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Question:
Describe the Auditing and Professional Practice for Recurring Issues.

 
Answer:
Scenario One

The cash flow position of the firm indicates the actual level of cash inflow and outflow during a particular period. As per, Chandler and Edwards (2014) mentioned that the cash flow statement has assisted the investors to understand the cash inflow and the amount of daily operational expenses of the business enterprise. In addition, it shall help the investors to evaluate the current financial status of the entity after the acquisition.  As such, the business entity shall have to consider the cash flow statement in the development of the financial as well as the operational strategies of a business enterprise.

Hayes et al. (2014) mentioned that that the preparation of cash flow statement is mandatory and is a core component of the annual report in the organization. Thus, it is necessary to collect data relating to the cash flow statement of the business entity to prepare effective financial strategies and achieve business sustainability.  The following are the pertinent strategies that can have an adverse impact on the financial position of the business entity.

Misappropriation of Funds: If the cash flow position of the business entity there shall be discrepancies in the preparation of the financial statements (Chandler and Edwards 2014). As such, this shall lead to the embezzlements of funds. Thus, this shall facilitate irregularities in the preparation of the financial statements of the business enterprise.

Ineffective Financial Reporting

There shall be ineffective financial reporting if the cash Flow statement of the business entity is not considered. Kidron et al. (2016) stated that the cash flow statement is an  effective part of the year ended  annual report of  the business enterprise . As such, not emphasizing on the cash flow statement of a business entity shall lead to discrepancies in the financial statements of the business entity. The stakeholders of the business entity would depend on the annual reports of the company to take informed financial decisions.  Thus, this process shall be hampered if the cash flow statement is not included within the annual report of the business entity. Kumar and Sharma (2015) stated that the investors should have to depend on the financial statements of the business enterprise to take investment decisions. As such, the cash flow statement shall be an essential financial tool for the business entity to determine the level of cash position of the business entity. This shall also reflect the financial competencies of the firm to pay off the short term loans of the business entity and capability to deal with any crisis situation.

Financial Losses - If the cash flow position of the business entity at the time of acquisition is not considered, these shall lead to financial losses for the business entity. According to Lenz and Sarens (2012), that this shall have an adverse influence on the financial position of the entity leading to the development of faulty financial strategies of the business enterprise.

 
The Core Principles at Risk

If the cash flow position of the business entity is not considered this shall lead to certain fundamental principles that are at risk. The following are the principles that are at risks

Integrity- The principal of integrity refers to the transparency and authenticity in the preparation of accounts. Accountants must have the professionalism and the integrity to prepare the financial statements in the business entity. There shall be certain objectivity to the preparation of the financial accounts in the business entity. As such, this shall guide the accountants to develop financial statements and accounts in free and unbiased manner. Professional competence

Objectivity- There shall be certain objectivity to the preparation of the financial statements. Thus, the financial statements shall interpret the financial data and prepare the financial statements. The objectivity of the financial statement is to assist the business entity to assess the financial condition of the business entity.

Confidentiality- The attribute of confidentiality is an essential part of the characteristics of accountants. As such, every financial information shall be treated as confidential and have to be preserved from any third party. 

Professional norms and ethics – The accountant shall have professional norms, ethics, and would have to be a guideline to their daily business functionalities.  According to Messier Jr, (2016), the professional ethics help the business entity to offer effective accounts and financial services to business entity. 

 
Scenario Two

The American accounting decision-making model states that there is a seven –step process in the financial and ethical decision-making. According to Porter (2014) mentioned that the American accounting decision-making model is a pertinent help in the accounting procedures in the organization. The ethical dilemmas in the workplace would be addressed through the implementation of the operational strategies in the business entity. The decision making process in the organization would be updated to state the operational policies of the business entity.

Case facts- The case facts would have to be gathered an appropriate manner to take the necessary facts about organizational growth and sustainability. The definite facts have to be established to aid the growth and business sustainability in the market.

Ethical constraints – Many ethical constraints can arise in the running of a business entity. As such, this shall ensure that any organization or group working within the organization takes the no undue advantage. Zane was unduly removed from his position and relocated to other position in the entity. Thus, the management of the business entity has to take appropriate decision to prevent such instances from happening. 

