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The effects of poor quality sleep on brain function and risk taking in adolescence

Information about Social Cognitive Neuroscience and its relation to the topic chosen.

How the chosen paper is linked to the literature in the Psychology field?


How the chosen topic can be linked with other papers (the other references I will provide you with) discussed during the course? If not say why!

The History and Method of Social Cognitive Neuroscience

Basically, social cognitive neuroscience refers to the scientific study which discusses the biological processes that underpin social recognition (Adolphs, 2010). This means that cognitive neuroscience uses the tools and techniques of neuroscience to account and study the mental environment that forms the frame, that regulates and Responses to all experiences that are revealed by the social world. Most of the times social cognitive neuroscience use the epistemological aspect which emphasizes the functional magnetic resonance commonly known as (fMR) in neuroscience. There are brain stimulation techniques such the direct current stimulation and the transactional magnetic stimulation techniques which are used in social cognitive neuroscience (Adolphs, 2011).

The first scholarly work to describe the social cognitive neuroscience was through the Phineas Gage. He identified as the only man survived the traumatic brain injury back in 1849. The study revealed from the concept indicated that there are changes which are found in social functioning and the person one has towards something or someone (Baars & Gage, 2010). After a few years, some authors emerged and described the concept of social cognitive neuroscience in psychology. However, some of the information and works about the social cognitive neuroscience did not succeed but after much research different professors emerged who keenly analysed the social cognitive neuroscience. In 2000 the word social cognitive neuroscience was later advanced by the Mathew and kelvin Oschner. The two authors were from the social and cognitive psychology backgrounds (Baron-Cohen, Tager-Flusberg, Lombardo, 2013). The worked hard enough to integrate and try to brand different labs which were isolated and were carrying the neural basis for the social cognitive neuroscience. Later on in the same year that is 2000, Elizabeth Phelps and other colleagues invented the first FMR study which advocated on social cognitive neuroscience. The study emphasized the race evaluations. With the adoption of the fMR, there were less expensive aspects and non-invasive neuroimaging modality in the field of social cognitive neuroscience (Becker, Cropanzano, Sanfey, 2011).

After one year that is 2001, a first conference for the social cognitive neuroscience was held in University of California and it advocated for effective neuroscience in the society. Neuroscience enlarged and at the late 2000s, field of cognitive neuroscience started the methodological repertoire which expanded the neuroimaging modalities. Thereafter, computational advancement incorporated the use of pattern analysis and casual modelling which were important in neuroscience (Beeman & Chiarello, 2013). Use of computers enhanced the deep brain simulation thus assisting in achieving the mainstream acceptance in the entire field of neuroscience and psychology. The following concepts comprise the social cognitive neuroscience.

Functional Anatomy

Functional anatomy

Some of the social cognitive neuroscience is always sub served by the two main parts. The first aspect comprises the Macro scale brain networks which are commonly referred to as the mirror neuron system (MNS) and the second aspect shows the default mode network (DMN) ( Cacioppo & Decety,2011).

The MNS has been researched to indicate the facial expressions, the use of body language and grasping techniques in a human being. The basics of MNS in human beings is to encode all aspects which involve the concept of action. Therefore, MNS is the entire representations of how the action is observed for example the concept of sensory modality (Cacioppo, Berntson, Bechara, Tranel, Hawkley, 2011). It also indicates the action being performed thus showing those actions which can be represented by the use of language. MNS in social cognitive neuroscience comprises the promoter cortex, the intraparietal sulcus and the lateral occipitotemporal cortex known as the (LOTC). The intraparietal sulcus in social cognitive neuroscience shows that in human the censoring mirroring responses are always directed to the anterior intraparietal sulcus. The part is more sensitive and it assists in monitoring the biological actions which are entirely relative to the semantic features. In addition, the intraparietal sulcus is linked to the dorsal visual stream, which forms the posterior and the temporal sulcus (Christoff, Cosmelli, Legrand, Thompson, 2011). On explaining the premotor cortex different researchers have identified that it's a region which comprises diverse arrays of functions. It encompasses the motor planning and sensory guidance that is in visual movements. It also assists in language processing in the field of social cognitive neuroscience. The LOTC shows the lateral regions which are associated with the visual processing and the sensory monitoring. The part shows the regions which are sensitive to objects, sensitive t body parts and body postures which are vital in the human being. The LOTC is believed to encode on sensorimotor and also binding together the different aspects by initiating different actions which are carried out in social cognitive neuroscience (Couture, Penn, Losh, Adolphs, Hurley, Piven, 2010).

