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Evaluation and impact of decisions of UNFCCC Meeting

Critically evaluate the impact of decisions from any one of the UNFCCC Meetings.


Discuss Conference of Parties on the energy policy of any oil producing country.

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was set up in the year 1992 by all the countries to monitor   the climate of the world. The International Treaty was signed by all the countries to fight the climatic change and promised the world to reduce global temperature. Impacts of increase in global average temperature were a challenge all over the world. In 1995, Kyoto Protocol was launched by countries to increase the response of global change. The primary focus was on the developed countries to reduce emission targets. In Kyoto protocol, there are 1962 parties and in Convention party strength is 196. Kyoto Protocol started in 2008 and was completed by 2012.

Paris agreement was introduced on 12th December 2015. The primary objective of the accord is evolving latest steps to control the climatic change. The motto of Paris agreement is to accelerate the steps to reduce carbon emission. UNFC is aiming to keep the global temperature rise to two degrees (Adamo 2015).

United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) 2015 was held in Paris on 12th December 2015. Different types of issues were discussed at this meeting. Agenda of the meeting in short are sustainable development in 2030, adoption of Sendai Framework and adidas ababa action agenda. Change of climate is a severe threat to human societies, and it should not be neglected. All the countries should take steps to prevent degradation of the atmosphere and should also look for less emission of greenhouse gases. Human health is also taken into consideration and according to that less carbon should be emitted to the atmosphere. UNFCCC also had a detailed discussion on rights of human, health of people and problems faced by the disabled person (Åström et al. 2013).

Harmful Gases which are being released in the atmosphere are also affecting the temperature of the global environment. There is also an immediate need for provision for finance technology and capacity building of all the countries. Sustainable energy is highly needed in less developed countries like Africa and some parts of South America. Establishment of Ad hoc working group to enter into the workforce group is required. Ad hoc group should also report to Conference of parties to complete the first session of the agreement. This group should also prepare drafts for the Conference of Parties (COP).

Energy policy of oil-producing company

Parties were invited to take part in ratification and approval of Paris agreement. Technology should be upgraded and should meet the human demands. Importance is also given to financial resources which include appropriate result based payments, new policy implementations and pressure is kept on reducing emissions. Forest is needed to be conserved and should be properly looked after. Sustainable policies should be implied to prevent forest degradations. Programs should also be taken of non-carbon benefits in the atmosphere. The relevant decision was taken by COP to serve the Kyoto Protocol (Böhmelt 2013).

Technology should be updated in supporting research and development. Assessment is also required before application of technology because feasibility is needed. The aim of capacity building in developing countries is to address the gap between current and emerging trends. Capacity building will also manage the oversee work. Capacity gaps needed to be found out and work accordingly. Tools and methods needed to promote capacity building. Identifying challenges and good practices are required slowly. Developing countries finding out building ownership and is managing space and time. Knowledge is needed to be updated and always at par (Boyd 2012).

A term of capacity building is very high and includes a comprehensive review. Education training and public awareness are adequately required. There is a great need for global environment facility, and voluntary contribution is necessary to support global environment facility (Scott 2014).

The primary focus of the meeting is to climatic change and it been termed as “THE EMISSION ZERO GLOBAL”. Climates have changed drastically over the last few decades, and one of the reason is carbon emission. Global warming has increased and every type of weather degradation being discussed here.  In this meeting discussion of extreme weather events have been done which included environmental events like snowfall, hail in tropics, flood and many more. Heavy snow is hampering the normal flow of life of the human beings in the Antarctic regions. Cars and roads are being buried by snow. Temperature is increasing all over the world which leads to flood claiming thousands of lives. House of people are being flooded, and there is no food, and all is under water.  Droughts are also an important part of climate change. Everywhere there is heat and no food. Smokers are also a part of emission of carbon in the atmosphere. Wildfire is also increasing day by day. Epidemics are also spreading which claims the life of human and animals hugely. Bacteria and parasites are also increasing because of climate change. Super storms are also claiming lives and all these things are being discussed only. Steps were not taken and time has come to take necessary steps (Camp 2014).

