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Question:
Describe about the Strategic Information Systems for Quality Care Services.

 
Answer:
Introduction

In order to provide the best quality services to the care service users, the modern day technology has been completely changed. According to Barbash & Glied (2012), technology has been proved as an essential part in the health care system and every organisation as it reduces the future costs of the care services to the users. In this present assignment, the impact and importance of Information Technology (IT) in healthcare would be discussed in a detailed manner. The assignment would also deal with the constant changes in IT that help to develop the essential quality of healthcare services to the care service users. This assignment would explain the innovative ways and methods followed by healthcare organisations with Strategic Information System.

History and evaluation of IT in healthcare

During the era of the 1960s, the healthcare organisations are influenced with Information Technology for providing standard quality care services to the service users. It also helps to maintain relevant data in the computers in less expensive manner. However, in those eras, the installations of computers in the healthcare organisations were not so easy. Therefore, many organisations have to sacrifice the facilities of modern technology just it fails to accommodate a computer in small space. Barnaghi et al. (2012) have mentioned that the changed time transforms the incorporation of robust networks. It is distributed computing systems in the healthcare organisations for reducing the installation cost of computers. The Integrated Delivery Network (IDN) helps every healthcare organisation to involve impetus to integrate reporting system and data.

 
Impact of Information Technology on the Healthcare Industry

The impact of Information Technology (IT) includes the gradual development of the transitional economic condition of the healthcare organisation, such as Australian Healthcare Associates (AHA). In order to achieve the ultimate benefit of IT, an organisation has to prepare an effective strategy plan. Blumenthal (2012) has suggested that even the management of Australian Healthcare organisation engages international experts for keeping pace with the contemporary global trend. The movement of necessary information in health and social care setting increases in rapid manner as it denotes the quality differentiator. Only because of the effective use of Information Technology, the physician, patients, their families and attendants can collect significant information.

There are some potential issues regarding the implication of IT, such as dissimilar mix of various software systems in healthcare organisation while comparing to the other industries of Australia. Even sometimes, the officials of health care organisation encounters problem because of the infrastructure of IT system and these problems delay the expansion of growth and allocated tasks. Often, the Information Technology fails to satisfy the requirements of patients and their families as the management of healthcare organisation cannot cope up with the modern technological system. As opined by Blumenthal (2012) electronic health applications and Information Technology in health and social care setting of Australia can transform the entire design and shape of the workforce with increasing efficiency. It also allows patients to receive perfect services from the nurses, physician assistant and specialist physician instead of general physician. However, Health Information Technology (HIT) is responsible for major transformation in the health and social care services in Australia. Information Technology includes a vast range of several health information such as clinical decision support, web portals of the care service users, secure procedures of messaging and order entry in healthcare organisations, such as Public Health Association.

Patient-centric Information Technology

Patient-centric Information Technology has turned the concept into reality, which includes the primary care infrastructure in Australia. The patient centered Information Technology helps to understand the basic requirements of a patient and provide care services according to the preference. It also involves team-based and comprehensive care services that include hospitals, skilled nursing facilities, nutritionists, information technology specialists, practice managers and social workers. Boyce, Browne & Greenhalgh (2014) have suggested that Information Technology is sufficient to provide integrated behavioural and medical health care services within the complex structural systems of the healthcare organisation. Patient centered IT system also engages constant access to the care service users with short waiting to get appointments with doctors, alternative methods of communication, for instances telephone and e-mail and enhanced hours.

Information Technology suggests a particular system oriented approach in order to maintain safety and quality while providing care services to the patients. Patients exploit the new tools and information such as that software, which is adequate enough to support basic medical processes, hardware, which allows an easy and swift access to the valuable information regarding the care services. According to Button, Harrington & Belan (2014), it helps to identify the significant challenges related to the budget of the patients, culture, and environment of a healthcare organisation. As Strategic Information System is a sophisticated approach to the development of healthcare organisations, therefore, there should be an availability of various potential strategies and techno-centric approach for providing the ultimate benefit of the patients. However, the use and implementation of Strategic Information System entirely differ from one country to other with proper and adequate concentration to the technological aspect. The government of Australia has established the necessity of IT as a high priority for maintaining the Strategic Information System in healthcare services. The ultimate goal of implementing modern Information Technology in healthcare organisation suggests the fundamental improvements of the health condition of patients by providing standard quality care services (Cresswell, Bates & Sheikh, 2013).

