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Research objectives

Research Proposal

 You have just been appointed to the Research Department of a large technology company and you have been assigned the roll of identifying a possible product, or service, or area of technology, which could be developed in the future. This could be an entirely new area or an enhancement of existing areas. This will require you to research into the viability of developing such a product or service and, as such, you will be required to undertake the initial stages of this research. The first stage is identifying the research area. This is probably the most difficult stage as it involves identifying an appropriate area. I suggest that you think of a couple of areas and discuss these with your tutor who will be able to advise you. The next stage is a study of work that has already been undertaken in your chosen area and the record of this previous work will be found in books, published research papers and published articles. The next stage will be identifying what books and publications are most applicable to the work undertaken in your research area. This will form your literature identification. The final stage will be an in-depth study of your chosen literature and the writing a literature review. I suggest that you look at literature reviews from published papers in order to see how you might construct yours.

 The technology companies used for this exercise are: Apple, Google, Microsoft or IBM. You have the choice of which company you would like to work for but it must be from one of the above. The choice of the research topic is entirely up to you. I suggest that you undertake a review of the products and services each of these companies offers and this should give you some idea for a research topic.

The research proposal will contain three separate assignments but all relating to the same topic. Each assignment must be submitted through Turn-it

 Research Area and Purpose of the Research

 In discussing the area and purpose of your research you should answer the following questions.

  1. What type of research area are you undertaking, Development, Product, Service, Area of technology, Etc?
  2. What will you produce?
  3. What are the benefits of this research project?

The report should be appropriately formatted with a Title and sections relating to the above: Type of Research, Product, Benefits.

This report must also be supported by two quality references. The first reference must be a quality journal; the other reference must be subject to peer review or editorial scrutiny. This means that un-reviewed sources like personal blogs, or personal websites can’t be used. 

 Literature Identification

 This assignment will require you to find at least 10 quality publications to support your research proposal submitted as assignment 1. Two of these must be the publications used for assignment 1. A further 2 publications must be journal papers and the remaining 6 publications can be: Journal Papers, Conference Papers, Trade Articles, White papers, Book Chapters, Blogs or other web based material relevant to your project. When assessing this assignment, assessors will be looking for the quality of the publications chosen. Publications in well-known journals, less than 6 years old, will receive the highest marks; little known blogs will receive the very lowest marks; chapters in known books would be somewhere in the middle.

Title:  This is the title of the publication

Summary: Give a brief summary of its contents, explain the main points that it makes and why       this is relevant to your project.

 Rating: How would you rate the publication and why

Literature Review 

This assignment is to review the literature relevant to your research and produce a report.

Research objectives

In the world of technology, iphone is one revolutionary product that has caught eyes of millions of tech-savvy individuals all around the world. Apple’s iphone series, which is regarded as world’s most luxurious and powerful personal device is recently facing mass outage of services regarding their App stores, iCloud, Apple TV and iTunes. It has been found that the organization has come to know lately that their online stores are crashing down majorly as their users are not having easy access of the firms of iTunes and the App stores. The following paper is to going to identify a particular area of an organization that can be developed in the near future. Therefore, the aim of the following study is to recognize a particular problem that a specific organization is facing and to understand whether improvement in that field of problem would positively add value to the organization’s success or not. For the above defined purpose, the paper has considered the recent technical error of Apple.

The objectives of the research are therefore as follow –

  • To understand the technical issue of Apple
  • To identify the need of improvement in the technical field of Apple
  • To recognize whether the improvement in the technical field would help to add sufficient value to the business of Apple or not 

In the world of technical advancement and innovation, Apple is a dominant name and it is probably dream of every tech-savvy individual to own a personal device from the organization. Therefore, for a world-renowned organization like Apple, massive technical failure would not be a mere matter of ignorance. Multiple store services of Apple have began to experience the technical issue of out wage affecting the iOS, Mac App stores, Apple TV, iCloud, iTunes and many more other applications ( 2016). It has been identified that the authority of Apple has finally apologized about the emerging problem on the organization’s system status webpage. In the mean time, it has been identified that the massacre has already affected a huge number of people negatively ( 2017). The study of identifying the need of serious improvement in the technical premise of Apple would be therefore significant as well relevant for establishing the fact that technical advancement and effectiveness is a potential element that adds value to service. Moreover, for the future researchers who would work in the same topic, the present study could prove helpful.     

