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1.Using the UNEform spreadsheet develop a diet based on grains commonly grown in south eastern Australia that satisfies as many of the requirements for the finisher pig as you can.  Make some comments about the diet, including nutrient adequacy, cost and practicality.  Which nutrients were hard to match?  Are there any ingredients that you have limited and if so, why?  Is the diet realistic based on what you can find from other sources?

2.What happens to the cost of the diet if there is a crop failure in south-eastern Australia and the price of wheat and barley increases by 60%? Is there another grain that may be less affected by the drought in south eastern Australia that could be available for you to use?  Reformulate the diet using the alternate grain as the main energy source.  Make some comments about how and why the diet has changed from question 1.

3.Find the nutrient specifications for another source of protein that is not already in the UNEform program then add it to the program.  Reformulate the diet from question 2 to include the additional protein source.  Make some comments about how and why the diet has changed from question 2.

Nutrient adequacy, cost, and practicality of the diet

Advancements and innovations in the field of plant breeding, genetic engineering, and biotechnology are making considerable changes to grain and other plants for the purposes of producing products that are well suited to feeding livestock. The most evident benefit of modified plant based feeds are: reduced cost of producing meat, milk, and eggs; reduced feed related waste; improved disease resistance (thereby mitigating expensive veterinary costs); improved productivity and yield during feed manufacturing and processing (for instance, maize grains are bioengineered to produce more than the normal amount of maize meal and bran due to bigger and more compact grains). Therefore, processed pig feeds are made to provide more nutritional benefits to the animal compared to traditional animal feeds like foliage, and fruits (Endres & Espejo, 2010).

Question 1

Pig Diet: Wheat Bran, Sorghum, and Duckweed 28%

Nutrient

Requirement

Supplied

Units

ME

13.60

13.42

MJ/kg

Crude Protein

14.00

12.51

%

Crude Fat

3.00

3.00

%

Fiber

5.00

2.04

%

Linoleic acid

0.60

1.08

%

Lysine

0.60

0.28

%

Methionine

0.25

0.15

%

Met+Cys

0.40

0.32

%

Arginine

0.19

0.50

%

Cystine

0.15

0.17

%

IsoLeucine

0.45

0.50

%

Tryptophane

0.11

0.15

%

Tyrosine

0.30

0.71

%

Valine

0.45

0.59

%

Calcium

0.55

0.15

%

Phosphorus(total)

0.5

0.38

%

P. Available

0.45

0.12

%

Sodium

0.1

0.04

%

Mn

4

78

mg/kg

Zn

100

30

mg/kg

Ca:Avail.P

2.10

1.28

ME:CP

0

1072.72

From the results presented in the table above, it is clear that this diet provides a considerable amount of the required nutrients that are necessary for the successful rearing of pigs. The diet will effectively provide the pigs will different nutrients especially proteins and fats that are vital for the fatting of pigs. The nutrients that considerably did not match the nutritional requirements were Arginine, Linoleic acid, IsoLeucine, Tyrosine, Valine, Calcium, Phosphorus (total), Cystine, Tryptophane, and Manganese (Mn).  Since the diet satisfies all the nutritional requirements there is not a single nutrient that is omitted from the diet; however, some nutrients have been provided in limited quantities.  For instance, only 30 mg of zinc per kilogram of feed is provided compared to the required 100mg. This limitation is caused by the minute occurrence of these nutrients in the primary ingredients. The following are nutrient that are found in limited supply in the diet offered about: ME, Crude proteins, fiber, lysine, Methionine, sodium, and zinc   The diet will cost roughly $208.93 to produce; it is the most affordable diet that can be extruded using the different ingredients that will satisfy the various nutritional requirements that are crucial in pig finisher. The diet constitutes three main ingredients: Sorghum, Duckweed 28%, and Wheat bran, these are commonly available products in market that can be easy accessed and procured. Therefore, the formulation and implementation of this diet is very practical and realistic because it is affordable, uses very few ingredients, and lastly, the ingredients are readily available to farmers.

Question 2

Old

New

Duckweed 28%

 $   1.16

 $     1.16

Sorghum

 $   19.60

 $    19.60

Wheat bran

 $    0.14

 $     0.22

Cost

Cost

Per 100 kgs

 $    20.89

 $    20.98

Per ton

 $     208.93

 $    209.76

Crop failure that would result in a 60% markup on wheat would result in a 60% or higher increment in the cost of Wheat bran as such the cost of the pig diet would move from $208.93 to $209.76 therefore the cost of the diet would not increase by a significant amount, capable of affecting the farmer’s ability to effectively implement the diet. One grain alternative that can be used in the place of wheat would have to be maize. Maize is normally processed in order to get maize flour and a byproduct referred to as maize bran. As such, the maize bran can be used in our diet to replace wheat bran. In the table below, wheat bran has been substituted with maize which results in an increment in overall diet cost and results in almost similar nutritional issues (the actual amount surpasses the required amount).  The nutrients that considerably did not match the nutritional requirements were Arginine, Cystine, IsoLeucine, trytophane, tyrosine, valine, and manganese (Mn).  Hence, the nutritional aspects of the first and second diet are considerably different. Maize based feeds are normally designed to help the pigs grow considerably faster. It is estimated that pig feed with around 75% maize grain is responsible for accelerated growth that makes pig mature much early than with traditional feeds (12-23 months instead of 28-39 months). Maize feeds are reputed to produce much taster pork and bacon because the grains are higher in fat compared to wheat and rice (higher fat content results in better meat flavor). Moreover, the pigs reared on maize feed naturally produce meat that is relatively much easier to cook because of high fat and protein content (Cecala, 2013).  