The DMN aids in processing social information, for example, the mental states and the intentions or traits. Social cognitive basically focuses on emotion, memorializing, empathy and moral cognition. All the regions consistently emphasize neuroimaging studies in the field of social cognitive neuroscience. The DMN has been identified to involve in memory-related processing aspects which controls the traits and action from a human being. Most of the DMN activities are experienced during rest as the activation and the connectivity are enhanced through cognition (Decety & Lamm, 2011). DMN comprises the Medial Prefrontal cortex, the posterior cingulate cortex, the temporoparietal junction, and the superior temporal sulcus. All the parts of DMN work to initiate sensory aspects which enhances neuron system. The superior temporal sulcus enhances the social vision and the biological motion processing which very vital for social cognitive neuroscience. Temporoparietal junction forms the distinguishing aspects between the multiple agents, for example, the self and other. It is also associated with the contextual updating, the language processing and the episode memory which enhances the social and non-social function. However, Temporoparietal junction function in neural encoding techniques and that's why it is constituted in the social, temporal and spatial distance on social cognitive neuroscience (D’esposito & Postle, 2015).

The Relationship Between Social Cognitive Neuroscience and Poor Sleep Quality in Adolescence

Adolescence stage impacts the sleep and risk-taking in human beings. Good sleep is very important in our bodies. The aspect of good sleep plays a consequential role in the field of social cognitive neuroscience. During adolescence, good sleep is very important since it helps in developing other consequential stages. When one experiences poor sleep he or she experiences a deficit in cognitive and emotional deficits. It includes the bias which is entirely towards the high-risk behaviour and diminished behavioural controls which facilitates poor emotion regulation in a human being (D'esposito & Postle, 2015). Different researches have indicated that sleep deprivation results to brain malfunctioning thus causing brain function which relates to the risk-taking and cognition. There are also a few studies which have tried to reveal the study of sleep and brain functioning. This means that much effort is induced in the study of neural mechanisms whereby the sleep changes with an increase in adolescence.

The issue of sleep deprivation at the adolescence stage, tend to occur with a normative developmental increase in risk-taking and poor decision which affects the social cognitive neuroscience. Those adolescents who are deprived of sleep are believed to possess decreased cognitive modulations, decreased impulses, and emotions which are unable to respond to the control of attention (Dimoka,Pavlou,Davis, 2011). Most of the sleepless moments and nights are associated with the alcohol, use of drugs and aggressive behaviours possessed by adolescents. Although inadequate sleep is yet to be linked with social cognitive neuroscience, there are those indicators which fully explains the sleep increases the adolescent taking.

There are dual system theories in social cognitive neuroscience which show that risk-taking during adolescent is affected by the two factors. The first aspect is due to the competition between the neural system and the effective system used in the neural stimulation. The competition involves the aspect of reward sensitivity which facilitates the curvilinear patterns that indicate the linear improvement in the adulthood stage (Ellison & Boyd, 2013). The other aspect of social cognitive neuroscience is the cognitive control system that aids in cognitive regulation in sensory memory. All the two aspects emphasize the functional connectivity that helps in analysing poor sleep not only in the brain function but also to the cognitive control systems in a human being. In social cognitive neuroscience, the adult work linked to the sleep problems tend to indicate an effective and regulatory brain function which points out the importance of neural networks which scrolls all the way to the maturing stages during adolescence.