Research area and purpose of the research

Research area

The research area of the current paper would be the area of technology and the considered organization for the purpose of the paper would be Apple. More precisely, the research area of the paper would focus on the technical problem of Apple that the organization is facing currently. For an organization like Apple, the most prominent way to retain customers and keep their brand value is to provide most convenient technical service to the customers. The present issue of technical outage that has began before 4PM ET, has not been resolved till now (Page 2015). Most importantly, this is the second time that the organization is facing the issue of outage. Due to the outage, the users could not get access to purchase or update various applications and they have complained all about these on Twitter. Moreover, according to Apple’s own website, information, users are mainly finding trouble with iCloud, Apple TV and App stores. Therefore, it is necessary to concentrate upon the technical premise of Apple as the organization’s success regarding business is highly depending on the particular field (Laudon, and Traver 2016). The issue of technical outage has first started with the connectivity issue with the iCloud Music Library. According to the account of a good number of Apple users, the music library completely disappeared from their Apple devices.

Significance of the research

On the other side, it has been found that Apple’s technical constraints are becoming a serious peril for the organization’s brand image. According to the report of “The Wall Street Journal”, the technology giant’s availability of AirPods, which are supposed to be the companion of the latest release – iPhone 7 is getting delayed due to huge technical problems. Further it has been noticed that the faulty wireless technology in terms of manufacturing error should be blamed for the current predicament ( 2017). Therefore, it is an understandable fact that the technical giant is losing its position in the very fundamental premise, which is harming their brand image as well as brand loyalty highly. In this respect, it is to mention that, technical advancement and availability is a major aspect for maintaining brand image of an organization. Specifically, for organizations like Apple, users’ preference for an organization depends highly on its technical innovation and easy accessibility of all the required technical features. In the era of twenty first century, where there is an impressive number of substitute products like the products of Apple, technical constraints would add more risk for the organization’s customer retention strategy. It can be interpreted that, area of technology of Apple needs immediate modification (Page 2015).   

Therefore, it is needless to mention that the selection of the area of technology for Apple is relevant to be evaluated and understood through the present research.

After having a coherent brief about the current technical issue faced by the Apple users, it is to anticipate here that the outcome of the research paper could be a profound elaboration of the technical issue of Apple and its possible impact on its users. More precisely it can be said that the research paper would show what exactly improvement in the field of technology can do for an organization like Apple. The objective of the research paper regarding its result is to understand how much the technical area determines the business success of Apple and whether the area of technology can be improved or not. Therefore, it can be stated that in terms of product, the present paper would portray the significance of the area of technology in adding value to an organization’s business and brand name. At the same time, in terms of product, the paper would evaluate all the possible ways to avoid technical conundrums in organizations like Apple.

The research paper is attempting to view the technical faults of Apple and desires to understand the value of technical area in an organization like Apple. Most importantly, the prime objective of the paper is to establish the potentiality of the technical field to enhance business value in an organization like Apple. Therefore, the study would primarily help the researcher to acquire a strong knowledge about the need for technical advancement in increasing business value. Furthermore, the research paper would help the researcher to understand the role of technical advancement in increasing brand image for giant enterprises like Apple. However, it should also be contemplated here that the study would be a convenient piece of relevant information for the future researchers who would be doing research projects on the same topic. Therefore, it is possible that the research would guide future researchers on understanding the significance of technical innovation or other brand value and brand image  

Assignment 1

Literature identification

Title: How Information Technology Governance Mechanisms And Strategic Alignment Influence Organizational Performance: Insights From A Matched Survey Of Business And It Managers

Reference: Wu, S.P.J., Straub, D.W. and Liang, T.P., 2015. How information technology governance mechanisms and strategic alignment influence organizational performance: Insights from a matched survey of business and it managers. Mis Quarterly, 39(2), pp.497-518.

From the article, it has been understood that strategic alignment determines the effectiveness of the IT governance on performance of business organizations. The article has indicated the fact that in order to increase the ability of the enterprises for sustaining its core competencies at the global market place of the present era, every organization requires to have a firm hold on information technology. Most importantly, the article has specified the fact that the aspect of strategic alignment mediates the effect of technological or IT governance on the functioning of an organization. 

The scholarly piece should be rated 4/5 as the data provided in the article proved relevant for the present paper.