Alternative action – In the presence of a business crisis, the alternative courses of action shall have to be developed that shall lead the organization to growth. Furnham and Gunter, (2015) mentioned that the alternative business strategy shall help the entity to guard against any threat for the business enterprise. The business functionalities of the organization shall also be re-innovated to aid business sustainability and growth in an intensively competitive market.

Determining the marketing action – Arens et al. (2012) mentioned that the best action should have to be determined to overcome any issues. However, that an excellent work audit has been offered to the client by Zane. However, there have been interpersonal issues between the client and Zane that has led to the dismissal of Zane in the workplace. As such, the workforce should be provided with adequate training, to enable the workplace to adjust with every need of the client.

Influence of each successive action – The influence of each action shall have to be pre-determined so that necessary measures can be taken for organizational growth . According to Porter et al. (2014) mentioned that this should enable the business entity to act as per the client needs, attitudes and wants. In this regard, it can be said that the big four accounting firms in the organization shall have to offer behavioral skills to the workforce to adjust to the changing working environment.

In the existing scenario, Luke has to inform the intrinsic details of events that was connected with the removal of Zane as well as his behavioral and interpersonal conflict with the client.

The Mary – Guy decision making model is distinct from the American decision making model in the terms it is less practical and is more based on theories than facts . Thus, this model shall offer a  theoretical  overview  to  Luke  to aid  in the development of  the operational   strategies of  the business  entity.  As such, this shall help Luke to adjust to a vulnerable market condition and adapt to the needs of the client. Porter et al. (2014) mentioned that the Mary Guy Decision making model should enable the workforce to adjust to specific norms and guidelines that shall facilitate productivity and would ensure smoother business policies in the working environment. As such, the Mary –Guy decision-making model has been an effective business tool to develop the operational strategies of the business entity. According to Kidron et al. (2016), the Mary Guy decision-making model shall facilitate the employees to have a broader perspective about the client views and opinions in the workplace. In contrast to the American Accounting decision-making model, the Mary Guy decision model shall enable the business entity in evaluating each step in the client customer service.

In addition, the client servicing costs would be also evaluated in order to reduce any financial losses for the business entity.  The Mary Guy decision-making model would help in  the business entity in the development of the pertinent theories and the guidelines relating to the operational policies of the business entity. Thus, this would be of help to the employees to adapt to every need of the client.  The Mary Guy decision-making model would constitute of the following characteristics in the decision making process- Flexibility, transparency, keeping of promise as well as the achievement of consistent business service over a period. The characteristics of loyalty as well as integrity are the essential parts of the decision making process in the organizations.

The Mary Guy decision-making model shall enable the business entity in allocating the work as per the business necessities. Thus, Luke’s issue shall be taken seriously and the required people have to take the decisions in regarding to the management activities of the business entity. According to Chandler and Edwards (2014), the Mary Guy Decision making model would assist the management in taking appropriate business decisions. As such, the Mary Guy decision-making model shall help the management of the business entity to allocate work according to the work ethics and the expertise of the business entity.

 
Scenario Three

Hayes et al. (2014) mentioned accounts payable should relate to the capability of the business entity to meet the daily expenses of an organization and pay the existing short-term loans of the organization. The account payable statement comes is classified as current liabilities in the Balance sheet of the organization.

The accounts payable accounts that are developed would enable the business entity to make the authentic payments to the suppliers in the organization. Evetts (2014) mentioned that effective  preparation of the accounts payable statement  would  assist the  business entity  to  in measuring  the  existing  financial statements of the  business enterprise   and  define  each operational  expense of the  organization. 

As such, it can be stated that the following are the factors that facilitate organizational risk.

Discrepancies in the accounts payable statements – The development of the accounts payable statements shall state the amount of money that can be paid to the shareholders in the organization. As such, this shall state the exact amount in monetary terms for the payment to the creditors and the amount of money owned by the debtors in the organization. The discrepancies in the accounts payable statement shall lead to financial losses for the business entity. The accounts payable statement shall assist the business entity to determine the financial strategies of the business enterprise as per the forecasted business sustainability of the entity.