In the study the paper analyses the normative levels of sleep and the brain function which is anticipated during the risk-taking in the adolescent stage (Franz  & Gillett,2011). Generally, those individuals who suffer due to poor quality sleep tend to have low cognitive emotional and social behaviours. In order to account for these changes, one needs to understand how this normative changes which tend to relate with brain development which enlarges at adolescence stage. There is (DMN) which is commonly known as the default mode network. It forms the largest brain network that is crucial for complex cognition and other social-emotional activities which assist the survival for human beings. Also, DMN undergoes the intra-network segregation and the intra-network integration during the adolescence stage. The discussion analyses the functional connectivity and autography for a period of 1 week. The participants used were of age 14 -18 years old. The key idea was to identify the individual difference in DMN and changes in sleep duration with the effective quality for more than 30 participants. Those individuals who were found with the weak intrinsic DMN had poor sleep. The findings which indicated the sleep index were believed to have brain function that aided in behaviour maturation .They were also believed to undergo the brain development during the adolescence stage (Franz & Gillett, 2011).

The study determined whether the poor sleep was associated with the risk-taking and cognitive control at the adolescence stage.

The study examined on how sleep deprivation was associated with the insula and the striatum reactivity which response to positive reward stimuli (Heatherton & Wagner, 2011).

The third aspect was to determine how poor quality sleep initiated the functional coupling in the cognitive regulation and the effective regions.

If poor sleep initiates imbalance at adolescence stage, then the issue of poor sleep may cause the prefrontal failure and the top down regulations which tend to be effective at arousal stages.

The study comprised more than 30 participants. In order to get the results for the subject matter the following methods of data collection were used;

The participants answered questions which were describing the difference to get when he or she has experienced sleep quality and when sleep disturbances are experienced. There were more than 20 questions which described on topics such as sleep medications, sleep latency in human beings, sleep efficiency and the sleep duration which assisted in describing the connection between adolescence and sleep cognitive (Insel,2010). That individual who gave a mean grade of more than 45 % were believed to have described on the effects of poor sleep while the rest were believed to indicate the good sleep quality.

The method was used to analyse the adolescent's decision, especially when making suggestions on poor quality sleep. The decisions made were grouped into five sections, the first group identified the decision making self- esteem on cognitive approach. The second section indicated the implementation of decisions in human beings when using brain function frameworks. In addition, the third aspect was on impulsive choices recorded in decision making. The last section involved the decision making rationalization and the conflicting approach in decision making when analysing the cognitive approach (Jankowski & Takahashi, 2014).

The participants were to complete tasks that targeted the cognitive control. All the tasks handled entailed the aspect of brain function. In order to represent the participants in the study, different trials containing a single letter were used (Jost & Amodio, 2012). The participants were shown a letter which was moved rapidly and they were to fix those letters in blocks during the trial. All letters which were pushed quickly indicated cognitive response recorded in one's brain while those randomly selected letters indicated the positive reward response. The fMR results were analysed to indicate the social cognitive theories and the visualization basis which revealed the brain functioning with response to poor quality sleep at adolescence.

The sleep decision results obtained were analysed to determine whether the adolescents sleep related to the decision making approaches and skills. Those participants who gave results ranging from 20% -30 % indicated the how decisions controls self-esteem while the other portion indicated how sleep affected the behavioural performance (Kitayama & Park, 2010).  Those decisions which accounted for poor sleep quality determined slower reaction trials in the study. All the questionnaires indicated the mean response on poor sleep quality.

On viewing the fMR results, the neural activation aspects gave successful response which was analysed by using the trials .The results were similar to questionnaire results although the participants in fMR were involved in cognitive control facilitated by use of trials.

Therefore form the results, poor quality sleep were identified to be pervasive during the adolescence period. All the questionnaires gave responses which cognitive regulations on health. The results summarises that imbalance can be entirely exaggerated by the cognitive control .When making decisions the results indicated that self-esteem can be more apathy when determining effects of poor sleep quality (Kitayama & Park,2010).

This risk taking incorporates perilous driving (e.g. messaging), medicate use, hitting the bottle hard, and dangerous sexual conduct. In spite of instructive endeavours to give teenagers data about hazardous conduct, numerous young people keep on participating in dangerous conduct.

How would we clarify the tirelessness of youngsters' unsafe conduct, regardless of the extensive measure of cash being spent on aversion programs? What would we be able to do to diminish the peril?

Research on peer connections and mental health during the brain development of teens may offer an explanation.

As of late, there has been an expansion in the accessibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (Lee, Senior, & Butler, 2012). Utilizing these apparatuses, specialists have discovered a few changes in the mind amid puberty that are imperative in clarifying risk conduct.

