The performance of team depends on the goals that needs to be set or achieved and then identifying barriers which are creating problems to achieve strategic objectives for the organizations (Armstrong and Taylor, 2014). The management of most successful companies organizes activities related to team building and also conferences or workshops also provided for the employees to give them knowledge related to requirements of their teams. There should be enough opportunities for the employees to work efficiently in the team.
The quality and innovation in work needs to be there to get positive results and this should be enforced by the organizations to their employees working in the teams and their benefits on accomplishing objectives for the organizations. The members needs to be loyal for their teams and this should be emphasized by the organizations with positive and flexible working conditions that will certainly enhance team performance and able to achieve strategic objectives (Shields et al, 2015). The value of team members needs to be ensured by organizations to make them more loyal or motivated as this will also helps them to improve their skills and knowledge while working in the team with members of different calibre.
Further, Tesco is using the tool of balance scorecard for checking performance of their employees linking them with the strategic objectives of Tesco. This also helps Tesco to make their employees to realise the fact that if they are able to achieve their objectives then certainly strategic objectives of the organization will be accomplished (Africa Kibs, 2015). This scorecard also ensures effectiveness to work in teams and makes team member clear that their intentions will help the organization to balance their values and achieve strategic objectives in effective manner.
1.2 Tools and techniques available to set team performance targets:
The tools like balance scorecard, McKinsey's 7 S models, management by objectives or EFQM Excellence Model can be used to set performance targets for the teams.
McKinsey's 7 S models:
This tool considers seven factors for management to determine performance of organization and mainly focuses to align strategic objectives with the team performance of the organizations. The model includes shared values, staff, skills, strategy, structure, style and systems. This model is holistic and solid diagnostic tool to identify problems of the organizations (Parmenter, 2015). This model involves with emotional and rational approach in different directions and management needs to consider all these aspects to implement all decisions effectively. The drawback of this model is that all elements depend on each other. If one part changes then organization needs to change all other parts as well and that makes these framework more complicated.
Tesco implemented this framework in its organizational structure and divided into two parts that is hard and soft. The company focuses on soft elements as these entirely depends on the workforce (Sheard and Kakabadse, 2016). These elements need to be analysed in brief to get clear knowledge about Tesco. In Tesco, more emphasis is given to individual performance rather than hierarchy. The members know their responsibilities and their role in the team that makes this model more appropriate for Tesco (Tesco PLC, 2015). The employees are very much capable by providing flexibility to their customers in order to invest more that will help Tesco to improve its financial position.
This approach helps the management to identify smallest measures of performance and on that basis monitors overall progress and performance growth of the organizations by keeping all significant perspectives during the process. This tool always gives the balanced view about the performance of the organizations (Van Dooren et al, 2015). This will help the organizations in evaluating all strategic and short term goals of the organizations. It also helps in implementing strategies according to the target objectives of the organizations. But performance measures will requires more time and the clear view of performance growth of organizations is also not evaluated effectively.
The balance scorecard for Tesco is practical in nature and helps in aligning goals of the employees with the values of the organization (Africa Kibs, 2015)). Most of the companies have the culture or values aligned together in the same manner, encourages Tesco’s employees to work effectively and enhance their performance to achieve strategic objectives of Tesco.
EFQM Excellence Model:
This is also one of the significant tools that set performance targets for the teams and is based on the concept of total quality management. This tool emphasizes leadership and strategies components in effective manner to produce desired results. The qualitative or quantative aspects also considered by this model to produce efficient results (Grant, 2016). It also shows interrelationship among key components to enhance overall performance and strategies of the organizations. But this model requires much time to produce efficient results and its implementation is inherently more complex.
Most of the European organizations like Tesco are using this model. The information related to customers and their needs are considered before assigning performance targets for the employees in Tesco (Kasemsap, 2015). As Tesco have different business operations, this model will not provides appropriate results for the company and also not able to evaluate the performance of the employees by using this tool (Tesco PLC, 2015).
Management by objectives:
This is the most simplest and effective tool to set performance targets for the team in the organizations. This tool cascades objectives or goals of organization and specify objectives for each of the team member in the organization (Goetsch and Davis, 2014). It also enhances participative decision making in the organizations. But it is operating under top-down management approach and also requires formal planning that will certainly affect continuous improvement of the organizations.
