Critically analyse the significance and effects of working in collaborative partnerships with young children and their families, utilising a range of academic and research-based literature.
Based on your analysis, design a set of principles that will ensure collaborative partnerships which will facilitate building resilience and support positive outcomes for young children and their families. Provide at least two examples for each of your principles which will illustrate how they could be used to bring about a desirable consequence. Use the course literature to support your decisions and inform your discussion.
Significance of Collaborative Partnerships for Children
Collaboration entails a mutually well-defined and beneficial relationship between two or more organizations with the commitment of setting common goals, developing a joint structure, mutual authority, shared responsibility and accountability (Davies, 2005). The relationship is maintained based on trust and shared a vision with the potential to enhance both parties’ ability to attain better qualitative outcomes. In New Zealand, early childhood education and care play a significant role in shaping long-term outcomes and benefits for children (Boylan & Dalrymple, 2009). One of the major determinants of quality childhood program is the quality collaborative partnership that educators develop families, parents as partners who are equal in the care and education of young children. This paper analyses the significance and effects of working in collaborative partnerships with young children and their families, utilizing a range of academic and research-based literature.
As argued by Davies (2005), young children benefit when the adults who take care of them work collaboratively. The collaborative partnership allows the staff and families to share discussions on how they can meet the needs of children. Families are aware of the behaviors, moods, personality, and strengths of their children. The staff can also learn about the child much more via their daily experiences and hence can share their comprehension on children development. Through a collaborative partnership, the staff and families can exchange information and focus on meeting the needs of each child as well as support their development (May 2013).
The collaborative partnership provides children with the opportunity to see significant people working together in their lives. Once children see positive communication among their parents and staff or carer, they start learning how vital it is to build healthy correlations (Davies, 2005). For instance, when children see parents and carers are communicating well by being friendly with the staff, they begin to learn that this how people relate (Peyton, 2017). Children can feel safe and trust the staff who are supported and respected by their family and who support and respect their family in return. Children at their service of early childhood and positive experiences experience comfortability. Children feel important and valued when the staff and families respect and support each other as well as take interest in their lives. Carers and parents can also help difficulties of mental health when they when they work in collaborative partnership (Wilder, 2013).
Working in collaborative partnership allows the staff and families to share their experiences and understanding of how bonding is significant to children (Davies, 2005). Young children are still developing and have trouble when they are separated from one environment to another one. Working in partnership with staff and families can enable children to negotiate the differences between settings like home and service of early childhood by seeing the adults who take care of them working collaboratively (Sclafani, 2018).
Parents’ involvement in the schooling of children helps to create an ample environment for children. Parents are more able to structure their experiences for children that promotes the development of skills enhance the sense of competence and achievement for the children (Wilder, 2013). A strong indication has been shown when parents get involved in the schooling of their children which to a positive impact on the achievements of academic, especially in numeracy and literacy (Wilder, 2013). It has been found that the involvement of parents promotes the positive impact on children’ behavior while in class, attendances, schooling attitude and retention. Children whose parents are involved in their schooling have shown to have higher self-confidence in academic learning and ability as well as strong extrinsic and intrinsic motivation by (Masten & Monn, 2015). Parents help their children to enhance their competence perceptions and empower children to control learning on their own. It has been found that when children observe the mutual respect and interactions among adults, it helps them comprehend, develop dispositions that are more positive and make them feel comfortable while in school (Erwin et al, 2015).
Benefits to Families
Collaborative partnership improves the outcomes of children. Stonehouse (2011) found that the participation of parents in the learning of their children, results in intellectual gains, especially in centers where parent engagement is highly encouraged. Research has shown that settings that most effective are those that share information that is child-related between the parents, Whanau and the staff (Wilder, 2013). These settings also had parents involved often in the decision-making process of the learning program of their children. Collaborative partnership with young children and their families leads to the establishment of shared aims, which contributes to the children’s better outcome despite the quality of the children’s’ center (Peyton, 2017).
Working in collaborative partnership in early childhood service allow families to have increased opportunities for connecting with other families that attend the service. These families benefit from the supportive network of divergent people who they can exchange ideas and information with and work collaboratively via challenges. Services of early childhood can link one family with one another or facilitate support in their respective community (Davies, 2005). The support of the staff can make the family feel comfortable enhancing confidence and trust in them hence leave their children with them. The collaborative partnership allows families to feel supported and understood by those around them making them experience better well-being and health. It also increases their confidence in parenting and appreciation of the uniqueness of their children (Stonehouse, 2011).
Collaborative partnership promotes positive benefits for the family. Family involvement in the schooling of their children helps them to become more knowledgeable about the procedures and goals of the schools (Yazejian & Iruka, 2015). This lead to a more engagement that is strong with schooling and communication of the significance of children education. It also builds the abilities of parents to assist their children to learn. Parent’s positive behavior and attitude positively influence the educational and learning success of children (Peyton, 2017). It is simply because parents get more involved in the learning of children and acquire knowledge and strategies for structuring the experiences of learning and their children’s activities, which leads to the development of skills (Erwin et al, 2015).