Insufficient and poor quality sleep are inescapable amid pre-adulthood and identify with impedances in cognitive control and expanded risk taking. In any case, the neurobiology fundamental on the relationship among sleep and youthful conduct stays tricky. In the present examination, we inspect how poor rest quality identifies with subjective control and reward related mind work amid hazard taking (Van Gog, & Rummel, 2010).  These outcomes propose that poor rest may overstate the regulating irregularity among full of feeling and psychological control frameworks, prompting more serious hazard taking in youths

The findings indicated based on long sleep timeframe and also existing cognitive performance decrease in youthful members brings up issues about the contention resulting from (Walter, 2012). While a few late research investigations of more established grown-up tests have shown relationship between exacerbating intellectual execution and increased lack of sleep.

Inadequate rest and low quality rest identify with impedances in cognitive control.

Therefore it is important to understand the various negative impacts of sleep on the existing risk behaviours and the active brain working ability. It is congruent since it help clinicians acknowledge the underlying mechanism that make teens make uninformed decisions hence positive psychological work in future (Zaki, & Ochsner, 2012).  These significant findings recommend that the regularizing unevenness among emotional and cognitive control frameworks might be misrepresented by poor sleep, with the end goal that youths indicate less DLPFC enactment amid psychological control, more noteworthy insula initiation amid remuneration handling, and decreased useful coupling between the DLPFC and full of feeling locales. Every one of these neural initiations was paralleled by poorer self-revealed basic leadership abilities and more serious hazard taking and reward affectability (Zelazo, & Lyons, 2012).  Along these lines, young people with poorer poor quality may have both a more noteworthy introduction towards risk and traded off basic leadership capacities. Typically, these condition were as a result of increased apathy and low self-esteem issues during decision making process.

Furthermore, it was found that poor rest quality was related with more prominent self-announced probability of taking part in risk taking, more noteworthy positive ramifications for risk  practices and behaviour. These existing behavioural discoveries recommend that young people who acquire poorer quality rest are progressively arranged towards remunerations, which may represent their more dangerous conduct.

Consequently, youths with poorer rest quality may show diminished motivation to take part in cognitive regulation control and along these lines enrol the DLPFC to a lesser degree amid intellectual control. For sure, youths with poorer rest were possibly slower to respond on go preliminaries amid the psychological control errand regardless of directions to press the catch as quick as possible.  

Amid risk taking, teenagers who highly reported poorer rest quality indicated more noteworthy actuation in the insula as the reward expanded,

Adolescents with poorer rest may take part in more hazard taking on account of a disappointment of prefrontal, and arousal regulation

 Future research should utilize trial plans and longitudinal information to decide if rest itself uplifts neural affectability to hazard taking or whether the individuals who are progressively delicate to chance taking get poorer rest. Also, future research ought to analyse how rest impacts hazard related conduct and neural working crosswise over improvement (Zaki, Hennigan, Weber, &Ochsner, 2010).  We can't be sure that our discoveries are explicit to youth, or whether comparative impacts would be found at other formative periods. There is some underlying proof that rest and reward-related cerebrum work vary in early versus late pubertal immature

Neuroimaging literature studies contrasting useful cerebrum reactions among young people and raised social uneasiness as well as sorrow and normally creating adolescents have affirmed elevated affectability to candidly loaded data in the previous gathering (Redcay et al 2010). Quite, differential enactment examples and availability in mind districts associated with social-enthusiastic reacting and feeling direction have been found in light of foreseen social input and socially undermining signs in restless and discouraged adolescents contrasted with their sound partners.

According to the article Kruglanski, & Higgins (2013) the beginning of adolescence, hormonal discharge gets under way a course of physical improvements that outcome in conceptive capability. Pubertal hormonal changes likewise influence neural hardware, including systems connected to social-subjective and feeling processing. These physical changes are joined by psychosocial changes, for example, expanded enthusiasm for friend related signals (e.g., economic wellbeing and assessments of companions), uplifted affectability towards (social) reward and commitment in progressively unpredictable, nuanced relational trades, including sentimental connections (Rilling,& Sanfey,2011).  Paralleling these physical and mental advancements are critical changes in the social condition, as well. As youngsters move into puberty, they confront expanding scholastic requests and societal assumptions about self-rule and autonomy As stated by Senior, Lee, & Butler (2011) change occurs at various dimensions at the same time (hormonal, neural, conduct and ecological), with extensive individual contrasts in the rate of progress.

