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View Clayton Christiansen's video (See 2 and 3 under Additional Information -> Videos section below) on disruptive innovation and then read the New Yorker article (See 1 under Additional Information Articles section below) critiquing the theory of disruptive innovation.

Write an analysis responding to the following questions:

1. Do you accept Lepore's critique of Christiansen?

2. What are the relative strengths and weaknesses of each author's positions on organizational innovation? Try to argue your response to this question using specific examples if you can.

3. Do you think that a general purpose theory of organizational innovation is even possible?

4. Is the world predictable enough to make develop a theory that enables prediction of future states?

Section 2: Modeling Corporate Constraints To Innovation Analysis - 1000 words

Develop an analysis responding to the following:
1.What are some of the critical constraints operating in organizations that act to impede adaptive innovation or effective intrapreneurial activity? Be specific here and also elaborate on each of the constraints that you list. If you desire, focus your analysis in a specific organizational context.
2.Develop a 10 point list that provides advice for corporate managers and leaders in their quest to help their organization explore new frontiers and nimbly adapt and innovate.

Acceptance of Lepore's critique of Christiansen

Disruptive innovation refers to the creation of new markets and provides value to the existing network. In the opinion of Christiansen, disruptive innovation is predictable among most industries (Youtube.com, 2018). The less established companies use new technologies to ensure alternative, as well as cheap products, are provided with that counter the products of the established industry. For example, Toyota took on Detroit a few years ago and thus, the disruptive changes are beneficial to the organisations that are small. Lepore criticised this by stating that disruption does not have enough critics that can counter the process. However, one criticism can be brought forward is about the fact that like other models and theories this particular theory may eventually decline. Larry Downes provides a criticism that states that such changes in an organisation are devastating innovation as it may cause unnecessary changes in an organisation (Lepore, 2018). The fact that the world is changing at a rapid pace makes this type of innovation a cause for panic among manager. This is because with stability in the organisations it can be difficult for managers to continue with a proper change (Youtube.com 2018).

Innovation in organisations is done to ensure that the products and services provided by a company are unique from its competitors. The uniqueness of the products and services can help an organisation gain a competitive advantage in the market. As stated by Drucker (2014) organisational innovation has certain advantages that can be used for increasing revenue and reputation. One such advantage is the fact that the employees working in the organisation can be skilful and develop creative knowledge about the manner in which they can approach the activities of an organisation. The employees that can help the organisations to increase its productivity and efficiency can gain more than one skill and competence. However, Wolin (2016) countered the process of innovation stating that the weakness of innovation includes the fact that changes in organisations need to be made for the implementation of innovation. These changes can be negative for the employees in a way that disruption at the workplace may result in the loss of productivity. Apart from this coordination and issues in management, also occur with the application of innovation in organisations.

According to Johnston and Marshall (2016), general-purpose theory normally affects the existing structure and the economy of an organisation. The application of this theory provides a general concept about the manner in which innovation can take place in an organisation. The general-purpose theory can provide eventful concepts about the manner in which organisational culture, structure and the capabilities of the employees can be linked. However, Christensen, Raynor and McDonald (2016) stated that this theory could be too simple for innovation in an organisation. The theory does not take into account the critical methods required for the application of innovation in an organisation. This includes the manner in which the skills of the employees can be used to ensure proper innovation in an organisation. At the same time, the general-purpose theory takes into the account the purpose behind the application of innovation and does not focus on the purpose of organisations. Thus, it can be said that keeping the critics in mind, this theory cannot be used for defining the innovation in organisations.

Strengths and weaknesses of organizational innovation

According to Christensen, Raynor and McDonald (2015), predicting a possibility of a future state of affairs is one of the strong points of managers. The ability to predict the future can help organisations prevent huge loss and undertake decisions that may have a negative influence on the organisations. Hence, it is necessary to ensure that a theory is developed that helps in the prediction of the future events that take place in an organisation. As evidenced by the words of Steve Jobs, the application of disruptive innovation can help in the prediction of the future state of events in an organisation (Youtube.com 2018). The fact that such a theory can bring about drastic changes in the business world can be beneficial for organisations that require changes. However, as it was observed, the rapid change in the business environment can result in hampering the jobs of the employees and thereby, create more problems in an organisation (Youtube.com 2018). In this regard, it can be said that developing a proper theory can be difficult for organisations as the future state of business changes at a rapid rate.

According to Bain and Kleinknecht (2016), survival and growth of an organisation are one of the most important aspects to promote innovation. The stages of innovation and entrepreneurial activities need to be formulated in a systematic manner so that the objectives of an organisation can be attained easily. However, there are certain constraints that act against the application of innovation in organisations. These constraints include:

The absence of a proper analysis system: To ensure that innovation is applied in organisations it is necessary to conduct a proper analysis of the resources and capabilities it possesses. The proper analysis system can help in understanding the manner in which application of innovation can benefit an organisation. The most important analysis system that needs to be developed is the failure-analysis system. According to Allen (2003), the failure-analysis system can help organisations identify the method that resulted in the failure of an activity. This can help organisations to identify the reason and take proper actions in rectifying the mistakes.