 
Information technology is driven by care

Information Technology and reform in healthcare services are entwined in an inextricable manner as the delivery system transforms from a model based volume to the one-based valve in healthcare services. The procedures of providing care services have also changed with the incorporation of Information Technology such as the system of telemedicine, which transforms to patient-centric model from provider centric care model. The fundamental purpose of information technology in healthcare organisation has been changed in a significant manner only because the core practice of medicine has transformed since few decades. 

Emergency facilities and scope in healthcare settings drives the Information Technology as it increases the level of complexity of electronic medical record. Damberg et al., (2014) have referred that the ultimate potentiality of the electronic medical record includes important infrastructures in order to assign the significant information within a healthcare organisation. Catholic Health is a famous healthcare organisation in Australia, which supports the advantages and prospects of telemedicine to provide potential care services to the patients. The process of telemedicine is flexible enough to reach under-served regions of Australia. However, Catholic Health lacks the tie-up system with renowned healthcare organisations of Australia and fails to provide integrated care with reduction of barriers (Cresswell & Sheikh, 2013).

Setting standards

Setting the standards of Information Technology play a significant part in the health and social care services as it involves new software, creativity, and innovation. In order to cope up with the contemporary trend of Australian healthcare organisations, Public Health Association establishes potential and practical standards to provide high quality and safe health care services to the care service users of Australia. As opposed by Frisse et al., (2012) the basic instruction of engaging important Information Technology structure is explained with setting of adequate standards. However, the widespread adoption of Information Technology system in various health organisations of Australia transform the national health policy and system as it has been accomplished with an expansion of affordable, accessible health care services. 

Information Technology offers tantalising opportunities in order to accomplish targeted goals in a short period. However, this symbiotic effort needs an outstanding deal of energy, collaboration, resources, commitment, and focus. Ghanbarzadeh et al., (2014) have mentioned that with the success of proper implementation of Information Technology, the quality care services f Australian healthcare organisations has been vastly developed and transformed.

Importance of Information Technology in Healthcare organisations

The basic level of diffusion of Information Technology (IT) in healthcare organisations varies from hospital to hospital according to their strategy and during the time of investment decisions. However, the healthcare organisations of Australia often encounter potential barriers while adopting the IT system. The investment of IT in an organisation is expensive and complicated system compared to other available priorities (Grol et al., 2013). As IT is effective enough on providing application that is more direct and services to the patients, therefore Catholic Health insists the professional install proper software for providing safe and quality standard care services.

The ultimate expenditure of IT consumes a large number of primary budgets; however, it differs according to the investment cycle of healthcare organisations. Information Technology has played a great role to improve the entire image of healthcare settings especially it helps during the critical health condition of a patient. IT ensures to maintain centralised records of patients and medical tests that make easy to provide subsequent treatment. According to Jones et al., (2012) IT promotes the process of e-prescribing, electronic transactions, setting medical code and medical records. However, it also involves innovative procedures and diagnostic tools, which are much expensive than the traditional medical treatment.

 
Existing IT systems in healthcare

Health Information Technology (HIT) supports the computerised systems in order to secure the fundamental exchanges of health information in between care service users, providers, quality monitors and payers. With the constant changes in technology, there is a drastic transformation in the Health Information Technology, which plays a significant role in healthcare organisation (Kaye et al., 2013). The obvious outcome of transaction system involves the installation of digitised data.

M-health:

M-health reveals a complete new horizon in the health and social care organisation with efficient usage of mobile technologies. The use of wireless technologies and mobile support the basic achievements of health objectives such as M-health as it has enough potentiality to change the concept of health service delivery throughout the world. Rapid advancements in the mobile applications and technologies, there is a potential scope for new opportunities that may improve M-health services. With the gradual increment this service, there is huge possibility for M-health to become bigger than previous one (Lindberg et al., 2013). In the healthcare organisations of Australia, there are few categories of various M-health including emergency toll-free telephone service, community mobilisation, appointment reminders, mobile telemedicine and health call centres. It also involves the process of managing disasters, emergencies, health promotion, information access, health surveys, data collection and patient monitoring.