Tesco is using this tool in its organizational structure where each employee is assigned with individual responsibilities and also knows their role in the teams. This motivates employee to perform efficiently and helps to enhance overall performance and growth of the organizations (Renz, 2016). This tool also helps Tesco to improve performance of its employees by providing them flexible working conditions in order to enhance their satisfaction level.
But HRM department in recent times is not prefers this model as it is uses top-down management approach where employees are mostly affected due to this empowered approach. This also not provides appropriate checklists to measure performance of the employees and can affect performance measurement aspect of Tesco.
1.3 Value of Team Performance Tools to Measure Future Team Performance:
Tesco is mainly using various performance tools in its organizations and on the basis of overall values for each tools, assessment for each tool in measuring performance of teams in future will be done. McKinsey's 7 S models are mainly used to access future aspects to improve performance of teams. This measures the performance of team on basis of seven tools that are shared values, staff, skills, strategy, structure, style and systems.
Capability or capacity:
The use of charts or diagrams will make it easier to interpret measurement of performance of the organizations and also keeps eye on overall growth of organizations by accomplishing all strategic objectives (Rothaermel, 2015). The data needs to be depicted in numerical form to determine prospects for organizational objectives.
The current performance needs to estimate in effective manner to measure overall performance of the organizations.
The time frame for the objectives needs to be formulated in effective manner that will help the team to achieve the desired target in efficient time by enhancing their level of performance for overall growth of the organizations.
The priority to achieve specific targets needs to be clearly mentioned that will help the team to achieve the important targets first and then focuses in the secondary targets (Renz, 2016). This tools of performance measurement will help to evaluate the important objectives and accordingly given first preference to accomplish.
The targets need to be changeable and flexible for measuring performance of the teams. The effective monitoring of targets needs to be done with clear vision and effective changes needs to be considered while measuring performance of teams.
2.1 Required performance targets within teams against current performance:
Tesco is using balance scorecard, McKinsey's 7 S models, and management by objectives or EFQM Excellence Model to analyse the performance targets within the teams. Balance scorecard helps Tesco in aligning employee goals with the organizational values and culture. This helps in providing flexible working conditions to employees and encourages them to enhance their performance level in order to achieve organizational targets and objectives. McKinsey's 7 S models help employees in enhancing their soft skills and help them to understand hierarchical structure of the Tesco (Tesco PLC, 2015). This makes employees to understand their responsibilities and also enhances their individual performance to achieve strategic objectives.
Further, EFQM Excellence Model helps Tesco to assign responsibilities to employees according to needs of customers and business operations. This model helps team to evaluate performance of members on individual basis and to achieve objectives of organization. The employees are providing effective customer services in order to enhance financial position of Tesco in market place (Tesco PLC, 2015).
Further, various perspectives will also help to set targets for team to enhance their current performance in order to achieve strategic objectives for Tesco.
The customer’s needs or desires needs to be considered and accordingly design products or services to enhance sales of organization. Team needs to focus to increase cash flow for Tesco from financial perspective. The staff turnover ratio needs to be reduced to stabilize internal business structure of Tesco and accordingly set targets for teams (Walsh, 2015). Innovation or learning related perspectives will also helps Tesco in assigning targets for teams and will motivates them to enhance their current performance level.
Role of performance targets to achieve strategic objectives:
2.2 Individual commitment to team performance in achievement of organisational objectives:
Individual commitment will help employees in enhancing their interpersonal skills and tasks related abilities. The lack of commitment from two or more employees will affect the entire team’s performance. An effective system of performance management needs to be implemented in aligning individual goals with the strategic objectives of the organizations (Campbell and Reyes-Picknell, 2015). The role of team leaders is critical in encouraging members and to emphasise their responsibilities in the team to achieve organizational objectives.
Tesco is using appropriate leadership style to encourage or motivate members in the team and helps them to enhance their performance level. Tesco is using participative style of leadership in its organizational structure that gives equal opportunities to each of the individual in decision making, goal setting and suggestion systems of the organization (Cummings and Worley, 2014). This is motivating individuals and helps them to understand their values and role in the teams that helps them to enhance their current performance level in order to help Tesco to achieve its organizational goals and objectives.
4.1 Influencing and persuading methodologies to gain the commitment of individuals to a course of action:
There are various motivational theories used in the organizations to influence and persuade individuals to be more committed for their work in order to achieve strategic objectives.