To start with, amid the puberty time frame, there is an expanded enthusiasm for peer relationships, and other studies show that peer influences rise in the teen years and become at the top peak at approximately 14 years (Lieberman, 2011). Predictable with these promptly noticeable changes in peer connections, brain imaging paper indicates various areas of the brain results to adolescents being more sensitive to risk. This propels youngsters to concentrate on their companions in decision making process in areas that result to risk conduct.

Second, young people are more bothered than grown-ups when rejected by companions. A mind locale known as the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) may be essential in helping individuals adapt to negative assessment from companions by diminishing stress (Mar,2011). It is evident that stress is brought about by lack of sleep. Research demonstrates that this mind region is utilized mostly by grown-ups while being socially rejected than by teenagers. When adolescents do utilize this territory of the cerebrum amid peer exclusion, the paper report lower levels of stress due to lack of sleep.

Amid the immature years, nonetheless, this cerebrum area is as yet growing so teenagers may not be as successful at controlling stress due to lack of sleep (Mason,& Morris,2010).  This paper indicates that it makes them engage in risk in order to avoid being excluded by their close peers.

Third, another zone of the cerebrum, the parallel prefrontal cortex (PFC), is in charge of develop self-direction and grows step by step over the immaturity period. In one investigation, early young people, late teenagers, and grown-ups carried on likewise on a mechanized driving assignment when they were by themselves. However, when they were matched with two same-matured companions, clear contrasts rose (McRae, Ochsner, & Gross, 2011).  The study on the paper shows that young people were bound to participate in risk driving when companions were available. Late teenagers were to some degree progressively dangerous and risk in their driving when they were with companions. The nearness of companions had no effect on grown-ups' driving.

Utilizing the mechanized driving errand related to an fMRI, scientists found that, rather than grown-ups, young people were bound to take part in risky driving when they realized that their companions were watching them than when they were alone (Moran, Jolly, & Mitchell, 2012).  The zone of the cerebrum that was utilized by the grown-ups, the PFC, assists with basic leadership and self-direction in undertakings, for example, driving. Interestingly, young people utilized zones of the cerebrum that are all the more intently connected with remunerations while finishing the driving assignment.

In the event that discussing the perils of unsafe practices isn't as compelling in counteracting them as guardians might want, what can guardians do?

There are a few methodologies that guardians can use to all the more viably deal with teenagers' companion relationship.

  1. For more youthful teenagers, parent(s) might structure nature to give safe exercises that consider youthful adolescents' requirement for sensation-seeking (Pfeifer, & Blakemore, 2012). For model, grown-up regulated open air exercises with companions, for example, shake climbing and zip-lining, can give an extraordinary setting to giving the energy and social connections required for youthful youngsters. These help them to avoid lack of sleep disorders.

  2. Supervising them and teaching them not to engage in risks Guardians likewise should know and uphold graduated driving laws. Establishing laws that limit the quantity of friends that are permitted in a vehicle when youngsters are driving.

Over the most recent two decades, analysts have begun to detail the neural bases of these conduct changes utilizing utilitarian attractive reverberation imaging (fMRI). FMRI enables scientists to contemplate how the human mind reacts in a non-intrusive way amid an assignment, and is appropriate for use with young people and youngsters.

It also enables clinical specialist to understand the risk and stress situation that adolescent’s undergo. They also enable them to find a way to treat these condition and consultation advice.

