In order to serve the customers the best the employees in Tesco requires adequate motivation that is inadequately found in Tesco. Thus, it can be said that positive working environment has an impact on the performance of the employees and Tesco needs to find suitable strategies to mitigate the gap in terms of working environment.

Objective 1: To understand the concept of working environment and employee performance

Literature review section 2.2 and 2.5 highlights the concept of working environment and employee performance. Both the sections discuss the significance in order to conduct business successfully and sustain in the competitive market by serving the best to the customers. In addition to, survey questions on the independent and the dependent variable highlights that positive working environment helps in enhancing the performance of the employees. Thus, it is important for Tesco to understand the gaps in terms of the working environment and provide it to the employees in order to achieve better performance.

Objective 2: To identify the factors of working environment and employee performance of Tesco

Literature review section and 2.3 and 2.6 critically analyzes the different factors that have an impact on the working environment and the performance of the employees. From the information gathered from the literature review it can be said that most of the factors has an impact on the performance of the employees. But the factors various from employees to employees, as the factors vary based on the individuality of the employees. The survey questions also highlight the various working environment factors that affect the performance of the employees.

Objective 3: To assess the association between working environment and employee performance for Tesco

Literature review section 2.7 highlights the association and relationship between working environment and employee performance. The information provided in this section highlights and critically analyzes the relationship between working environment and the performance of the employees. In addition to, the survey questions in the data analysis section also shed light on the positive and significant relationship between working environment and performance of the employees.

Objective 4: To provide suitable recommendations for improving the working environment in Tesco

Literature review section 2.8 highlights the potential issues that are encountered while aiming towards developing suitable and positive working environment for the employees to work. Based on the identified gaps in terms of the working environment, the below section provides suitable recommendations so that the performance of the employees of Tesco can be improved.

Based on the identified gaps, the suitable recommendations for providing suitable and positive working environment for the employees of Tesco are listed below:

Leadership and management: Tesco needs to ensure effective leadership and management skills with the aim of leading the employees in the right tract by eradicating their issues along with providing them suitable guidance and fulfilling their needs.

Higher level of communication between the employees: Tesco needs to emphasize on establishing higher level of communication between the employees. This will help in developing higher level of mutual trust and respect thereby, creating a suitable and positive working environment thereby, improving the performance of the employees of Tesco.

Meetings at regular intervals: The managers and the supervisors need to meet with the employees at regular intervals. This will provide an opportunity for the managers and the supervisors to identify and understand the issues in terms of the working environment that is encountered by the employees and developing suitable strategies for mitigating them.

In the future study can be conducted with the aim of determining other factors that has an impact on the performance of the employees. The researcher has narrowed down the research topic by considering only one factor that is, working environment that affects the performance of the employees.

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