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Temperature

A 65yr old man with hypertension develops a chest pain and reports to the GP Practice. What routine tests GP could be recommended for him? Discuss in relation to routine measures such as weight/height: BAH, pulse, respiration rate, blood pressure, blood tests, food intake, etc.

Explain how routine measures are recorded (ethical consideration: dignity, (individual rights and privacy) and what are their uses in health and social care?

• Record the methods of Routine measures besides describing the Ethical Considerations & the use of these measures in the health &social care settings,

• have to mention all the Vital Signs (Blood Pressure, Body Temperature, Respiration Rate, Pulse Rate) and describe the methods of recording of only one vital sign and also

Assess how these (Temp., Pulse, I3P, BMI, ECG etc.) routine measures provide the GP with information about the body functioning

• Assess the information revealed from Recording the Measures in the case study for example high systolic & diastolic Blood Pressure readings provide the information about more Cardio Vascular Complications like heart attack or stroke.

Examine how such information about the body functioning may inform care planning for this person (Hypertension and chest pain).

• Provide the information regarding the care planning of the person suffered from hypertension & chest pain; life style measures (quit smoking), balanced diet and medications used in the management of hypertension.

An 85 years old woman living in a care home is a known case of type 2 diabetes. She has suffered from arthritis of the knees for the last few years. Recently she has developed a wound on her leg, which is not healing well.

Explain how her age may have affected her body structure and functioning. (Nervous and Respiratory system).

• Explain the effects of Age on the body structure and functions regarding changes in the Nervous System, Spinal cord, Peripheral, Respiratory system and other common disorders.

Assess the impacts of the above-mentioned conditions on her body structure.

• Discussion on the above-mentioned condi wound and other com tions Osteoarthritis, Diabetes, Non-healing mon disorders to assess the changes in the body structure and functions.

Relate the effects of her medical conditions including infection to the routine care of this lady.

• Discussion on Osteoarthritis, Diabetes & Non-healing wound and other common disorders to relate the effects of her medical conditions.

Temperature

Human body is made up of millions of cells which are structural and functional unit of life. Many cells merge to create tissues that further culminate in formation of various organs and associated organ systems. All the functions conducted by the body of the human are performed via various kinds of cells found in the body. Such cells have a critical role to play in body building blocks because they are regulating both anatomical and physiological features. Dissimilar cell types are responsible for the cellular metabolism in general since they perform various functions concurrently.  

Explain how routine measures are recorded and their uses in health and social care

Temperature: The body temperature of a human being is recorded or measured using thermometer. It is a valuable instrument which assists health providers to measure changes in body temperature of obese individuals in the present case. Because the individual was agonizing from fever, it was vital to record temperature for effective diagnose of proper health condition.  The normal human body temperature is between97.8 to 99.1 degrees. At 100 and beyond one is said to have a fever. Temperature is measured by skin, orally, armpit, rectally and by ear. Hypothermia is a condition when one’s temperature is below 95 degrees (Abduljalil et.al. 2012).

BMI: This stands for Body Mass Index that is drawn from measuring the height and weight of the person. It is defined as body weight in kilogram by square height in meters or m sq. It is useful technique of quantifying mass of the tissue of an individual in a give scenario and classify as overweight or obese based on acquired value.

Blood Pressure: The BP of a patient in the presented case can be measured and recorded via sphygmomanometer instrument. Blood Pressure rate: a normal person has a blood pressure rate of 120/80. With that rate possibilities of heart diseases or stroke is minimal.    

Blood Test: The test give info regarding the patient’s physical health. It is valuable in the detection of microbial infection in body of the patient. In the present case, the person has suffered flu and hence it remains imperative to test sample of the blood for the identification of degree of flu infection.

Pulse rate: is the number of times the heart pumps blood per second. Pulse rate depends significant with the age. For aged people with 100 beats/minute is normal.

Respiration rate: It is recorded via the tool known as Electrocardiogram (ECG). Here, the electrical activity of heart is measured and recorded for the cardiac rhythm measurement for the cardiovascular disease diagnosis. Electro-Diagram (ECG): for a normal person, ECG rhythm level of an individual is 60-100 beats/minute. A normal adult rate of respiration is 15-17 breathing per minute. For a person suffering from fever the rate might increase.

BMI

Asses how routine measures provide the information about the body functioning

The 65 years old individual recommended routine will give information on the body functions. The recording of body temperature by a thermometer will indicate the degrees of fever the person is suffering from. The recording of blood pressure will detect if there are any risks of vascular disease (Bove 2014). The person is suffering from hypertension thus her blood pressure should be monitored well. Respiratory rate was recorded to obtain the rate. The person is suffering from chest pain and his pulse rate and respiratory rate might be high. The routine tests were performed on the 65-year-old man will provide the required information. With the recordings, a decision can be made on what to avoid and also monitoring of the patient can be decided.

