What is Water Harvesting?
Discuss About The Water Conservation Defined Practice Of Making.
Water Conservation can be defined as the practice of making use of water efficient so that they reduce the usage of water write essay. Water conservation is known to be an important as freshwater is limited resource as well as costly aspect. Conservation of natural resources is considered to be important for environment. The main resource of water is the precipitation from the atmosphere. Water, which is available on the earth aims to be found in three important stages that are solid, liquids and gases. Being liquid, water is from atmosphere which accounts for 75% of the earth surface that is covered by hydrosphere. The method of saving water for its usage in the upcoming days is defined to be conservation of water.
Water Harvesting is all about capturing rain when it falls or captured through runoff in the village or any city. There is need of taking proper measures to keep the water clean by stoppage of pollution activities for taking any catchment. In general, water-harvesting can be stated as the activity of complete and direct collection of rainwater. The rainwater which is collected is stored for future use or can be used for recharge of groundwater. Rain is considered to be first form of water, which is known as Hydrological cycle that is primary source of water. Lakes, groundwater and rivers are known to be a secondary source of water. In the current era, we aim to depend on secondary source for water. In the current era, we aim to be depended on secondary source of water. In this method, it is mainly forgotten that rain is the main source of feed for secondary source along with remain ignorant of the value. Water harvesting is known to be a method that requires to have an understanding with respect to value of rain, which makes of optimum usage of rainwater at various places.
Rainwater harvesting is a well-known technique which is a method of collection of storage of rain and its collection for usage in period of non-monsoon. In the current era, concrete home-built roads and footpaths and well-connected courtyards have open grounds. Decrease in cover of natural forest cover and increase in the concertation of jungle and decrease in exposure of earth. Only very few little open ground are left for water for soaking that increases the groundwater table. Artificial recharging of the groundwater is considered to be very much important. Rainwater is generally collected on the top of the roof in the open well. It is carried down for proper usage or even directed into aquifer.
Ancient religious text and epics are considered to be an epic good sight for water storage and conversation system for prevailed in these days. In the last few years, rising population and growing industrialization have ultimately resulted in demand for growing water. There have been certain efforts being made for collecting water which is achieved by building dams, reservoirs and digging well. Most the countries around the globe have focused on recycling and desalination of water. Water conservation has ultimately become the current need of the present day. The main focus of groundwater is all about recharging it by making use of harvesting rainwater.
In most of the farming areas where water is available in short supply. There the total annual rainfall in that particular area might not be enough for sustaining the need for farms. It is mainly distributed unevenly so that in dry periods there can be intense rainfall. In most cases, crop is completely unable to make use of high value of water which is lost through run-off or even leaching. It might result in soil erosion and loss of soil nutrients. This particular technique is described so that it can maximize the usage of available water by the help of water harvesting and its conservation. Water harvesting techniques aim to collect from a particular area which is done in catchment area. Channel of particular cropping area which is needed to be taken into consideration. Techniques of conversation of water in the biomass and soil are reduced by run-off and keeping the water where it falls.
For deciding the principles of water harvesting and conservation so that they can efficiently make use of available water. It is important to take into account how the given crops lose and receive water. Crops aim to receive water through the stored water, irrigation and rainfall. They aim to lose it by runoff, drainage and evaporation. Some of the effective principles behind water management are
Effective use of rainwater: In most of the climatic regions, rainfall is generally distributed in unevenly for downpours which cannot be used by crops. There are many storage techniques like external catchments, which ultimately improves the availability of water in the dry season. It is mainly used for harvesting water from much wider area which is seen by making use of water to crops. There is need of taking certain measures so that rainwater running off on the surface at the instance of rainfall.
Making effective use of soil water reserves: Soil aims to store water from rainfall that acts like reserve for the available crop. The amount of water aims to depend on soil type and its rooting system for the crops. Sandy soil aims to hold much less water in comparison to clay or slit soil so as a result, the crops require much more watering. Some of the deep rooting crops like cereals or grasses aim to exploit the soil reserves in much more effective way in comparison to shallow rooting crops. There is need for good cultivation practices which is considered to be an output of soft and friable soil that promote rooting and efficient usage of soil water reserves.
Taking Steps for avoiding run-off: Run-off water is not absorbed by soil but is seen in surface away from the location where crop make use of it. There are much structures like schemes, pits and bunds, which reduces the run-off. On clay soil, run-offs are likely to occur where subject has been sense on intense rainfall. Addition of mulch results in breaking up of overall intensity of rainfall and incorporating manures that will reduce the soil tendency.
Avoiding wasting of water by evaporation: Water aims to evaporate mainly through bare soil which is wastage not being used for the production of plant growth. It can be considered to be desirable for maintaining cover of ground, which is possible in most of the time. Application of mulch to the soil will ultimately reduce the overall rate of evaporation. By the help of drip irrigation in the evening will also help in reducing the value of water lost through evaporation.
Reducing loss of water through drainage: Draining of water through soil is not only waste but will also reduce the required mobile nutrients like nitrogen. It can be considered to be much bigger issue for sandy soil. Addition of organic matter in the form of compost and plant residue will ultimately enhance the retaining capacity of water in the soil. This can be considered to be very much effective throughout much longer time. Most of drainage aims to occur during the heavy rains when the soil is left for bare. Growth of cash crop during this time interval will ultimately reduce the loss as root lift water and nutrient form shallow soil profile.
Proper planning of Irrigation: This particular step should be taken that acts like supplement from rainfall and soil reserves. The most suitable method of making use of water supply is irrigating the required things. Most people aim to irrigate on regular basis where crops requirement is needed or not. If the water is in minimum quantity, then irrigation needs to be restricted from some of the critical elements like germination and fruit set. Drip irrigation aims to make use water in much better usage of water in comparison to overhead system like the target root instead of spraying into the air.
Contour framing: It refers to various field of activities like ploughing and furrowing that is carried out to contours instead of up and downside of the slope. It can conserve water by overall reduction of surface run-off and infiltration for water in the crop area. For all the given contour system, the very first step is all about understanding contour guideline. It can be done by making use of ‘A-frame method’. Parallel contour guideless can be easily drawn up. There is large number of water harvesting methods which is completely based on contour inclusive of contour ploughing, contour ridges, grass stripes and terraces. This particular technique completely depends on slope steepness, type of soil, condition, grown and various other factors like labour availability. Any kind of ploughing on the contour instead of up and down that reduces run-off, soil erosion and lastly moisture retention. Contour ploughing can be easily practised on any given slope which comes up with gradient of value less than 10 %.
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