Many of the developed countries are not following the rules and regulation and is not co-operating. So a binding treaty is required to be introduced. Detailed research has been done by the experts before the introduction of this agreement. Before coming to treaty Managing Director of Be Green Forestry Pong path, Kajornphuwapong said he want to put light on something special. Two decades were taken to develop miracle tree to protect climate change. The name given was miracle tree because it cannot be described. These trees were planted in the tropical climate and within two years it had a width of seventy-seven cms, fifteen metres high and weight of one pound. These trees draw nutrients, water and vitamins from the soil for their livings. After photosynthesis, these trees make the soil fertile for release of chemical substances. These trees prevent landslide and erosion of soil. Seeds of the tree are also well preserved in boxes for future use. Name of the tree was given to their last name as kajornphuwapong tree. These trees are made up of softwood, have straight cylindrical trunks and are self-pruning. As these trees are self-pruning, the lower branches help to grow a new tree and these help in forest development. These trees protect soil erosion through the evaporating water to ground. In these trees, water goes up during the day and comes down in the night. Along with all these the tree also absorbs a high amount of carbon. This tree also filled up the environment with a lot of oxygen than other trees. Depleted soils can also be converted into rich one within a short limit of time (Gaffney and Lahel 2013).

In this project renewable energy is used, and this helps in opening of a new job. Renewable fossil fuel companies can benefit both the environment and the company. Managed forest is also require beside natural forest. Local people will also be benefitted by having a new job. Income will be increased and will reduce inequalities. Bioenergy can also be generated, and there will be a reduction of carbon. Plantation of the trees will also create a new economy of about 3.21 billion. Gradually it will be spread all over the world and scope of having renewable energy. These in short are outcomes of UNFCCC meeting in Paris 2015 (Lesniewska 2013).

Energy policy of Venezuela has been discussed by the author. In the western hemisphere, Venezuela has the largest reserve of oil and also the second leader in natural gas. Venezuela also has the non-conventional oil deposits. Non-conventional oil deposits consist of crude oil, tar sands and bitumen. Venezuela also holds the top most rank in hydroelectric power production and supply it to a majority of the world (Neeff 2013).

Oil industry of Venezuela was nationalized in the year 1975. PdVSA is one of the largest employers in the country, and it contributes one third of the country’s GDP. The policy also changed with the introduction of a new system in 1990.  Name of the new policy is Apertura Petrolera. This also helped Venezuela to open up links with different foreign countries and it companies like BP, Chevron and many others. In 2001, a new hydrocarbon law was amended which overpowered the law of 1943. The oil companies were nationalized in 2007 and were forced to sign an agreement. Companies failing to sign the agreement were immediately taken over by PdVSA. However as years are passing on PdVSA is wakened up, and many of the nations boost energy supply (Omgba 2014).

Oil: Venezuela is one of the countries which is rich in oil production. They have maintained this quality over the century producing more than one sixty million tons which contribute to about 4% of the world production. Venezuela holds the seventh position in oil production and also dominating in oil export. It is also leading to petroleum reserve with near about 300 billion barrels (Schneider and Lazarus 2015).

Natural gas: Venezuela is the top rank holder in natural gas production and eighth largest in the world.  The production amounts to about 5.5 trillion cubic meters. There is a problem in transport and distribution channel of natural gas in the country. This is creating a problem for the maximum use of the resources. However, the maximum percentage of domestic gas is being used by the industry of petroleum. Renewable of the natural gas is playing an important part, and about thirty percentage of natural gas is again put back to the main reservoir. Plans are also taken by the different private producer to redevelop power plants (Parker et al. 2015).

Tar sands and heavy oils:

Near about 1200 billion barrels of tar sands being produced. Technology is playing an important part to provide it (Sprinks 2012).

Coal: Coal, which is mainly produced in Venezuela, is bituminous coal. This coal is mainly being exported to Latin America and Europe. Production is mainly done by Carbouzilla, which is a former part of PdVSA and controlled by states of Venezuela. The primary production of coal is from Guasare Basin located in Colombian border. Production of coal is near about 9.5 million short tons. There has also been a plan to develop the coal industry by the railway line construction. These railway lines make a mode of communication between the coal mines and new ports (Reinecke et al. 2014).

Electricity: The Main source of electricity is hydropower and accounts to near about 71%and production of 320TWh per annum has been noticed. Production of hydroelectricity is mainly done in Caroni River. Mainly production is done in four different dams in Venezuela. Guri dam generates near about ten thousand megawatts and third largest in the world. CVG Electrification is the largest state owned power companies and also a subsidiary of a mining company. The system of power transmission is mainly operated by EDELCA and CADAFE (Reza and Polytechnique 2015).