Title: Technology Spillovers and Corporate Cash Holdings

The article has discussed the effect of technological spillover on the cash holding of various business organizations. From the article, it has been understood that due to technological spillovers in business firms, business organizations face difficulty in time of having market competition and own firm innovations. Technological spillovers make bigger constraints for organizations those have product market fluidity and have better growth opportunities. It has been indicated by the article that the area of technology and technological spillover determined cash policies of business organizations. Alongside, it has been highlighted throughout the article that technological progress should be accounted for the long running growth of an enterprise though technical spillover is an aspect that imposes both positive and negative effect on the cash holdings.    

The article deserves 4.5/5 as per the fact that the information regarding the importance of technology has been found highly relevant for the present research.   

Title: Sales Force Management. Leadership Innovation Technology

Instead of the fact that the book is primarily about latest sales management theories and practices, the book has signified the fact that sales management is determined by innovation and technology. The book is introduced by giving a detailed overview about the external and internal environmental aspects regarding selling. From the book, it has been understood that the effectiveness of sales is enhanced by the use of technology.

The book can be rated 4/5 as it has accomplished its prime goal of elaborating sales management process and the roles of several significant aspects, which are associated with sales. Moreover, it has pointed out the importance of technology in sales effectiveness. 

Reference: the Guardian. 2017. Apple's iOS 10 iPhone and iPad update causing issues for some users. [online] Available at: [Accessed 26 Feb. 2017].

The online newspaper article is another example of information that interprets the technical issues of Apple’s iOS 10, iPad and iPhone. The article has elaborated the issues with the “bricking device” by disclosing the software issue of Apple, which is affecting the update process. However, instead of starting with giving brief about the software update issue of Apple, the newspaper article has detailed about the technical facilities implanted in the iOS 10. Therefore gives a hint about the fact that Apple’s area of technology and technical innovation are their core competency. The online news has also highlighted the matter that instead of fixing the issue with the software update process, the organization is getting negative reports regarding the updated software.  However, according to the news, Apple has cleared the air by redesigning several Apple applications like Apple Music in time of modifying the up gradation process.

Assignment 2

The article deserves 3.5/5 as it has only given a brief about the update issue.

Title: Apple Slammed Over Major MacBook Pro Problem

The online article from the above mentioned business magazine says that the latest launch of the pro machines for Macbook is failing to acquire required customer attention and their favor till now. The main point of the article is that according to the consumer report, all of the three Pro laptops of Macbook range have failed to meet the standard for recommended models for the consumers due to lowest battery life. Therefore, the article is potentially indicative of the fact that Apple has technical constraints that is harming their brand image.

The article can be rated 3.5/5 as it only gives information about the Pro machine’s failure and interpretations of various report. However, it is still relevant for the present purpose as the article’s major concern revolves around several technical defects of Apple products.

Title: Apple AirPods Are Still Delayed Because Of Technical Problems

The main point of the business article from the above cited premise is the report made by the Wall Street Journal about the delayed launch of Apple. The article has said that Apple is continuous delaying its launch of Airpods due to huge technical issues. The article says that the technical issue is about how the earpieces are receiving the wireless signals via the Bluetooth. The indication of the article is that the technical issues of Apple are disappointing the customers highly.  

The article could be rated 4/5 as per the fact that it provides a profound back ground of the problem faced by the target audience of Apple and also provides an understandable reasoning for the delay.

Reference: Mickle, T. 2017. Apple’s Mysterious AirPods Delay Marks Rare Misstep. [online] WSJ. Available at: [Accessed 26 Feb. 2017].

According to the journal’s report, the much awaited Bluetooth earphones would prove as a deadly mistake for the organization’s business operations. The article provides detailed information about the delay and its reason along with showing how the misstep would negatively impact upon the organization’s brand image. From the article it has been identified that Apple has such a constraint in the year 2010 with their white iPhone. The article is also indicative of the fact that the actual reason for the delay is still not clear, which is making the audience more impatient and disgusted with the organization.

The article is relevant much and provides a thorough detail, therefore it can be rated 4.5/5.

Title: Introduction to the Special Issue: Information Technology in Retail: Toward Omnichannel Retailing

The article is indicative of the fact that the constant deployment of new technologies and in-store technological solution create both opportunities and challenges for the retailers. Along with defining the significance of role of social media, channel integration and supply chain redesign, the article has elaborated the influence of technology in terms of describing mobile technologies. According to the article, mobile technologies should be used in the omnichannel strategy. Most significantly, the article has pointed out that there should be a proper alignment among technological implementation, product manufacturer, customers and retailers. However, it has been also emphasized that development in the area of technology should not replace the strength of the manpower.

Assignment 3

The articled deserves 3/5 as it has not given too many information about the impact of technology.