Sharing of positive bonds between the staff and families of children allow the staff to feel more connected, appreciated, rewarded and valued. Working in a collaborative partnership enable the staff to respond to the need of young children more easily by comprehending the relationship of the child with their siblings, carers, and parents (Sheridan, Edwards, Marvin & Knoche, 2009). It also allows the staff to develop a deeper comprehension of how each family wishes their child raised. It allows the staff to have a broader picture of the world surrounding the child, which allows the staff to associate with young children in a manner that makes them feel comprehended thus strengthening relationships (Peyton, 2017). The collaborative partnership further helps the staff to feel satisfied and confident in their responsibility of supporting the child as well as their development.
Working in collaborative partnership allow the staff and families to communicate openly and trust one another. Sharing of information allow the staff and the families to gain a deeper comprehension of the ways that are most effective to support the learning of young children (Sanders & Munford, 2010). It also promotes the understanding of the resources for addressing the challenges of children, how to collaboratively work together with the aim of supporting children and the behaviors of children while at home at the services of early childhood. The interaction of collaborative partnership assists the staff and families to perceive things from differently, develop connections that are strong with young children and benefit from the shared process of decision-making (Sheldan et al., 2009). It also assists them to feel, valued, respected, welcomed, supported in their roles, confident and comfortable. Furthermore, it makes them feel satisfied and benefit from the resources, energy, and ideas provided by others (Peyton, 2017).
Benefits to Professionals
Working in collaborative partnership with educators and families can create a strong relationship with their child, as they comprehend how important early educators are in the life of a child leading to an increased confidence in the role of educators (Sheridan, Edwards, Marvin & Knoche, 2009). Participating actively in the settings of early childhood can sustain parenting as the members of the family learn different and new ways of supporting the development of the child (Peyton, 2017). Collaborative partnership leads to a positive relationship with educators and staff, which further enhances carers and parents to address various aspects of learning and development of the child more quickly (Davies, 2009).
Collaborative partnership leads to a more appropriate and meaningful experience for children in the settings of early learning. It enhances the feelings of acceptance and security as children observe relationships that are warm between the educators and the family (Reynolds et al., 2017). Therefore, connections to the culture of children are strengthened and social skills are developed in children as well as their sense of identity. Research has shown that the achievements in academics are also enhanced when carers and parents participate actively in services of ECEC and schools (Reynolds et al., 2017).
The collaborative partnership provides educators and staff an opportunity to collaborate with each family giving to a clear complete picture of a child. It also promotes the satisfaction of working close to the families in order to support the children (Peyton, 2017). It also enhances the development of communication and collaboration capacity among the staff and various families which come from diverse backgrounds. It promotes the understanding of parents on the role of staff and educators, which makes them, appreciate, respect and value them (Davies, 2009). There are also both long-term and short-term gains to the communities as working in collaborative partnership is strengthened in the community life (Clarkin-Phillips, 2012).
A collaborative partnership can pose various challenges to the family. They include, difficulties of transport, time constraints, financial circumstances, cultural and language differences, well-being and parent health, balancing older and younger’s needs and feeling of not welcomed as a contributor (Sanders & Munford, 2010). The staff and educators can experience working environments that are complex and time constraints. The staff may also lack confidence in their professional expertise, face challenges of cultural and language differences as well as have little comprehension of engaging parents effectively (Wilder, 2009). Purdue (2009) argues that learning outcomes of children and not being able to comprehend that maintaining and developing a relationship is their responsibility. The staff and educators may also have limited knowledge of the significance of family collaborative partnership (Purdue, 2009).
Positive communication with one another to support responsive relationship, which can promote learning and development of children.
Research has shown the significance of effective communication between and within various settings (Te, 2011). There are various strategies that can facilitate open communication among various settings, which include; collegial meetings, mutual respect and reciprocal visits in various settings. Others include newsletters that facilitate sharing of information, resourced and formal processes that provide support collaborative partnership and willingness of the involved parties to communicate and collaborate (Boylan & Dalrymple, 2009). Sharing of information about young children and families it is essential for a child’s rights, the privacy of the family and any significant privacy registration to be respected (Davies, 2005).
Designing Principles for Collaborative Partnerships
Positive communication is vital for the staff and educators to work collaboratively in partnership to support responsive relationship, which can facilitate building resilience and support positive outcomes for young children and their families (Erwin et al., 2015). For young children, responsive relationship with their families and educators have substantial benefits, which include promoting the development of a healthy brain and provision of buffering protection (Davies, 2005). This kind of protection is required to prevent the experiences that are challenging from producing a stress response that is toxic. For the family and educators, healthy relationship boosts the well-being, giving assistance that is practical, providing emotional support and strengthening confidence and hope which are required to survive and weather situations that are stressful.