This motivational theory depends on two factors that are motivator and hygiene. The motivator factors satisfy as well as motivate individuals to work hard to achieve organizational objectives. Hygiene factors include company policies, salary, benefits, etc and if not present can lead dissatisfaction among the employees (Armstrong and Taylor, 2014). Both factors are independent of each other. Both these factors needs to be present in the organizational structure as will motivate and influence employees to be more committed in order to achieve organizational strategic objectives. These factors will make employees happier and feel satisfied at the workplace. This theory is effectively used in Tesco’s organizational structure to motivate their employees.
This motivational theory consists of five levels that are physiological, safety, love or belonging, esteem and self-actualisation. This theory also defines that all needs of individuals should be accomplished to make them motivated for achieving organizational objectives. This theory makes employees to realise their roles or responsibilities in organizations like Tesco and encouraged by the fact that they have value in the organization (Shields et al, 2015). This makes employees to feel motivated and respect in their teams and also get appropriate support from the team leader. It will help individuals to be more motivated and committed in order to achieve organizational objectives of Tesco.
This motivational theory defines that individual’s behaviour will depend on the expected results as desired by them and make individual feel motivated as will get desired reward on successful completion of their work as expected by the organizations. This theory considers three elements that are expectancy, instrumentality and valence (Parmenter, 2015). This theory can be implemented effectively in organizations like Tesco by setting targets for individuals and on completion some rewards or benefits should also be assured for the individuals. This makes individuals to be more committed and encouraged to achieve their target goals as on successful completion of their expected work, they will get some rewards in form of bonuses or promotion.
4.2 Impact of individual dynamics, interests and organisational politics:
Dynamics or interest of individuals is very important in Tesco for getting commitment from the individuals. If individual have not appropriate dynamics, then it very difficult for Tesco to achieve its strategic objectives. Tesco considers two important dynamics or interests of individuals that is inborn skills or talent and other is motivational working environment in the organization (Van Dooren et al, 2015). Individuals are most important part of Tesco’s organizational structure and use various dynamics or interests that can motivate or encourage individual to be more committed in order to achieve organizational strategic objectives. If these dynamics or interests of individuals are not implemented effectively in Tesco then it will be very difficult for Tesco to achieve its organizational objectives.
Further, Tesco also needs to maintain organizational politics in order to get efficient commitment from the individuals for achieving its organizational objectives. Politics is important framework in organizational structure of Tesco and helps it effectively to achieve its strategic objectives.
Tesco is using both democratic and autocratic features of politics in its management as democratic feature are not always efficient for organizational structure in order to make individuals more committed for course of actions in Tesco (Grant, 2016). Tesco also maintains balance between its organizational culture and politics for getting more commitment from individuals in order to accomplish organizational objectives. The top management of Tesco plays significant role to maintain individual’s dynamics, interest or politics in organization by supporting them and encouraged them to be more committed in order to accomplish strategic objectives.
Delegation, mentoring and coaching:
2.3 Application of delegation, mentoring and coaching to the achievement of organizational objectives:
Delegation helps employees to develop or use their skills on independent basis but is responsible with top management of the organization and without delegation; employees have not any value in the organization. These help employees to work on individual basis and to deal with decision making to make appropriate changes according to the new information (Hill et al, 2014). Tesco is using delegation staff to effectively accomplish all the tasks in quick manner without referring to team leaders to achieve organizational objectives.
Mentoring focuses to develop longer career skills or abilities for the employees which help organizations to achieve organizational objectives by reducing skills gap (Wilden et al, 2013). Tesco is using mentoring tool in informal manner and also uses this to develop relationship of board reaching with the employees. Mentoring helps Tesco to reduce skill gap among the employees and develops longer career development perspectives for each of the employees that helps them to achieve all their organizational goals and objectives.
Coaching also plays vital role in enhancing skills of individuals and at the same time, monitors the performance of each of the employees in the organization. This also helps organization to analyse current performance level of employees and accordingly helps them to overcome their shortcomings in the skills. Tesco is using coaching application in effective manner to monitor the performance level of each of the employees and also helps them to enhance their skills and abilities in order to achieve organizational objectives (Grant and Hartley, 2013). Coaching helps Tesco to analyse performance level of employees and improvement required, delegate employees with required guidance and monitors their performance. This helps Tesco to enhance skills of individuals which will enable organization to active it’s all strategic objectives and goals.
