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Question:

Divergence and change in the discipline of project management.

Identification of the Organizational and Managerial Characteristics of Organizations Operating in Project Conducive Environment–A Preliminary Study.

Exploring the value of project management: linking project management performance and project success.

Answer:
 

1.

Create and save new base calendar and amend the project start date &

ð

 

hours worked, lunch and holidays to assigned team

 

2.

Public Holidays

ð

 

(see screenshots of source below)

 

3.  Add reasonable resource costings: External resources

o

(see screenshot of External Group in next row)

 

4.  Add reasonable resource costings: Top management resources (see

o

screenshot below)

 


 

 
Part 2: Project Amendment Approach
 

Core reason to

According to a definition by Investopedia.com, “de-merger” is a business strategy in

shorten

which a single business is broken into components, either to operate on their own, to be

implementation

sold or to be dissolved

timeline and

 

 

costs: to

 

 

 

 

accommodate a

 

 

proposed

 

 

de-merger

 

 

occurring within

 

 

the organisation

 

 

Potential

ü

advantages of

 

 

SAP Best

 

 

Practices

 

 

installation

 

 

Sources:

 

 

Project employs

ü

the ASAP

 

 

methodology

 

 

 

functionality in the project

 

 

 

 

6.

Do not add graduate

o

 

students or outsource any

 

 

tasks. Do not amend

 

 

Milestones as they are not

 

 

tasks, do not add extra

 

 

resources to the project.

 

7.

DO NOT LEVEL PROJECT

 

8.

Project Duration was

o

 

planned in number of work

 

 

days and should remain the

 

 

same

 

Part 1: Start, End dates and Total Cos

Part 1 Project Statistics

Part #

Start Date

End Date

Total Costing

Part 1

9/26/11

12/24/12

S$6,156,920

Project tab>

Project

Information>

Statistics

 

 

 

 

For reference

only: Project

Statistics of the

original project plan

Original Project Plan Project Statistics

 

 

 


Part 1 Screenshots

 

File> Options>

Display

- Currency Symbol

= S$ (Sing Dollar)

- Decimal digits = 2

- Placement = S$1

- Currency = SGD

 

 

Project tab>

Change Working

Times

- New Project

Calendar created

- Public Holidays

added as

Exceptions for

years 2011 & 2012

 

 

Default Work

Weeks changed to

Cater for Group??

Working hours

10am to 6pm and

lunch break of half

an hour

 

Task tab> Resource Sheet view

- Hourly Rate assigned to each resource

- Grouping done for External resources and Top Management resources

- Base Calendar set to “Group??” Project Calendar

Resource Name

Type

Material Label

Initials

Group

Max. Units

Std. Rate

Ovt. Rate

Cost/Use

Accrue At

Base Calendar

Program / Project Manager

Work

 

P

 

100%

S$85.00/hr

S$0.00/hr

S$0.00

Prorated

Standard

Application Consultant

Work

 

A

 

100%

S$70.00/hr

S$0.00/hr

S$0.00

Prorated

Standard

OCM Expert

Work

 

O

 

100%

S$80.00/hr

S$0.00/hr

S$0.00

Prorated

Standard

Steering Committee Member

Work

 

S

 

100%

S$150.00/hr

S$0.00/hr

S$0.00

Prorated

Standard

Program Controls Manager

Work

 

P

 

100%

S$70.00/hr

S$0.00/hr

S$0.00

Prorated

Standard

Executive Sponsor

Work

 

E

 

100%

S$200.00/hr

S$0.00/hr

S$0.00

Prorated

Standard

Business Process Owner

Work

 

B

 

100%

S$100.00/hr

S$0.00/hr

S$0.00

Prorated

Standard

Technical Consultant

Work

 

T

 

100%

S$50.00/hr

S$0.00/hr

S$0.00

Prorated

Standard

Technical Team Member

Work

 

T

 

100%

S$50.00/hr

S$0.00/hr

S$0.00

Prorated

Standard

Authorization Administrator

Work

 

A

 

100%

S$60.00/hr

S$0.00/hr

S$0.00

Prorated

Standard

System Administrator

Work

 

S

 