Increase in the operation costs- The increase in the operational costs shall be as result of the improper development of the accounts payable statement in the organization. This shall lead to the improper planning of the financial policies and can have an adverse impact on the financial position of the business entity. Hayes et al. (2014) mentioned that the operational expenditures of the business entity should be reflected through the preparation of the accounts payable statement in the organization. Messier Jr (2016) mentioned that the increase in the operational costs is one of the primary risks in the development of error-prone account payable statements in the organization.  This shall lead to discrepancies in the development of employee requisitions as well as supplier invoices and issue of payments to suppliers and creditors. Kumar and Sharma (2015) stated that financial discrepancy is one of the issues that can have an impact on the operational policies of the business entity. As such, the preparation of the year- ended annual reports of the company shall be incomplete without the development of the annual reports of the company. This shall lead to inaccurate assessment of the existing financial condition of the business entity and therefore lead to organization to market sustainability and growth in the international market.

 
The preparation of the financial statements

There are arises certain errors in the preparation of the financial statements if the account payable statements are not prepared in an authentic manner. Lenz and Sarens (2012) mentioned that the account payable statements in the business entity should state the amount of money owed by the debtors and the creditors in the organization. The accounts payable statement in the business organization shall reflect the total debtors and creditors in the financial statements prepared by the management. According to Kidron et al. (2016), it shall be necessary to overcome the inherent weaknesses and threats that pose a threat to the effectiveness of the financial statements in the end. Internal auditing is an effective method to assess the financial condition of the business entity and respond appropriately for authenticity. As such, it is an essential tool for the business entity to implement authenticity and transparency in the financial statements of the business entity. This shall be necessary for the preparation of the financial statements for   a   business entity.  

 Porter et al. (2014)  mentioned  substantive testing in  audit procedure should help in making the audit process  more  effective and  useful.  Besides this, the audit procedure used  in the business enterprise    would   be   developed  as per the needs of the organization.  Each supporting  document of  every  transaction  shall be verified   to facilitate authenticity  in  the recording of the transactions.  In the case of the accounts payable statement of the business entity, by examining the year – ended stock of the inventory. The amount of inventory present in the organization shall indicate towards the   business sustainability of   an organization. 

This would also help the business entity to review the sales revenue of the organization as well as the production and distribution strategies in business entity. To assess the assertion b, the bank confirmation would have to be executed to evaluate the existing cash and bank balances in  the business entity . Evetts (2014) stated that this should assist the management of the business entity to identify the discrepancies in the organization. The bank statement would refer to the details pertaining to the current sales revenue in the organization and as the daily expenses in organization.

Chandler and Edwards (2014) mentioned that the existing amount of cash balance in the organization reflects the amount of expenditures as well as the revenues earned in the organization. The substantive test of detail in the case of assertion would assist the entity in the development of the operational strategies of the business entity. As such , the substantive test of detail in the business enterprise shall help the business entity in establishing the accounts payable statement in the business entity The  existing  cash balance in the organization  shall  state  the  amount of sakes revenue in the organization as  well as  the  financial competencies  in  the organization. As such, the cash balance in the organization shall help the business entity in developing appropriate marketing and the operational strategies for the organization.

 
References

Arens, A.A., Elder, R.J. and Beasley, M.S., 2012. Auditing and assurance services: an integrated approach. Prentice Hall

Chandler, R.A. and Edwards, J.R., 2014. Recurring Issues in Auditing (RLE Accounting): Professional Debate 1875-1900. Routledge.

Evetts, J., 2014. The concept of professionalism: Professional work, professional practice and learning. In International Handbook of Research in Professional and Practice-based Learning (pp. 29-56). Springer Netherlands.

Furnham, A. and Gunter, B., 2015. Corporate Assessment (Routledge Revivals): Auditing a Company's Personality. Routledge.

Hayes, R., Wallage, P. and Gortemaker, H., 2014. Principles of auditing: an introduction to international standards on auditing. Pearson Higher Ed.

Kumar, R. and Sharma, V., 2015. Auditing: Principles and Practice. PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd..

Lenz, R. and Sarens, G., 2012. Reflections on the internal auditing profession: what might have gone wrong?. Managerial Auditing Journal, 27(6), pp.532-549.

Messier Jr, W., 2016. Auditing & assurance services: A systematic approach. McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Porter, B., Simon, J. and Hatherly, D., 2014. Principles of external auditing. John Wiley & Sons. 

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