New

Duckweed 28%

 $           1.16

Sorghum

 $         19.60

Maize

 $           0.15

Cost

Per 100 kgs

 $         20.91

Per ton

 $       209.05

Nutrient

Requirement

Supplied

Units

ME

13.60

13.47

MJ/kg

Crude Protein

14.00

12.48

%

Crude Fat

3.00

3.00

%

Fiber

5.00

2.00

%

Linoleic acid

0.60

1.08

%

Lysine

0.60

0.28

%

Methionine

0.25

0.15

%

Met+Cys

0.40

0.32

%

Arginine

0.19

0.50

%

Cystine

0.15

0.17

%

IsoLeucine

0.45

0.50

%

Tryptophane

0.11

0.15

%

Tyrosine

0.30

0.71

%

Valine

0.45

0.59

%

Calcium

0.55

0.15

%

Phosphorus(total)

0.5

0.38

%

P. Available

0.45

0.12

%

Sodium

0.1

0.04

%

Mn

4

77

mg/kg

Zn

100

30

mg/kg

Ca:Avail.P

2.10

1.28

ME:CP

0

1079.18

Effect of crop failure and use of alternate grain

Question 3

There are different protein rich ingredients that can be added to the diet to better the overall efficacy of the pig feeding process; such as, oat meal and legumes. Oat meal is derived from processed Oats it is a plant based protein centric animal feed that can be given to pigs. Oats are commonly grown in Australia for the purpose of livestock rearing. Therefore, it is understood that oats have the following nutritional benefits to animals based on information extracted from the Depart of Agriculture and Fisheries (Queensland Government) Website (DAF, 2010).

Feedstuff

DE

MJ/kg

FIB

%

CP

%

Ca

%

Avail

P %

Avail

Lys %

Total

Lys %

Avail

M+C

%

Avail

Tryp

%

Avail

Thre

%

Avail

Isol

%

Maximum

inclusion

%

Reason for limit

Oats

12

12.9

9

0.1

0.07

0.35

-0.3

0.29

0.08

0.21

0.26

40

High fiber

Compared to Maize that was used in the previous example, it clear that Oats are considerably better than maize in terms of nutritional value offer to the pigs. On the other hand, the cost of a kilogram of Oats is considerably higher than that of maize due to their demand both in the domestic and international market. In spite of the added nutritional benefits associated with oats, it is highly impractical for farmers in Australia to sacrifices size returns in favor of more wholesome animal diets. (DAF, 2010). Oats possess several beneficial traits that make them ideal for inclusion in pig feed. These benefits are well illustrated in the table presented above. Nevertheless, the quality of oat based feed is dependent on the size and weight of the kernel. Generally, high energy feeds are obtained from kernels that large and heavy as opposed to small and light. Statistically, 20-30% of the oat is comprised of the hull; as such, oats have more fat content that any other cereal bettering the energy quality of the resultant feeds. Moreover, research has shown that animals are better adapted towards the digestion of Oat starch compared to that found in barley and maize; thereby, preventing the occurrence of serious gastrointestinal illnesses. Furthermore, the fatty acids found n oat are more nutritional to pigs compared to those present in other cereals like wheat, maize, and sorghum (FCC, 2013).

Feedstuff

DE

MJ/kg

FIB

%

CP

%

Ca

%

Avail

P %

Avail

Lys %

Total

Lys %

Avail

M+C

%

Avail

Tryp

%

Avail

Thre

%

Avail

Isol

%

Maximum

inclusion

%

Reason for limit

Maize

13.3

2.8

10.5

0.1

0.04

.25

(.29)

.33

.05

.28

.26

*

Mould/ toxins

References

Cecala, J., 2013. The Benefits of Grain and Grass Fed Beef. [Online] Buedel Meatup Available at: https://www.buedelmeatup.com/2013/09/24/the-benefits-of-grain-and-grass-fed-beef/ [Accessed 21 May 2018].

DAF, S., 2010. Nutrient composition. [Online] The Government of Queensland Available at: https://www.daf.qld.gov.au/business-priorities/animal-industries/pigs/feed-nutrition/ingredients-contaminants/nutrient-composition [Accessed 21 May 2018].

Endres, M. & Espejo, L., 2010. Feeding management and characteristics of rations for high-producing dairy cows in freestall herds. Journal of Dairy Science, 93(4), pp.23-34.

FCC, s., 2013. Using Oats as Feed for Domestic Animals. The Finnish Cereal Committee, pp.1-7.

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[Accessed 22 May 2024].

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My Assignment Help. Diet Formulation For Finisher Pigs Using Grains Of South Eastern Australia [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2020 [cited 22 May 2024]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/agri30030-livestock-production-systems/including-nutrient-adequacy.html.

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