100%

S$50.00/hr

S$0.00/hr

S$0.00

Prorated

Standard

Training and Documentation Team Member

Work

 

T

 

100%

S$60.00/hr

S$0.00/hr

S$0.00

Prorated

Standard

Business Process Team Member

Work

 

B

 

100%

S$70.00/hr

S$0.00/hr

S$0.00

Prorated

Standard

Database Administrator

Work

 

D

 

100%

S$65.00/hr

S$0.00/hr

S$0.00

Prorated

Standard

Internal Auditor

Work

 

I

 

100%

S$60.00/hr

S$0.00/hr

S$0.00

Prorated

Standard

Project Reviewer

Work

 

P

 

100%

S$55.00/hr

S$0.00/hr

S$0.00

Prorated

Standard

Application Team Member

Work

 

A

 

100%

S$55.00/hr

S$0.00/hr

S$0.00

Prorated

Standard

Development Manager

Work

 

D

 

100%

S$60.00/hr

S$0.00/hr

S$0.00

Prorated

Standard

Help Desk Provider and Manager

Work

 

H

 

100%

S$55.00/hr

S$0.00/hr

S$0.00

Prorated

Standard

Legacy System Expert

Work

 

L

 

100%

S$45.00/hr

S$0.00/hr

S$0.00

Prorated

Standard

Programmer / Developer

Work

 

P

 

100%

S$40.00/hr

S$0.00/hr

S$0.00

Prorated

Standard

Resource

Leveling could

help to resolve

the over allocation

of

resources but

was not

performed as

stated in

Assignment

Descriptor “DO

NOT LEVEL

PROJECT”.

 No resource leveling is performed as stated in the assignment descriptor “do not level project”.

Part 2: Task Details on Amendments for 23.37% Cost Reduction & 4 Weeks Early

Part 2 Project Statistics

Part #

Start Date

End Date

Total Costing

Part 1

9/26/11

12/24/12

S$6,156,920

Part 2

9/26/11

11/14/12

S$4,717,920

Variance

 

Weeks Early (-28d)

Cost Reduction (23.37%)

Project tab>

 

Project

Information>

Statistics

 

Part 2 Task Amendment Details: Project Notes

 

Lecturer:

 

 

 

 

WBS Code

Task:  Production support and cutover planning

Task Notes

 

 

1.2.1

Determine cutover plan and production support plan

Added

 

 

WBS Code

Task:  End User Training and Documentation Strategy Definition

Task Notes

 

 

 

   Assess End User Training Needs and documentation

Added

 

 

 

   .

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

WBS Code

Task:  Gap analysis

Task Notes

 

 

2.4.4

Gap Analysis

Added

 

 

2.4.4.1

   Define Reports Requirements and interface requirements

 

 

2.4.4.2

   Define Interface Requirements and enhancement requirements

 

 

2.4.4.3

   Define Conversion Requirements and forms requirements

 

WBS Code

Task:  General Requirements Workshops

Task Notes

 

2.4.2

General Requirements Workshops

Added

 

2.4.2.1

   Determine Enterprise Standards, General Settings and Master data

 

 

Part 2 Task Amendment Details: Critical Tasks

 

WBS Code

Task

From (days)

To (days)

Reduction

 

 

1.4.2

End User Training and Documentation Strategy Definition

Fri 12/30/11

Wed 1/4/12

 

 

 

 

1.4.2.1

   Assess End User Training Needs and documentation

Fri 12/30/11

Tue 1/3/12

 

3 days

 

 

1.4.2.2

   Develop an End User Proposal

Fri 12/30/11

Wed 1/4/12

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

WBS Code

Task

From (days)

To (days)

Reduction

 

 

2.4.2

General Requirements Workshops

Thu 1/12/12

Mon 1/16/12

 

 

 

 

2.4.2.1

   Determine Enterprise Standards, General Settings and Master data

Thu 1/12/12

Mon 1/16/12

 

1 day

 

 

WBS Code

Task

From (days)

To (days)

Reduction

 

 

2.4.4

Gap Analysis

Mon 1/30/12

Mon 2/6/12

 

 

 

 