Poor change management technique: Change management is required for organisations to maintain effective innovation. Without proper changes, an organisation cannot innovate and implement the required goals that it has set up for the increase in productivity and reputation. Changes usually result in the revolt of the employees, as they need to be convinced about the requirement of change. Thus, it is necessary that organisations maintain a proper change management system that can help in the convincing the employees. This can be done by applying change management models and theories that can help in convincing the employees about the requirement of changes in organisations (Lusch & Nambisan, 2015).

General-purpose theory of organizational innovation

Team formation: To gain success in organisations, it is necessary that every employee support one another and work in a cordial manner. Hence, the formation of teams can help in the analysing the effective manner in which employees can interact with one another. The application of innovative technologies requires the contribution of every employee. The employees need to cooperate with one another and ensure that a proper team formation is maintained so that the innovation can be implemented successfully (Wolin, 2016). Poor team formation may not have the necessary skills required for the successful completion of the innovative process and thereby prove to have a negative impact on the organisational development process.

Inadequate opportunities for managing ideas: Managing ideas is necessary for the proper implementation of a business. Every idea needs to be put forward with the management of an organisation so that changes can be made. However, with the inadequate opportunities present, it can be difficult for the managers and employees to continue work in managing the ideas. One of the reasons behind the inadequate opportunity of ideas is the fact that the managers limit the interaction with the employees. In some organisations, decision-making of the employees is not given proper emphasis because the managers take every decision. Thus, these constraints can pose serious threats to the innovation process in an organisation (Christensen, Raynor and McDonald, 2015).

Corporate managers and leaders need to adopt certain techniques that can help them to continue their innovative process in an organisation. The adoption of the innovative process is done by keeping in mind these techniques for the betterment of an organisation. These techniques include:

 Acquisition: Acquisition of new or weak organisations can help managers of reputed organisations to maintain its business. This can help the large as well as the small organisations to understand the manner in which collaboration can be done to maintain the effective business policy.

Accelerators: It is necessary to accelerate the process of production in an organisation. To do so effective innovation is required for the implementation of the strategies that can help in gaining a successful business.

Collaboration: Collaboration with other organisations for the effectiveness of the innovation process is required so that managers can gain easy access to the resources and capabilities required for effective innovation (Allen, 2003). This can help in the effective application of the innovative techniques.

Competitions: Analysing the competitors is important for the effective implementation of the innovative process. Competitors help an organisation to understand the resources and capabilities it possesses and the manner in which it can be used to gain an effective competitive advantage.

Develop a theory that enables prediction of future states

Conferences: According to Drucker (2014), innovation can be best applied if conferences are made between managers of various departments. The conferences can help in setting up meetings and exchange ideas that are effective for the application of the innovative process. In this regard, it is necessary that the conferences be managed in a manner that can help in the effective management of decisions.

Engagement with customers: Feedback from the customers is important so that the requirements of the customers can be understood. Hence, it is necessary that the engagement with customers is necessary so that effective innovation can be applied based on the results of the feedback. It needs to be ensured that the product and services provided by an organisation are unique from its competitors.

Leadership: Leadership is another important factor that needs to be implemented for the effective application of innovation. Every organisation and team needs a leader that can guide the employees towards success by providing opportunities for local engagement with one another.

Interest groups: Technologies and business organisations take considerable time to show maturity. Hence, it is necessary that the managers of organisations maintain a relationship with certain stakeholders that can help them to continue with the business in an effective manner.

Networks: The networks include various stakeholders and other business organisations that can provide resources and capabilities. The channelling of a network is required so that innovation can be maintained effectively within the organisations and abundance of resources exists.

Research and developments: As stated by Bain and Kleinknecht (2016) research and development are one of the most important parts of the business. Similarly, for innovation, proper research is required about the organisational and business environment to maintain proper innovative method.

Reference

Allen, Kathleen, (2003). Bringing New Technology to Market , Prentice Hall, Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 14-15, pages 311-350.

Bain, D., & Kleinknecht, A. (Eds.). (2016). New concepts in innovation output measurement. Springer.

Christensen, C. M., Raynor, M. E., & McDonald, R. (2015). What is disruptive innovation. Harvard Business Review, 93(12), 44-53.

Christensen, C. M., Raynor, M. E., & McDonald, R. (2016). What is disruptive Innovation. The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2.

Drucker, P. (2014). Innovation and entrepreneurship. Routledge.

Johnston, M. W., & Marshall, G. W. (2016). Sales force management: Leadership, innovation, technology. Routledge.

Lepore, J. (2018). What the Gospel of Innovation Gets Wrong. The New Yorker. Retrieved 14 March 2018, from https://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2014/06/23/the-disruption-machine

Lusch, R. F., & Nambisan, S. (2015). Service innovation: A service-dominant logic perspective. MIS quarterly, 39(1).

Wolin, S. S. (2016). Politics and vision: Continuity and innovation in Western political thought. Princeton University Press.

Youtube.com (2018). YouTube. Retrieved 14 March 2018, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pnoeSvHAJ9I

Youtube.com. (2018). YouTube. Retrieved 14 March 2018, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RQSG_d0mmf0

Youtube.com. (2018). YouTube. Retrieved 14 March 2018, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rpkoCZ4vBSI

Youtube.com. (2018). YouTube. Retrieved 14 March 2018, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cu6J6taqOSg

Youtube.com. (2018). YouTube. Retrieved 14 March 2018, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eooIPeQDYVo

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