Electronic health record:

Public Health Association, Australian Healthcare Associates and Catholic Health use electronic health record in order to maintain safe and secured data. From the data, it is very much clear that at least 86% hospitals and healthcare organisations would be incorporating electronic health record system by the end of this present year in Australia. Lluch (2012) has referred that electronic health record also helps the healthcare professionals to maintain relevant data regarding patients for future usage and official purpose.

Telemedicine:

The importance of telemedicine or telehealth is greatly enjoyed by the patients of cities rather than the patients of rural areas. Telemedicine exploits several electronic communications media, which ranges from teleconferencing to remote patient monitoring, provide clinical support and services to the patients. Telemedicine has the capability to diagnose and treat the symptoms of stroke faster and efficient manner rather than the traditional method (Mandl & Kohane, 2012). Use of tablets and smart phones has made easier the implication of telemedicine in the healthcare organisation o Australia.

Self-service kiosks:

Self-service kiosks are efficient to help several procedures such as the process of admit to the hospital. It is very similar to the portal technology and helps the patients and their families to make the process of admission to any hospitals of Australia swiftly. As opposed by Murdoch  & Detsky (2013) self-service kiosks also reduce the necessity of large number of assistants and attendants at the reception desks of a hospital. Self-service kiosks are effective and potential enough to monitor and assess the health of patients. However, it is helpful for the patients of remote area instead of metropolitan cities as there is already technologically advanced hospitals with standard quality care services.

Portal technology:

Portal technology is a great invention of Information Technology in healthcare organisation. Catholic Health and Public Health Association are famous healthcare organisations in Australia and these use portal technology in order to interact with the patients through various online media. Portal technology allows both the physician and patients to access the medical records for enabling patients about their present health condition in perfect manner.

 
Remote monitoring tools:

Remote monitoring tools include a vast collection of important tools of information technology, which are loaded to the service users and providers. Remote monitoring tools is remote tracking, computer health and proactive for enhancing overall performance of existing technical support to curve out the advantages in better way than the previous one in Australian healthcare organisation. Patients can monitor own health with proper use of this tools (Schoen et al., 2012).

Wireless communication:

Healthcare organisations of Australia use various wireless communications in a form of instant messaging like whatsApp, Way2SMS and others. Although walkie-talkies can be considered as wireless communication, however, it is not new in the Information Technology. All these above mentioned wireless communication replaces overhead pagers and beepers. Catholic Health supports the process of developing wireless communication in organisation as it reduces the taken time of the healthcare professionals such as physician, nurse, care workers and attendants (Sittig & Singh, 2012). All healthcare organisation of Australia potentially use the advanced wireless communication, which is apt in the 21st century.

Sensors and wearable technology:

Transparency market research has revealed the fact that the use of sensors and wearable technology is gradually increasing in healthcare organisations. It can be assumed that by the end of this present year it would be available at least 82% in the Australian healthcare organisation. Sensors and wearable technologies are a great innovation of Information Technology and it includes different and excellent process to collect the data that is the fundamental aims and purpose of healthcare organisations. This potential technology is appropriate to detect the pH levels of skin for ensuring the infection from a wound. 

Real time locating services:

Real time locating services (RTLS) are suitable data monitoring tool, which helps healthcare organisations to concentrate on indentifying difficulties and problems instantly. RTLS works solely based on the quality and frequency of data, the history of device location and appropriate analysis that is predictive. RTLS have become a significant component of several preset technologies and ubiquitous systems of location aware in healthcare organisations. It allows the patient to know the exact location of medical equipments and critical assets anytime and anywhere (Wamba & Carter). RTLS technologies are used in huge manner by Australian healthcare organisations in order to find solutions to indoor tracking problems.