Examine such functioning inform care planning

Care planning consists of the preventive measures and using them as the patient responds to the information given in the routine measures. The results of the individual suffering from hypertension and chest pain will help him to take the required measures and actions in order to manage his condition. The important treatment on the man in the picture entails frequent checkup of the blood pressure. The man should also quit smoking because of his chest condition. Inhaling smoke will only make his situation worse. The patient should also consider his lifestyle mainly on his eating habits. He should avoid food with spices, reduce the amount of salt intake as well as fatty foods.

Physical exercises ought to be part of his everyday life. The patient should also be keen in engaging himself in hard work like lifting of heavy bags. Due to the chest pain, the patient should not strain too much to avoid stressing the muscles and ribs. He should also keep warm especially in cold seasons to avoid chest blockage and other cold related issues. He also need to avoid places like factories where there are excessive emissions of unfiltered gases. In hypertension case, the patient should ensure consistent intake of the medication with no delay or omission. He should ensure that his food is a well-balanced diet and mostly consider fruits in the diet as a source vitamin.

Effects of age on the body structure and functions

Aging alters changes the tissues, cells and organs and the body structure at large. Every crucial organ start to lose certain functions as the woman ages right from her childhood. Aging alteration take place in each and every cell, organ and tissue of the body, and such alterations affect the functioning of each body system. Living tissue of the woman is comprised of cells. Many different cell types exist, however, all share similar fundamental structure. Tissues describe layers of identical cells that undertake a particular function (Ansari, Zochios, Falter and Klein 2016). The various types of tissues merge together to create organs. Cells of the woman form the basic building blocks of her tissues. Each cell witness alterations as the woman ages. They subsequently become bigger and with reduced ability to undergo division and multiplication. Among these alterations, there is a rise in the pigments alongside fatty materials within the cells, lipids. Various cells of this woman will lose their ability to function, or they might start to abnormally function. As the woman ages, there is a buildup of waste products in her tissues (Bianconi, Piovesan and Perez-Amodio 2013). Thus a fatty brown pigment known as lipofuscin accumulates in many of her tissues, as do additional fatty materials.

Blood Pressure

The connective tissue alters, hence becoming increasingly stiff. This then triggers the blood vessel, organs alongside airways of this woman to be increasingly rigid. The membrane of the cell also alters and hence many tissues will have additional trouble acquiring oxygen and nutrients, and eliminating carbon dioxide and additional wastes. A great proportion of her tissues will lose mass. This procedure is known as atrophy. This is a situation in which some of her tissues become nodular or even increasingly rigid. As a result of changes in both cells and tissues, the organs of the woman will change as well.

Aging organs gradually lose their functions. The woman might even fail to notice such loss instantly due to her rare need to use her organs to their fullest potential or ability. The organs entail reserve ability to function over and above the usual demands. For instance, the heart the woman’s heart was able to pump about ten times at her 20, the amount of blood which is really required to keep her body alive. Nonetheless, at her 30, her average of one percent such reserve was lost every year. The primary alterations in the organ reserve take place in this woman’s heart, kidneys, and lungs.

The amount of the lost reserve ranges between her different organs. The alterations seem gradual over an extended time period. When her organ is worked harder as beyond normal, it might fail to improve function. Sudden failure of the heart or other challenges are able to establish when the woman’s body is overworked as opposed to usual levels. These could result from the body stressors. The woman cells will shrink or undergo atrophy. The woman’s cell might decrease enough to trigger the whole organ to atrophy. This is usually a normal aging alteration and will take place in any of her tissues.

Atrophy will be more pronounced in the woman’s skeletal muscle, the brain, the heart, and her sex organ liker her ovaries and breasts. Her bones will only become mire thinner and probably to break with even the slightest trauma. The atrophy’s cause remains a mystery, however, it is associated with decreased use, reduced workload, declined supply of nutrition and blood to the cells a well as decreased stimulation by hormones and nerves. The other change is called hypertrophy. Here, the woman’s cells might enlarge due to a rise of the proteins in her cell membrane as well as cell structures, and not a surge in the fluid of the cells. When the woman’s cells atrophy, other cells could hypertrophy to balance off the cell mass lost.

Blood Test

There will be changes in hormone of the woman. Here endocrine system is composed of tissues and organs responsible for hormones production. As she ages, alterations naturally take place in her body in terms of how her body systems are controlled. Certain target tissues subsequently become less sensitive to their controlling hormone. The quantity of produced hormone might further alter. The blood levels of certain hormones could increase whereas some reduce, and others remaining unchanged. Her hormones will also break down or metabolized more gradually. The production of hormones is controlled by other hormones and hence aging will as well alters the hormone production in this woman. The endocrine tissue will produce less of its hormone than at her younger age. There will be a significant decrease in estrogen and prolactin levels in her.