Positive communication supports responsive relationships that return and serve various interactions between family and young children. When a relationship is strong, it can promote the healthy development of a child, which reinforces the core life skills of adults (Walsh, 2008). Furthermore, supporting families can yield various benefits, which can promote the health of children and responsive parents. Responsive relationships early in children’s life plays a significant role in building a sturdy architecture of the brain (Peyton, 2017). Brain architecture is composed of trillions of connections between various neurons in the brain. These connections facilitate communication that is lightning-fast between neurons of various types in the functions of the brain. A significant ingredient in the process of development of a child is the interaction of serve-return between young children, and their parents and caregivers in the family or community (Dunst, 2007).
Positive communication can support the responsive relationship that can build resilience in childhood (Peyton, 2017). One of the significant factors why children have the capacity to overcome hardships that are serious in life is via having at least a single committed and stable relationship comprising of supportive caregivers, educators or staff and family (Amatea, Smith-Adcock, & Villares, 2006). The relationships facilitate personalized protection and responsiveness that prevent children from having disruptions in developments. They also model various capabilities like the ability to monitor, plan, regulate and adjust behavior that enhances children and their families to respond to adversity adaptively and thrive. The combination of positive communication, adaptive skill-building, supportive responsive relationships, and positive experiences leads to the foundation of resilience in children (Davies, 2005).
An example of this principle is from the findings is from the literature review of Early Years Learning and Development which found that “children thrive in warm and positive relationships characterized by the contingent response.” ("I. Theoretical, empirical, and practical rationale", 2008) The quote of contingent response corresponds to the responsive relationships supported by effective communication. Usually, the social and emotional development of the child is affected by intimate relationships. Impairment of the function of the brain will influence the cognitive process of the child as well as the emotional process (Sheldan et al., 2009). This principle can be applied in practice in various ways. One example is developing practices of hiring aimed at selecting and identifying the staff that is motivated build responsive relationships through communicating positively with their clients such as in in the process of an interview where candidates can be observed and in relation to each other (Walsh, 2012).
In another example of this principle is by Masten & Monn (2015) who argues that connections that are stronger among microsystems contribute to the positive development of greater potentiality. The concept is applicable in the education of early childhood where an emphasis by Te Whariki is on the significance of building responsive and respectful relationships between children, teachers and their families (Masten & Monn 2015). In practice, this principle can be applied in service programs where the staff and educators are provided with a significant amount of time to develop enough relationships with young children. Research has shown that children who are successful in academics, tend to come from families organized clearly where the role of responsive relationships among family members is supported by positive and well-defined communication (Te, 2011). A significant role is played by positive communication in helping professionals and families coordinate their shared responsibility of the wellbeing of children.
The adoption of family-centered practice was developed by the early intervention with families and their young children who had disabilities as its philosophical foundation (Walsh 2013). This practice entails an emphasis on strengths, promotion of family control and choice over resources that are desired and developing a relationship that is collaborative between professionals and parents (Shonkoff & Fisher, 2013). This principle has been associated with wide various benefits that have been demonstrated in both parents and children. It has also brought more satisfaction where families have found it to be more significant. The practice can also create a partnership with families by advocating for respect and dignity, honoring their choices, values, and provision of support that can enhance and strengthen the functioning of the family (Davies, 2005).
The family-centered practice has two components of participatory help-giving and relational practices. Relational practices entail interpersonal behaviors like authenticity, empathy, active listening, warmth and positive perceptions of parents (Srivastav, Fairbrother & Simpson, 2017). These behaviors can help professionals to build relationships that are effective with families. Studies on these behaviors have been carried out especially on the literature on mental health. They have shown to have a strong working alliance between professionals and parents, which are linked to positive outcomes. Participatory behaviors are action-oriented and entail control and sharing ways. Family information is shared by professionals by encouraging parents that to make their informed decisions and use their capabilities and existing knowledge as well as assisting families to acquire new skills through learning (Masten & Monn, 2015).
Family-centered practice can help parents to meet the essential needs of the family which can help lower stress and support services in the community that support the development of a healthy development (Walsh, 2013). When children experience toxic stress during their early years of learning can influence their health, behavior, and learning. Family-centered practice can help reduce this stresses by providing stable environments and responsive relationships, which can help children to develop healthy systems of the stress response (Kuo et al., 2011). It can also promote sturdy architecture of the brain to better focus on learning and achieve lifetime benefits of resilience (Erwin et al., 2015). Sturdy architecture of the brain implies the development of a better strong brain of the child that is built over time via positive interaction between caregivers and young children.