Conclusion

Information Technology in healthcare organisations is a fastest increasing field as it make the task of health service providers much easy than previous era. Information Technology has enough potentiality for developing the efficiency, safety and quality of health and social care services. The fundamental diffusion of IT is very much low in the healthcare organisations of Australia. However, the surveys reveal the fact that service providers have adequate plan to increase the procedure of investment.

 
References

Barbash, G. I., & Glied, S. A. (2012). New technology and health care costs—the case of robot-assisted surgery. New England Journal of Medicine,363(8), 701-704.

Barnaghi, P., Wang, W., Henson, C., & Taylor, K. (2012). Semantics for the Internet of Things: early progress and back to the future. International Journal on Semantic Web and Information Systems (IJSWIS), 8(1), 1-21.

Blumenthal, D. (2012). Performance improvement in health care—seizing the moment. New England Journal of Medicine, 366(21), 1953-1955.

Boyce, M. B., Browne, J. P., & Greenhalgh, J. (2014). The experiences of professionals with using information from patient-reported outcome measures to improve the quality of healthcare: a systematic review of qualitative research. BMJ quality & safety, bmjqs-2013.

Button, D., Harrington, A., & Belan, I. (2014). E-learning & information communication technology (ICT) in nursing education: A review of the literature. Nurse Education Today, 34(10), 1311-1323.

Cresswell, K. M., Bates, D. W., & Sheikh, A. (2013). Ten key considerations for the successful implementation and adoption of large-scale health information technology. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 20(e1), e9-e13.

Cresswell, K., & Sheikh, A. (2013). Organizational issues in the implementation and adoption of health information technology innovations: an interpretative review. International journal of medical informatics, 82(5), e73-e86.

Damberg, C. L., Sorbero, M. E., Lovejoy, S. L., Martsolf, G. R., Raaen, L., & Mandel, D. (2014). Measuring success in health care value-based purchasing programs. RAND Corporation.

Frisse, M. E., Johnson, K. B., Nian, H., Davison, C. L., Gadd, C. S., Unertl, K. M., ... & Chen, Q. (2012). The financial impact of health information exchange on emergency department care. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 19(3), 328-333.

Ghanbarzadeh, R., Ghapanchi, A. H., Blumenstein, M., & Talaei-Khoei, A. (2014). A decade of research on the use of three-dimensional virtual worlds in health care: a systematic literature review. Journal of medical Internet research, 16(2), e47.

Grol, R., Wensing, M., Eccles, M., & Davis, D. (Eds.). (2013). Improving patient care: the implementation of change in health care. John Wiley & Sons.

Jones, S. S., Heaton, P. S., Rudin, R. S., & Schneider, E. C. (2012). Unraveling the IT productivity paradox—lessons for health care. New England Journal of Medicine, 366(24), 2243-2245.

Kaye, R., Kokia, E., Shalev, V., Idar, D., & Chinitz, D. (2013). Barriers and success factors in health information technology: A practitioner's perspective. Journal of Management & Marketing in Healthcare.

Lindberg, B., Nilsson, C., Zotterman, D., Söderberg, S., & Skär, L. (2013). Using information and communication technology in home care for communication between patients, family members, and healthcare professionals: a systematic review. International journal of telemedicine and applications, 2013.

Lluch, M. (2012). Healthcare professionals’ organisational barriers to health information technologies—A literature review. International journal of medical informatics, 80(12), 849-862.

Mandl, K. D., & Kohane, I. S. (2012). Escaping the EHR trap—the future of health IT. New England Journal of Medicine, 366(24), 2240-2242.

Murdoch, T. B., & Detsky, A. S. (2013). The inevitable application of big data to health care. Jama, 309(13), 1351-1352.

Schoen, C., Osborn, R., Squires, D., Doty, M., Rasmussen, P., Pierson, R., & Applebaum, S. (2012). A survey of primary care doctors in ten countries shows progress in use of health information technology, less in other areas.Health affairs, 31(12), 2805-2816.

Sittig, D. F., & Singh, H. (2012). Electronic health records and national patient-safety goals. New England Journal of Medicine, 367(19), 1854-1860.

Wamba, S. F., & Carter, L. (2014). Social media tools adoption and use by SMES: An empirical study. Journal of Organizational and End User Computing (JOEUC), 26(2), 1-17.

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