2.4.4.1

   Define Reports Requirements and interface requirements

Mon 1/30/12

Mon 2/6/12

 

 

 

 

2.4.4.2

   Define Interface Requirements and enhancement requirements

Mon 1/30/12

Mon 2/6/12

 

6 days

 

 

2.4.4.3

   Define Conversion Requirements and forms requirements

Mon 1/30/12

Mon 2/6/12

 

 

 

 

2.4.4.4

   Define Workflow Requirements

Mon 1/30/12

Mon 2/6/12

 

 

 

 

Part 2 Task Amendment Details: Cost-Reduction Tasks

 

 

 

 

 

 

WBS Code

Task

From (days)

To (days)

Reduction

 

 

1.1.4

Project Charter

Fri 10/7/11

Fri 10/14/11

 

 

(S$61080-S$52,840)=

S$8240

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.1.4.1

 

   Organize Workshop for Detailing Project Charter

Fri 10/7/11

Fri 10/14/11

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.1.4.2

   Define Project Mission Statement

Fri 10/7/11

Fri 10/14/11

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.1.4.3

   Define Project Goals and Objectives

Fri 10/7/11

Fri 10/14/11

 

 

 

 

1.1.4.2

 

   Define Project Scope

Fri 10/7/11

Fri 10/14/11

 

 

 

 

1.1.4.5

   Define Implementation Methodology

Fri 10/7/11

Fri 10/14/11

 

 

 

 

1.1.4.6

   Develop Organizational Change Strategy

Fri 10/7/11

Fri 10/14/11

 

 

 

 

1.1.4.7

   Create Initial Project Plans

Fri 10/7/11

Fri 10/14/11

 

 

 

 

1.1.4.8

   Define and Select Deliverables for the Project

Fri 10/7/11

Fri 10/14/11

 

 

 

 

1.1.4.9

   Review Project Charter with Technical Team

Fri 10/7/11

Fri 10/14/11

 

 

 

 

WBS Code

Task Name

From (days)

To (days)

 

Reduction

 

 

1.1.5

Project Organization

Fri 10/7/11

Tue 10/11/11

 

 (S$12,240

 

 

1.1.5.1

   Define Project Organization and Create Teams

Fri 10/7/11

Tue 10/11/11

 

-S$4080)

=S$8160

 

 

1.1.5.2

   Conduct Project Team Transition Meeting

Fri 10/7/11

Tue 10/11/11

 

 

 

 

WBS Code

Task

From (days)

To (days)

 

Reduction

 

 

3.3.3

End User Training and Documentation Content Development

Mon 4/23/12

Wed 5/9/12

 

 

 

 

3.3.3.1

   Create End User Training and Documentation Materials

Mon 4/23/12

Wed 5/9/12

 

 

 

 

3.3.3.2

   Review Content and Materials

Mon 4/23/12

Mon 5/7/12

 

(S$158,080-S$104,880)

 

 

3.3.3.3

   Create SAP Training Environment and Refresh Strategy

Mon 4/23/12

Mon 5/7/12

 

=S$53,200

 

 

3.3.3.4

   Conduct Pilot Test

Mon 4/23/12

Mon 5/7/12

 

 

 

WBS Code

Task

From (days)

To (days)

 

Reduction

 

 

3.5.1

Conversion Procedures

Thu 4/26/12

Tue 5/22/12

 

 

 

 

3.5.1.1

   Define Conversion Procedures

Thu 4/26/12

Tue 5/22/12

 

(S$293,600-S$264,240)

 

 

3.5.1.2

   Create Conversion Detailed Definition

Thu 4/26/12

Tue 5/22/12

 

=S$29,360

 

 

3.5.1.3

   Create Conversion Technical Specifications

Thu 4/26/12

Tue 5/22/12

 

 

 

 

3.5.1.4

   Create Conversion and Transfer Programs

Thu 4/26/12

Tue 5/22/12

 

 

 

 

3.5.1.5

   Complete Manual Conversion Procedures

Thu 4/26/12

Tue 5/22/12

 

 

 

3.5.1.6

   Test and Review Conversion Programs

Thu 4/26/12

Tue 5/22/12

 

 

 

WBS Code

Task

From (days)