Title: The business model dilemma of technology shifts

The main point elaborated by the scholarly article is that technical shifts in most of the manufacturing organizations prove fatal for most of the technological and manufacturing organizations. The article has highlighted the facts brought by the previous researches, which says that technical shifts are determined by not only technological innovation but also due to business model innovation. However, from the article it has been understood that business model dilemma creates potential technological shifts and further has indicated that technological shifts can be managed by implementing service innovation and strong technological management.

The paper deserves 5/5 as per the fact that it is entirely relevant for the considered topic and at the same time contains significant information.

Title: About the iOS Technologies

The brief presented in the above mentioned online premise, has elaborated all the benefits impregnated by the operating system of iOS that is responsible for running various touch devices such as iPad, iPod and iPhone. It has been understood by the content posted by Apple that the operating system acts as an intermediary system that enables the efficiency between underlying hardware and applications.

It deserves 4.5/5 for its relevant information.

The following discussion has been an in-depth review of numerous literatures, which has been found relevant for the considered topic of the present research project. The primary purpose of the literature review has been to understand the significance of technological development for a business organization to occupy expected profit margin. In order to accomplish the motive, the review section has initially reviewed the current technological issues, which are encountered by the considered organization – Apple. From the initial section of the literature review, it has been understood that the research area, which has been to understand whether the selected organization – Apple needs to develop its technological field or not, has indicated that there is such a need. It is because, due to technological issue, Apple’s Macbook Pro machines and several other products are not having the permits to be launched in the market.

However, the later part of the literature review, the expectation of which has been to understand the role of technology and the negative impact of technological spill and technical shifts have been occupied. It says that technological shifts and spill over, which are products of technical innovation harms business values. Furthermore, it has been identified that in order to avoid technical spillovers or sudden technical shifts in terms of advancing the area of technology, organizations should consider the importance of technology/IT governance. It has been proved through the review that there is need of technologies such as IT and electrical machineries for increasing sales effectiveness and keeping organizational values.  

Over the last few years, Apple – the technical giant is facing issues regarding their technical field. As per the consequence, the organization is facing issues regarding their brand image. As per Tongur and Engwall (2014), understandably technical innovation is the key competency of Apple and the organization’s brand image highly depends on the distinct competency. Therefore, any kind of technical default is fatal for the organization’s brand image as well as brand loyalty. Target markets of organizations like Apple desire to acquire the latest versions of technological applications on behalf of money. Therefore, technological constraints not only minimize the scale of brand loyalty but also cause serious harm on the profit margin, which affects the internal operations of every organization. In case of Apple, technological issues seem to take place more often. For example, recently the MacBook Pro machines of Apple have been facing problems in time of launch due to having issues regarding poor battery life ( 2017). According to the consumer report’s review, the MacBook Pro of Apple could not be recommended to the consumers. Further, as per the MacBook Pro tests, the battery life of the machines proved to have average quality. Moreover, the recent update regarding the macOS is being charged widely for removing the ‘time remaining’ indicator from the users’ surface. On the other hand, recently, the organization is facing huge criticisms for delaying the launch of jack-less headphone for the iPhone 7 ( 2017). The issue of making huge delay in the launch of the much-awaited headphone is found to be technical failures. It has been identified that the organization is working hard to ensure whether both of the Airpods are having Bluetooth signal or not. On the other hand, the latest version of the operating system in the mobile operating systems of Apple is facing issues. According to several users, their smart phones and tablets are crashing after the software update.

Most recently, users have complained about the outage or connectivity issues with the app store and iCloud Music Library. Even the organization itself has acknowledged the fact that there are serious technical problems with the purchase processing system of Apple ( 2017). Therefore, the above information cumulatively indicate that Apple needs to develop their technological field and make major modifications in order to stop the issues regarding the software’s up gradation, internet accessibility and battery strength of the products. Most importantly, as per Johnston and Marshall (2016), Apple’s over the top fan following is the reason for their over confidence, which should be blamed as one of the chief reasons for the organization’s continuous technical failures. Moreover, it has been identified that the technological spillovers in form of continuous technical innovation is affecting the organization cash holdings (Qiu and Wan 2015). At the same time, frequent update software update issues are increasing the rate of dissatisfaction among the target market, which would marginalize the organization’s market growth (Wu et al. 2015).          