An example of this principle has been linked to a meta-analysis that consisted of 18 studies that investigated the use of family-centered practice. It was linked to program satisfaction, beliefs of self-efficacy, the perceptions of parents towards the functioning and behaviors of their children and parenting behavior (Davidson, 2008). The finding of the meta-analysis was that family centered practice helps to build a sturdy foundation in young children, which provides a good base for a lifetime of good mental function and overall better health. In another meta-analysis that consisted of 47 various studies from various countries found out that there is a link between family-centered practice with greater satisfaction of the family, stronger beliefs of the family on self-efficacy and control of sense as well as greater perceptions of the family (Dunst, Trivette & Hamby, 2007). It has also been linked to the perceptions of the parent to the behaviors of the child.
In another example of this principle has been found in the literature that highlights the need for collaboration between staffs or educators working in collaborative partnership with disabled children (Davies, 2005). The literature argues that family-centered practice helps to create a collaborative partnership that helps to create an inclusive peer environment for all young children (Purdue, 2009). In a case study example, a girl of four years old with a health condition of cerebral palsy, activities of small groups was used as a method of encouraging interaction with peers. Therapists and teachers worked together in developing a tailored development and learning program by the use of a family-centered practice that reflected the interests and abilities of the child (O’Brien & Salonen, 2011).
Collaborative planning help to support the continuity and transitions that are positive between and within the settings of early childhood enhance integrated and holistic approaches that aim to achieve development and learning outcomes (Duncan, 2006). Careful planning is relied upon by continuity within settings, which is considered as an approach the development of the curriculum, which is motivated, by the child’s culture, interests, abilities, and strengths (Walsh, 2012). Planning collaboratively is significant in allowing educators to develop a continuous and comprehensive pathway of learning.
Working collaboratively can strengthen the core life skills. Children experiencing adversity can develop the cores skills, which can be strengthened by their families working in partnership with staffs and educators (Duncan, 2006). Programs, policies and skilled families who create an environment that support these skills facilitate it (Sheridan, 2009). The family can enhance the development of skills of the executive function of a child through the establishment of routines, modeling social behavior that is appropriate, maintaining and creating reliable and supportive relationships. Research has shown that the adaptation of the brain to experiences continues throughout in life hence the child’s family can also strengthen their skills via practice and coaching (Stiles & Jernigan, 2010). Working collaboratively will also entail building social capital among other parents. It will involve making a difference in families, parents, and whanau who in turn will translate the difference to their children. The learning outcomes of children are linked to the participation of whanau and their families (Peyton, 2017). Therefore, there is a need to for the staffs or educators to work collaboratively by planning and sharing information that can build resilience and support positive outcomes.
An example of this principle can be depicted by professionals of early childhood who collaborate with young children and their parents and share information in all settings. For instance, in New Zealand, Duncan, Bowden & Smith (2006) found out that schools are built on existing experiences and knowledge of children, which comprise those that are gained in settings of care and education of early childhood prior to school. Saracho (2017) found out the educators of young children benefit from the knowledge of culture, interests, capabilities, and comprehension of children prior learning. This is because it makes them understand the cognitive development of the child making it easier for them to initiate a good relationship with young children. Transition development and learning is also another example of how professional of early childhood, children and families can share their expertise and experience to aid continuity of positive outcomes (Amatea, 2006). This can be done by the use of transition learning and development statement where it contains multiple sections that can be filled by both educators, children and completed by the family. Therefore, at the end of it, both educators and family focusing on facilitating learning and development of the child share experience and expertise.
Another example of this principle is manifested by professionals of early childhood who support children via transitions and who share information with the aim of developing a comprehension of expectations of behavior within each set of others. Planning collaboratively can also ensure possible for children who are vulnerable across settings. For instance, McWayne et al. (2008) argued that an approach that is collaborative among agencies provides support that is comprehensive for children whose parents are experiencing the abuse of substance and support collaboration greater. It includes objectives and common goals identification, making decisions jointly, joint training and conflict resolution. It also requires appropriate processes and time in order for the team to connect.
Collaborative partnership between young children and their families has shown to have several benefits as compared to its effects. Some of the benefits include it builds positive relationships, provides an avenue of sharing experiences, provides an ample environment for children and improves the outcomes of children. There are also benefits to families and professionals. One of the negative effects is that it be challenging to families and some staff may lack confidence in their expertise. Three principle have discussed in detail by highlighting some of the examples of how they can be applied. The first principle is the positive communication to support positive relationship and outcomes. It has been discussed how positive communication can support responsive relationship that can build resilience in childhood. The second principle is family centered practice to reduce sources of stress with the discussion of how it can be applied discussed in detail and the benefits likely to be gained. The last principle is working collaboratively by planning and sharing information to strengthen the cores skills. The application and examples of how this principles have been or can be applied have provided in detail. Therefore, there it can be concluded that it is essential for collaborative partnership with young children and their families has evidenced by this essay.
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