To (days)

 

Reduction

 

3.5.3

Enhancements Development

Thu 4/26/12

Thu 6/7/12

 

 

 

3.5.3.1

   Create Enhancement Detailed Definition

Thu 4/26/12

Thu 6/7/12

 

(S$740,080-S$382800)

 

3.5.3.2

   Create Enhancement Technical Specifications

Thu 4/26/12

Thu 6/7/12

 

 

 

3.5.3.3

   Create Enhancement

Thu 4/26/12

Thu 6/7/12

 

=S$357,280

 

3.5.3.4

   Define Enhancement Test Procedure

Thu 4/26/12

Thu 6/7/12

 

 

 

3.5.3.5

   Test and Review Enhancement Programs

Thu 4/26/12

Thu 6/7/12

 

 

WBS Code

Task

From (days)

To (days)

 

Reduction

3.5.4

Reports Development

Thu 4/26/12

Thu 6/7/12

 

 

3.5.4.1

   Choose Report Development Tools

Thu 4/26/12

Thu 6/7/12

 

(S$588,800-S$384,000)

3.5.4.2

   Use Report Development Tools

Thu 4/26/12

Thu 6/7/12

 

 

3.5.4.3

   Create Report Detailed Definition

Thu 4/26/12

Thu 6/7/12

 

=S$204,800

3.5.4.4

   Create Report Technical Specifications

Thu 4/26/12

Thu 6/7/12

 

 

3.5.4.5

   Create Reports

Thu 4/26/12

Thu 6/7/12

 

3.5.4.6

   Define Report Test Procedure

Thu 4/26/12

Thu 6/7/12

 

3.5.4.7

   Test and Review Reports

Thu 4/26/12

Thu 6/7/12

 

WBS Code

Task

From (days)

To (days)

 

Reduction

3.5.5

Forms Development

Thu 4/26/12

Thu 5/24/12

 

S$667920-S$290400=S$377520

3.5.5.1

   Create Form Detailed Definition

Thu 4/26/12

Thu 5/24/12

 

3.5.5.2

   Create Form Technical Specifications

Thu 4/26/12

Thu 5/24/12

 

3.5.5.3

   Create Forms

Thu 4/26/12

Thu 5/24/12

 

3.5.5.4

   Define Test Procedures for Forms

Thu 4/26/12

Thu 5/24/12

 

3.5.5.5

   Test and Review Forms

Thu 4/26/12

Thu 5/24/12

 

Part 2 Screenshots

Use MS Project

Timeline View to

easily track Start

and End date

regardless of the

views we are

working in

 

Use MS Project

Critical Path

view to help

identify critical

tasks for

Timeline

Amendment

 

Notes are added

to all changed

tasks with the

explanation for

change

   1. Changes in project charter

In the project charter section, the number of days in the project charter has been reduced as the project charter can be developed within 6 days with the help of project team members.

Task Name

Duration

Project Charter

6 dys

   Organize Workshop for Detailing Project Charter

6 dys

   Define Project Mission Statement

6 dys

   Define Project Goals and Objectives

6 dys

   Define Project Scope

6 dys

   Define Implementation Methodology

6 dys

   Develop Organizational Change Strategy

6 dys

   Create Initial Project Plans

6 dys

   Define and Select Deliverables for the Project

6 dys

   Review Project Charter with Technical Team

6 dys

   Assemble and Approve Project Charter

5 dys

 

2. Project organization

The number of days in the project organization is reduced in order to complete the entire task within three days. It is identified that team creation as well as conduction of project team transition meeting can be conducted parallel.

Task Name

Duration

Project Organization

3 dys

   Define Project Organization and Create Teams

3 dys

   Conduct Project Team Transition Meeting

3 dys

 

3. End User Training and Documentation Strategy Definition

 It is identified that in this section, end user training as well as documentation are completed together in parallel in order to reduce the number of days. The changes in the end user training and documentation stage is reflected below:

Task Name

Duration

End User Training and Documentation Strategy Definition

4 dys

   Assess End User Training Needs and documentation

3 dys

   Develop an End User Proposal

4 dys

 

4.  Gap Analysis

 In the gap analysis section, define reports as well as interface requirements are defined together in order to reduce the time. Similarly in order to reduce the duration of gap analysis phase both interface requirements as well as enhancement requirements are defined together.