Personal interaction’s politics and leadership influence:
2.4 Team performance plan to meet organisational objectives:
The team plan for performance is basically detailed plan in nature and needs to align with organizational objectives. The plan focuses on required performance level from team, manner to which these level can be achieved, provides guidance and measures progress of the team at all levels of the performance. Tesco is using the performance plan for its teams that helps the organization to understand main target area, measures performance, and designs required actions to achieve all the organizational objectives in desired timeframe (Lin and Wu, 2014). This plan is quite feasible, motivating and clear perspective to help Tesco in order to achieve organizational objectives. This plan also defines all important strategies and also suggests desired action plans to achieve all organizational objectives for Tesco.
Further, performance plan also helps Tesco to maintain appropriate communication with members of teams. This also enables members to share their skills or knowledge with others that helps to enhance performance level and helps in achieving organizational objectives (Kumar et al, 2013). This plan also helps Tesco to divide teams into different departments and accordingly resists changes in skills of team members that help them to reduce risks in management operations. This is helping Tesco to enhance performance level of teams in order to achieve organizational goals and objectives.
3.1 Process for monitoring team performance:
The performance of team can be monitored with help of clear set of objectives are achieved or not. The continuous feedback of team will also helps in motoring performance and will enhance performance level of entire teams. Tesco is using PDCA (Plan, Do, Check and Act) technique to monitor performance level of teams (Cummings and Worley, 2014). This process is ongoing and requires continuous modifications to enhance performance level of teams. This process enables team leader to get continuous feedback about performance and eventually identifies all changes that needs to be done to improve team performance.
Further, it has been analysed that teams in Tesco are working accordance with performance plan and helps organization to achieve its strategic objectives. The feedbacks will help Tesco to initiate changes in performance plan of teams. The appropriate monitoring will provide desired feedbacks and helps team in taking effective corrective actions (Lin and Wu, 2014). Monitoring provides negative as well as positive feedbacks. Positive feedback emphasises achievements and encourages teams to achieve desired organizational objectives. Whereas, negative feedback analyses factors responsible for below level performance and provides actions that will help in enhancing team performance.
3.2 Team’s performance evaluation against agreed objectives of the plan:
There is no gap between team performance and organizational objectives in Tesco when compared performance plan with the team performance. Tesco can use McKinsey's 7 S models to evaluate performance of team in order to achieve organizational objectives (Berman, 2015). Tesco is using appraisal forms to review performance of teams and used that to analyse the corrective actions needs to improve performance of teams in order to achieve organizational objectives. Tesco is allocating separate budget for training and to enhance skills of team members.
The efforts of teams are observed in Tesco and awarded with appropriate performance appraisal and continuous feedbacks also given them to enhance their performance level. The workshops are organised in Tesco to enhance skills and knowledge of employees and always supported with company’s guidelines that motivates them to enhance their performance levels in order to achieve organizational objectives (Popa, 2015). Tesco provides flexible working hours, work sharing, new working pattern, additional support to its team members to enhance their performance level for achieving planned objectives. The role of team leader is also important as understand all concerns of teams and encourages them to improve their performance in order to achieve organizational objectives.
3.3 Impact of the team performance in contributing to meet strategic objectives:
The performance of team is very vital to achieve strategic objectives of the organizations. Team performance is considered as driven factor in order to make successful business operations of the organizations. Team performance creates enthusiastic working conditions for each of the employees (Sheard and Kakabadse, 2016). The establishment of team provides non financial objectives to employees that will help them to enhance their level of performance to achieve organizational objectives. The flexible working conditions for the employees who works in team provides efficient work culture that motivates them to enhance their performance level.
It is easier for the management to assign responsibilities for team than to individuals and monitoring of work is also become easier to analyse team performance that facilitates team to work effectively to achieve strategic objectives of the organizations. Team helps organizations to become market leader in business operations by providing quality products to customers and also helps to develop more innovative products or services for the organizations that will ultimately help organizations to accomplish their strategic objectives (Kumar et al, 2013). For that marketing and research team will help organizations to achieve target of innovative and quality products to the customers. This all indicates that team’s performance is most influential factor for organizations to achieve all their strategic objectives.
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