A developing group of neuroimaging thinks of extending various functional changes in the social mind arrange crosswise over pre-adulthood as far as both fundamental (e.g., preparing facial personality or facial passionate articulations)

Conclusion

Significance on clinical psychology work

Conversely, Work in existing health psychology identifies effects caused by a specific psychological responses to several illness especially sleep loss and other risks stressors on mental health. Social cognitive neuroscience provides a suitable natural domain for incorporating distinct social factors to the brain mechanism. It is also beneficial to clinical psychological studies of various mood disorder, thinking capacity and personality ones (Senior, Lee, & Butler, 2011).  It helps to identify a close link between behaviour and brain. Clinicians are thus able to identify social cognitive deficits in the losses, they are significant in both social and cognitive abilities

It helps clinician understand the brain function with regard to risk behaviour and lack of sleep as evident in youths. With respect to existing basic cognitive, the cortical system supporting face-handling capacities (e.g., the fusiform gyros and the prevalent transient sulcus) has been appeared to grow ceaselessly crosswise over puberty (Squire, & Wixted, 2011).  For instance, demonstrated that formative changes in the capacity to rapidly and precisely process facial personality and enthusiastic articulations are reflected by the extended tweaking of fundamental supporting mind systems

In any case, research indicates that the co-event of a few transformational procedures could aggravate the risk for atypical advancement and psychological well-being issues for a subset of teens (Todorov, Fiske, & Prentice, 2011).  It is conceivable that these regulating changes in puberty may 'push' helpless young people at the more outrageous finishes of the range to encounter practically impeding side effects. Thus this research answers all the required questions and no argument is missing

A plenty of changes in both fundamental and complex social cognitive handling capacities happens amid the adolescent period. While these might be versatile, for a subset of people, they may build helplessness towards creating crippling psychological well-being issue (Wilms, et al 2010). There is need to work on psychological field such as focusing on cognitive and neural risk in order to lower psychological disorders and ensure interventions

 In conclusion, given the ebb and flow concerns  about lack of sleep in more youthful individuals, further research is critical to all the more likely comprehend sleep  timing and length impacts in adolescents. The web might be a feasible and successful technique for concentrate this populace. Further research is likewise critical to look at various psychological mechanisms.

References

Adolphs, R. (2010). Conceptual challenges and directions for social neuroscience. Neuron, 65(6), 752-767.

Adolphs, R. (2011). What does the amygdala contribute to social cognition?. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1191(1), 42-61.

Baars, B. J., & Gage, N. M. (2010). Cognition, brain, and consciousness: Introduction to cognitive neuroscience. Academic Press.

Baron-Cohen, S., Tager-Flusberg, H., & Lombardo, M. (Eds.). (2013). Understanding other minds: Perspectives from developmental social neuroscience. Oxford University Press.

Becker, W. J., Cropanzano, R., & Sanfey, A. G. (2011). Organizational neuroscience: Taking organizational theory inside the neural black box. Journal of Management, 37(4), 933-961.

Beeman, M. J., & Chiarello, C. (2013). Right hemisphere language comprehension: Perspectives from cognitive neuroscience. Psychology Press.

Cacioppo, J. T., & Decety, J. (2011). Social neuroscience: challenges and opportunities in the study of complex behavior. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1224(1), 162-173.

Cacioppo, J. T., & Decety, J. (2011). Social neuroscience: challenges and opportunities in the study of complex behavior. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1224(1), 162-173.

Cacioppo, J. T., Berntson, G. G., Bechara, A., Tranel, D., & Hawkley, L. C. (2011). Could an aging brain contribute to subjective well-being? The value added by a social neuroscience perspective. Social neuroscience: Toward understanding the underpinnings of the social mind, 249-262.

Christoff, K., Cosmelli, D., Legrand, D., & Thompson, E. (2011). Specifying the self for cognitive neuroscience. Trends in cognitive sciences, 15(3), 104-112.

Couture, S. M., Penn, D. L., Losh, M., Adolphs, R., Hurley, R., & Piven, J. (2010). Comparison of social cognitive functioning in schizophrenia and high functioning autism: more convergence than divergence. Psychological medicine, 40(4), 569-579.

Decety, J., & Lamm, C. (2011). 15 Empathy versus Personal Distress: Recent Evidence from Social Neuroscience. The social neuroscience of empathy, 199.

D'esposito, M., & Postle, B. R. (2015). The cognitive neuroscience of working memory. Annual review of psychology, 66, 115-142.

Dimoka, A., Pavlou, P. A., & Davis, F. D. (2011). Research commentary—NeuroIS: The potential of cognitive neuroscience for information systems research. Information Systems Research, 22(4), 687-702.

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