The women’s skin will also change due to aging including wrinkles and sagging skin. The hair will whiten and graying. Here breast will lose fat, tissues as well as mammary gland due the reduction in the production of estrogen which take place at menopause. The gland tissue will shrink and the breast becomes smaller and less full. The supportive tissue becomes less elastic making the breast to sag. Nipple also change with areola becoming smaller and nearly disappear (Andersson and Tracey 2012).  

The old age of the woman has affected the overall body functioning as well as the structure.  Her integumentary system is affected and the reason behind her wound on the leg taking time in healing. She is also suffering from diabetes type 2 and indication that her glucose levels are high in the body. The old age is also the reason as to why she is backed up various kind of illness such as arthritis in the knees thus affecting her entire functioning and body structure. Arthritis has affected the lady on account of her old age resulting frequent pain in the joint. The stiffening of the tissues leads to the woman unable to tolerate stress. The process of ageing has also resulted the old woman to suffer hypertension therefore a heart and blood vessels impairment.

The lady has suffered from various disorders entailing the high blood pressure, diabetes 2 and arthritis. The effects have affected her entire functioning and the body structures. She has an increased in the head. The effects might be seen creating damage in blood vessels such as the arteries and the veins, the heart and also the brain damage.  Her kidneys too are in a risk of failing. Type 2 diabetes is likely also to create more damage on the muscle cells, liver as well as the fat causing them an abnormal respond to insulin. Her nervous system is also in a risk of further damage since the woman has developed a wound in the leg without notice until a sore develops. Frequent urination as a diabetes symptom and tiredness are also some of the challenges she is facing in connection to her old age.

Pulse Rate

In the provided case, the mentioned conditions significantly dictate the old women’s functions of the body alongside structures. Age has substantially affected bodily structures of this old woman because she is 85 years old. With her advancing age, her respiratory system doesn’t function effectively. She has found it increasingly challenging to breathe because of her deformed ribcage because it cannot contract and expand as required. This has depleted oxygen supply to the other parts of the body. Moreover, her nervous system doesn’t function effectively. It is observed that with ageing, her neurons become damaged and hence affecting her signal transmission in body. This culminates into gradual functioning of body parts since nervous and brain system don’t receive signals as required. The integumentary system of her is affected immensely because of her age alongside diabetes. The wounds on this woman’s body have failed to heal swiftly leading to additional infection. The diabetes in her has seriously affected her skin because of surged blood glucose levels would to heal at an extremely slower rate.

This old female in this case suffers from type 2 diabetes, arthritis and hypertension which are all chronic medical conditions with the following routine care.

Regular routine check-up: because she suffers from chronic conditions including diabetes, it is imperative to record regular routine measures for checking her level of blood glucose and blood cholesterol level. 

Effective Medication: Medication has to entail insulin to control the level of blood sugar. Besides, medication has to be prescribed for control of cholesterol level for hypertension treatment.

Diet and Nutrition: The care plan has to encompass well-balanced diet which can meet her nutritional requirements and control her levels of cholesterol and blood.

Care plan for arthritis: It must entail painkillers to relieve her from pain and physiotherapy will help make her move easily.

Care plan for wound treatment: Diabetes always slow down the process of recovery in old females. Her care plan must entail medications and foot care for the prevention of infections risks caused by open wounds. 

In essence, the report establishes apparent understanding on the human physiology principles. The physiology entail a range of systems as nervous-, respiratory-, endocrine-, and integumentary system. Such systems of the body respond to daily activities of humans like eating, walking, running among others. It has been observed that body systems always perform at level of cellular to perform life activities among people. Moreover, the report has featured importance of regular routine measures in social and health care context in specific cases.

References

Abduljalil, K. and et.al. 2012. Anatomical, physiological and metabolic changes with gestational age during normal pregnancy. Clinical pharmacokinetics. 51(6). Pp.365-396.

Andersson, U. and Tracey, K.J., 2012. Reflex principles of immunological homeostasis. Annual review of immunology. 30(7). Pp.313-335.

Ansari, B.M., Zochios, V., Falter, F. and Klein, A.A., 2016. Physiological controversies and methods used to determine fluid responsiveness: a qualitative systematic review. England Journal of Medicine. 71(1). Pp.94-105.

Bianconi, E., Piovesan, A. and Perez-Amodio, S., 2013. An estimation of the number of cells in the human body. Annals of human biology. 40(6). Pp.463-471.

Bove, A.A. ed., 2014. Exercise Medicine: Physiological Principles and Clinical Applications. Academic Press.

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