The environment is also a part to look after. Emission of different types of waste product is harming the environment. Carbon is being emitted at a huge rate. Daily production of oil is creating a severe pollution in Caribbean coast. Different lakes and water bodies are also being affected. Steps are taken monitor it. New technologies are also being introduced to prevent degradation of the environment (Jamaledin and Azar 2014).

Conclusion

Different topics have been discussed in above writings. It has been found United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) looks after the climate of the world. They look after the carbon emission, global warming and also other issues. In this writing, meeting of UNFCCC which has been held in Paris 2015 climatic change has been the most important part. The environmental degradation which has been taking place all over the world is the main issue. The cause of different natural disasters is being talked upon. Human beings are trying to find out a way to fight this disaster. Mr. Pongpath Kajornphuwapong has invented a tree which he named after his name and said it will protect the world. In another, part energy policy of Venezuela is being discussed. The volume of production of natural resources, its development and how to prevent the atmosphere from degradation is clearly being considered.

References

Adamo, S.B. 2015, "About mitigation, adaptation and the UNFCCC’s 21st Conference of the Parties", Revista Brasileira de Estudos de População, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 609-618.

Åström, S., Tohka, A., Bak, J., Lindblad, M. & Arnell, J. 2013, "Potential impact on air pollution from ambitious national CO2 emission abatement strategies in the Nordic countries – environmental links between the UNFCCC and the UNECE – CLRTAP", Energy Policy, vol. 53, pp. 114-124.

Böhmelt, T. 2013;2012;, "A closer look at the information provision rationale: Civil society participation in states’ delegations at the UNFCCC", The Review of International Organizations, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 55-80.

Boyd, A. 2012, "Informing international UNFCCC technology mechanisms from the ground up: Using biogas technology in South Africa as a case study to evaluate the usefulness of potential elements of an international technology agreement in the UNFCCC negotiations process", Energy Policy, vol. 51, pp. 301-311.

Camp, E.C. 2014, "Oil and gas law", Texas Tech Law Review, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 827.

Gaffney, J. & Lahel, A. 2013, "Political Performance and Leadership Persona: The UK Labour Party Conference of 2012", Government and Opposition, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 481.

Lesniewska, F. 2013, "UNFCCC REDD+ COP Decisions: The Cumulative Effect on Forest Related Law Processes",International Community Law Review, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 103-121.

Neeff, T. 2013, "How many will attend Paris? UNFCCC COP participation patterns 1995-2015", Environmental Science and Policy, vol. 31, pp. 157.

Omgba, L.D. 2014, "Institutional foundations of export diversification patterns in oil-producing countries", Journal of Comparative Economics, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 1052-1064.

Parker, C.F., Karlsson, C., Hjerpe, M., Tema Miljöförändring, Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning & Filosofiska fakulteten 2015, "Climate change leaders and followers: Leadership recognition and selection in the UNFCCC negotiations", International Relations, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 434-454.

Reinecke, S., Pistorius, T. & Pregernig, M. 2014, "UNFCCC and the REDD+ Partnership from a networked governance perspective", Environmental Science & Policy, vol. 35, pp. 30-39.

Reza Mirnezami, S. & Polytechnique Montreal, C.P. 6079, City-Center Branch, Montreal (QC) Canada H3C 3A7 2015, "Do Oil-Producing Countries Have Normal Oil Overconsumption? An Investigation of Economic Growth and Energy Subsidies", AIMS Energy, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 267-283.

S Jamaledin Mohseni Zonouzi, Mansourfar, G. & Azar, F.B. 2014, "Benefits of international portfolio diversification: Implication of the Middle Eastern oil-producing countries",International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 457.

Schneider, L., Kollmuss, A. & Lazarus, M. 2015, "Addressing the risk of double counting emission reductions under the UNFCCC", Climatic Change, vol. 131, no. 4, pp. 473-486.

Scott, S.V. 2014;2015;, "Does the UNFCCC Fulfil the Functions Required of a Framework Convention? Why Abandoning the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change Might Constitute a Long Overdue Step Forward", Journal of Environmental Law, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 69.

Sprinks, J. 2012, "Burnham highlights extent of privatisation in primary care.(Labour Party's health spokesperson Andy Burnham)(Labour Party Conference News)", Nursing Standard, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 11.

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