In the words of Wagner et al. (2014), the area of technology within an organization potentially influences almost every aspect of an organization. From ensuring product innovation to enabling sales efficiency, technological advancement is found to be a dire necessity for any business organization. In this context, it is required to mention that for technological retailers like Apple, Samsung, technology is considered as one of the significant strategic dynamics as well as one of the core competencies. According to Grubic (2014), in terms of technology, the internet has firmly ensured an effective interaction between the consumers and the organizations. On the other hand, as per Vom Brocke et al. (2014), for technological retailers, electronic mechanism is the chief component that ensures appropriate product innovation. In this context, it is required to contemplate that internet access in the sales management is considered as one of the chief component for increasing the role of the personal selling component. On the other hand, as argued by Fielt (2014), internet should not be considered only for enhancing the selling efficiency as EDI (Electronic data interchange) system is required more for having efficient customer response from the giant technology retailers.

However, as stated by Dmitriev et al. (2014), development in the technological area is essential in a business organization for solving problem and relieving work pressure. Most significantly, technical advancement helps in reducing operational expenses because an organization utilizing too many machineries for operations and production, need not have the necessity to recruit a huge number of employees. On the other hand, for giant technology retailers like Apple, both electronic mechanism and internet are required as the organization’s chief concern is to earn customer satisfaction through technical innovation. However, as argued by Papanastassiou and Pearce (2016), the role of technology in an organization should be complemented on a high level though they should not replace the potentiality of the store teams or the employee strength. It is essential to contemplate in this context that in order to acquire a successful technology implementation there should be a strong alignment with the product manufacturer, retailer and the customers (Fielt 2014).  

However, in the context of discussing effectiveness of IT in terms of one of the technical aspects, it is to say that sustainability of a business organization in a global market place depends on the information technology. Moreover, the effectiveness of IT can be obtained through having apt IT governance. IT governance is required for generating value for the investment made for IT mechanisms. Based on Tongur and Engwall (2014), IT governance helps in making prosperous alignment between business strategies and IT or technical strategies. However, in this respect it is to state that technology governance several times, demands for sudden technological shift or shift in the strategies made for technological governance (Wu et al. 2015).  

As per Wu et al. (2015), technological innovations are most of the time proved to be critical for the business organizations to maintain sustainable competitive edge as well as the productive growth. However, as stated by Qiu and Wan (2015), technical innovations are the product of potential elements belonging to non-excludability along with limited ability for appropriateness. Similarly, like knowledge spillover, technical spillover is determined by involuntary leakage. Most significantly, the diffusion made by such beneficial externalities permits the peers of the innovators to implement technologies at a very lower cost (Johnston and Marshall 2016). The unfortunate fact is a circumstance for intellectual property protection, acquisition of the technology is still done at a lower price. As argued by Tongur and Engwall (2014), technological innovation and thereafter its technological spillover can increase the rate of market threats as per the fact that technological innovation primarily strengthens the competitive advantage of the inventors. At the same time, it has been found out that the market share reallocations are highly triggered by technological innovation. As per Tongur and Engwall (2014), the dispute between Apple and Samsung is a proper example of interaction between technological spillover and product market rivalry. Apple made allegations against Samsung for copying their technological designs and software style. The patent dispute between two of the giant technology retailers is indicative of the fact that technological advancement and technological advancement should not done too often, so that there stays the chance of spill over. It has been identified that every business organization’s cash policy depends on a particular extent to which a certain amount of cash would be used to absorb external technology for increasing the profit margin (Qiu and Wan 2015).

On the other hand, technological shifts can prove fatal for any successful business organizations. As per Qiu and Wan (2015), various times technological advancement in terms of one of the core competencies could prove as one of the drawbacks of a business organizations. Therefore, technological advancement should be implemented and managed in a certain way which would increase the value of the business as well as would avoid any kinds of technological shifts. According to, one of the best ways to avoid technological shifts as well as to increase business value is to transform the  business proposition of value that is embedded among functional sales and product service systems. It has been further identified that various times technological discontinuities have successfully developed organization’s performance frontiers. However, it should be ignored in the context that technological innovations in form of technological advancement in an organization are required for forestalling replacement by new firms (Papanastassiou and Pearce 2016). On the other hand, it should be also contemplated here that technological enhancement needs to be increased to a particular level, which is essential for accomplishing the proposed value and profit.         


From the above discussion and evaluation, it is understood primarily that technological innovation is required for managing the proposed values of a particular organization. From the initial assignment of the paper, it has been acquired that Apple is in serious need of prompt technological development and management. It is because of the fact that recently Apple is facing problems due to their outage issue and lack of the desired technical power in Macbook pro. On the other hand, it has been also understood that Apple is making delay for technical reason to launch one of their most desired products. Therefore, it can be said that the initial ground has successfully established the fact that there is immediate need for modification of the technological premise for Apple.