Task Name

Gap Analysis

   Define Reports Requirements and interface requirements

   Define Interface Requirements and enhancement requirements

   Define Conversion Requirements and forms requirements

 

5. End user training and documentation content development

In this phase, the number of days that is needed for completing each activity is reduced as SAP training materials as well as training environment can be created within 12 days.

Task Name

Duration

End User Training and Documentation Content Development

12 dys

   Create End User Training and Documentation Materials

12 dys

   Review Content and Materials

10 dys

   Create SAP Training Environment and Refresh Strategy

10 dys

   Conduct Pilot Test

10 dys

 

6. Development and customization

In development and customization phase, the number of days that is needed to complete the phase is reduced as development and customization can be successfully completed within 40 days by completing various activities of this task simultaneously.

Task Name

Duration

Development and Customization

40 dys

   Conversion Procedures

18 dys

      Define Conversion Procedures

18 dys

      Create Conversion Detailed Definition

18 dys

      Create Conversion Technical Specifications

18 dys

      Create Conversion and Transfer Programs

18 dys

      Complete Manual Conversion Procedures

18 dys

      Test and Review Conversion Programs

18 dys

 7. Enhancement development, report development and Form development

In all the three phases, the number of days that is required for completing the activities is reduced for completing the task at lower cost as all the tasks are generally executed simultaneously.

Task Name

Duration

Enhancements Development

30 dys

   Create Enhancement Detailed Definition

30 dys

   Create Enhancement Technical Specifications

30 dys

   Create Enhancement

30 dys

   Define Enhancement Test Procedure

30 dys

   Test and Review Enhancement Programs

30 dys

Reports Development

30 dys

   Choose Report Development Tools

30 dys

   Use Report Development Tools

30 dys

   Create Report Detailed Definition

30 dys

   Create Report Technical Specifications

30 dys

   Create Reports

30 dys

   Define Report Test Procedure

30 dys

   Test and Review Reports

30 dys

Forms Development

20 dys

   Create Form Detailed Definition

20 dys

   Create Form Technical Specifications

20 dys

   Create Forms

20 dys

   Define Test Procedures for Forms

20 dys

   Test and Review Forms

20 dys

In the Detail

Gantt view:

- Amended

Critical Tasks

that affected

the Timeline are

highlighted in

Pink

- Amended tasks

that affected

the Total Costs

without

affecting the

Timeline are

highlighted in

blue

 

Multiple tasks

can be selected

and amended

quickly using

“Information”

from Task tab

 

 
 
References

Bresnen, M., 2016. Institutional development, divergence and change in the discipline of project management. International journal of project management, 34(2), pp.328-338.

Fleming, Q.W. and Koppelman, J.M., 2016, December. Earned value project management. Project Management Institute.

Javed, S.A., Ahmed, F., Nawaz, M. and Sajid, A., 2016. Identification of the Organizational and Managerial Characteristics of Organizations Operating in Project Conducive Environment–A Preliminary Study. Durreesamin Journal, 2(1).

Leach, L.P., 2014. Critical chain project management. Artech House.

Mir, F.A. and Pinnington, A.H., 2014. Exploring the value of project management: linking project management performance and project success. International journal of project management, 32(2), pp.202-217.

Schwalbe, K., 2015. Information technology project management. Cengage Learning.

Svejvig, P. and Andersen, P., 2015. Rethinking project management: A structured literature review with a critical look at the brave new world. International Journal of Project Management, 33(2), pp.278-290.

Todorovi?, M.L., Petrovi?, D.?., Mihi?, M.M., Obradovi?, V.L. and Bushuyev, S.D., 2015. Project success analysis framework: A knowledge-based approach in project management. International Journal of Project Management, 33(4), pp.772-783.

Too, E.G. and Weaver, P., 2014. The management of project management: A conceptual framework for project governance. International Journal of Project Management, 32(8), pp.1382-1394.

Turner, R., 2016. Gower handbook of project management. Routledge.

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