The next section has gathered a handful of online articles and research papers, which have relevant contexts regarding the considered topic. However, the most important part has been the final assignment, in which a broad and thorough review of relevant literatures has been discussed. From the final section, it has been understood that technological advancement increase value to business organizations and at the same time increases the effectiveness in sales. Moreover, it has been understood that the technological innovation does not always prove effective for business organizations as several times, technological advancement escalates problems like technological spill over as well as technological shifts. However, it has been also understood that for ensuring an appropriate development in the technological area, there is the need for technological governance in every business organization. Therefore, it can be established that Apple should modify its technical field though they should consider taking help from technological governance.

References 2017. About the iOS Technologies. [online] Available at: [Accessed 28 Feb. 2017].

Dmitriev, V., Simmons, G., Truong, Y., Palmer, M. and Schneckenberg, D., 2014. An exploration of business model development in the commercialization of technology innovations. R&D Management, 44(3), pp.306-321.

Fielt, E., 2014. Conceptualising business models: Definitions, frameworks and classifications. Journal of Business Models, 1(1), pp.85-105. 2017. Forbes Welcome. [online] Available at: [Accessed 26 Feb. 2017]. 2017. Apple AirPods Continue To Be Delayed Due To Technical Issues. [online] Available at: [Accessed 26 Feb. 2017]. 

Grubic, T., 2014. Servitization and remote monitoring technology: A literature review and research agenda. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 25(1), pp.100-124.

Johnston, M.W. and Marshall, G.W., 2016. Sales force management: Leadership, innovation, technology. Routledge.

Laudon, K.C. and Traver, C., 2016. E-Commerce 2016: Business, Technology, Society. Pearson Higher Ed.

Mickle, T. 2017. Apple’s Mysterious AirPods Delay Marks Rare Misstep. [online] WSJ. Available at: [Accessed 26 Feb. 2017].

Page, T., 2015. Barriers to the Adoption of Wearable Technology. i-Manager's Journal on Information Technology, 4(3), p.1.

Papanastassiou, M. and Pearce, R., 2016. 12 The Value-Adding. The Strategy and Organization of International Business, p.210.

Piotrowicz, W. and Cuthbertson, R., 2014. Introduction to the special issue information technology in retail: Toward omnichannel retailing. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 18(4), pp.5-16.

Qiu, J. and Wan, C., 2015. Technology spillovers and corporate cash holdings. Journal of Financial Economics, 115(3), pp.558-573.

the Guardian. 2017. Apple's iOS 10 iPhone and iPad update causing issues for some users. [online] Available at: [Accessed 26 Feb. 2017].

Tongur, S. and Engwall, M., 2014. The business model dilemma of technology shifts. Technovation, 34(9), pp.525-535.

vom Brocke, J., Debortoli, S., Müller, O. and Reuter, N., 2014. How in-memory technology can create business value: insights from the Hilti case. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 34(1), pp.151-167.

Wagner, H.T., Beimborn, D. and Weitzel, T., 2014. How social capital among information technology and business units drives operational alignment and IT business value. Journal of Management Information Systems, 31(1), pp.241-272.

Wu, S.P.J., Straub, D.W. and Liang, T.P., 2015. How information technology governance mechanisms and strategic alignment influence organizational performance: Insights from a matched survey of business and it managers. Mis Quarterly, 39(2), pp.497-518.

Tongur, S. and Engwall, M., 2014. The business model dilemma of technology shifts. Technovation, 34(9), pp.525-535.

Piotrowicz, W. and Cuthbertson, R., 2014. Introduction to the special issue information technology in retail: Toward omnichannel retailing. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 18(4), pp.5-16. 2017. Apple AirPods Continue To Be Delayed Due To Technical Issues. [online] Available at: [Accessed 26 Feb. 2017]. 2017. Forbes Welcome. [online] Available at: [Accessed 26 Feb. 2017].

Johnston, M.W. and Marshall, G.W., 2016. Sales force management: Leadership, innovation, technology. Routledge.

Qiu, J. and Wan, C., 2015. Technology spillovers and corporate cash holdings. Journal of Financial Economics, 115(3), pp.558-573. 2017. About the iOS Technologies. [online] Available at: [Accessed 28 Feb. 2017].

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