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This essay deals with explaining the concept of power and change that influences the programs. In the assignment, main emphasis has been given on the cross-cultural influences on change that discuss the topic that derail change programs (Yacout, Omneyaand Lamiaa 2015, pp. 37-52). The theory of Hofstede’s cultural dimensions explains a framework that revolves around cross-cultural communication that was devised by Geert Hofstede. In addition, the dimensions explain the impact of the culture ingrained in society on the values of the members of that society. Furthermore, the framework describes the relationship between the principles as well as performance. The theory mainly signifies the aspects of culture as well as provides rating on a comparison scale (Geert-hofstede.com 2017). Cultural dimensions is one of the significant facet where the information of the manner differentiate the features of the trade in different cultures that help managers for understanding and sailing successfully in and across the international business market. Cultural norms play an important role in maintaining interpersonal relationships at work. It depends upon where the individual had grown and that directly links with behavioral norms in the society and reactions. All human beings are unique by nature and differ completely by behavior, actions, feelings and preferences. Hofstede cultural dimensions help in evaluating the approach and based on the general sense on how people in a particular society might think and react (Upadhyaya, Shikhaand Terri2015, p. 59).
Legitimate is one of the base of power that comes from belief where a person has the formal right for making demands as well as expecting others to be complaint and obedient (Upadhyaya, Shikha and Terri 2015, p 59).
Reward is one of the bases of power that results from one-person ability for compensating another for compliance (Rallapalli, Kumar and Cameron 2015, pp. 73-77).
Expert is one of the bases of power that is based on person who poses high level of skills as well as knowledge (Upadhyaya, Shikha and Terri 2015, p 59).
Referent is one of the bases of power that results of a person perceived attractiveness as well as worthiness and right of other’s respect (Mazanecet al. 2015, pp. 299-304).
Coercive is one of the bases of power that comes from belief where a person can be punished others especially in case of non-compliance (Yacout, Omneya and Lamiaa 2015, pp. 37-52).
Explaining the positive and negative aspects of the use of power in change programs will be as follows –
Traits of Power Distance
High Power Distance
Low Power Distance
Power that have privileges
Respect for authority
Inequality of norms
All have equal rights
Respect for individuality
No set of hierarchy (Upadhyaya, Shikha and Terri 2015, p 59)
Little discussion or violence
Government based on majority
Much discussion or little violence
Wide range of salaries from top to bottom
Tall organizational pyramids
Narrow range of salaries from top to bottom (Upadhyaya, Shikha and Terri 2015, p 59)
Short organizational pyramids
Parents side with teachers for maintaining order
Parents may side with students against teachers
Introducing and defining Hofstede’s cultural dimensions
Power Distance- The measurement deals with the fact where all the persons in culture are equal as it articulates the approach of the traditions towards inequalities. Power Distance means the level to which the less powerful members of institutions as well as trade enterprise within a country anticipate and recognize where power is dispersed unequally (Makambe, Ushe and Rene Pellissier 2014).
Individualism – One of the basic issues that are addressed in the given measurement is the degree of interdependence where a culturepreserve among its other members. As far as individualist societies are concerned, people are mainly supposed for looking after their direct family. On the contrary, collectivist societies explain people where they belong in groups as they take care of them in exchange of loyalty (Khan andShahid 2014, p 239).
Masculinity –A high score in the Masculinity measurement reveals that the cultureare well driven by rivalry, achievement as well as accomplishment where success defined by the winner or best in the field (Upadhyaya, Shikha and Terri 2015, p 59). A low score in the feminine measurement reveals the fact that the dominant values in society as well as caring for others and excellence of life. In addition, feminine society is one where quality of life begins as the sign of achievement as well as standing out from the crowd that is not estimable. The main subject here is what motivates public and them wants to be best that can be either masculine or feminine (Huret al. 2015, pp. 487-508).
Uncertainty Avoidance –Uncertainty Avoidance is one of the dimensions where society deals with the fact and tries best for controlling over the future activities as far as possible (Geert-hofstede.com 2017). The sense of ambiguity aligns with anxiety as well as various cultures for learning anxiety in different ways. The members of a culture feel threatened by ambiguous or unknown situations for creating beliefs as well as institutions so that they avoid the score that are mentioned in the uncertainty avoidance measurement to the extent. People in low Uncertainty Avoidance Index scoring countries are more relaxed, inclusive as well as open (Hofstede 2014).
Long-term orientation – Long-term orientation is the dimension that explains how each culture need to preserve some of the links with its own past at the time of commerce with the challenges that are faced by society in present or future as well as societies prioritize two existential goals in different ways (Yacout, Omneya and Lamiaa 2015, pp. 37-52). Scoring low in the normative societies in the dimension that prefers for maintaining time-honored traditions as well as norms at the time of looking at communaltransform with thought. Scoring high in the pragmatic societies in the measurementreally encourages thrift as well as efforts in contemporaryteaching for the near future. The dimension had been added recently as it lacks the depth of data. Self-enhancement is essential along with person desire for pleasing their elders (Dartey-Baah and Kwasi 2013, p 39).
Indulgence – Indulgence dimension defines as the extent to which people try for controlling their desires as well as impulses (Upadhyaya, Shikha and Terri 2015, p 59). Weak control is known as indulgence as well as strong control is known as restraint.Countries that have high indulgence score allows or encourages relatively free gratification of people own drives as well as emotions at the same time. On the contrary, country that have low indulgence score keeps more emphasis on suppressing gratification as well as regulation on people conduct and behavior for showing stricter social norms (Chienet al. 2016, pp. 841-845)
Exploring the power-related aspects of Hofstede’s dimensions:
Power Distance Index
High Power Distance Index
Large gaps in compensation, respect and authority (Upadhyaya, Shikha and Terri 2015, p 59)
It needed for going to the top of answers
Acknowledging the status of leader (Upadhyaya, Shikha and Terri 2015, p 59)
More complex hierarchies (Rallapalli, Kumar and Cameron 2015, pp. 73-77)
As an outsider, it is needed to try for circumventing power and pushing back on explicit basis (Yacout, Omneya and Lamiaa 2015, pp. 37-52).
Low Power Distance Index
Delegation of responsibility
Supervisors as well as employees are treated equally (Bakiret al. 2015, pp. 226-232)
Involving in decision-making process that directly affects decisions in great ways (Upadhyaya, Shikha and Terri 2015, p 59)
Compare and contrast the power-related aspects of Hofstede’s dimensions between Australia and Singapore
Australia scores 36 in this dimension (Power Distance). In all the Australian organization, hierarchy is usually established for expediency as well as superiors that are easily available and managers rely upon individual employees and team for their proficiency.
Both managers as well as employees anticipate to be consulted and informed as shared on frequent basis. In that case, communication is mostly informal, direct as well as participative (Upadhyaya, Shikha and Terri 2015, p 59).
Singapore scores 74 in this dimension with a Confucian or Chinese background when they generally adopt syncretic approach to religion as well as has dominant approach in Singapore (AlAneziand B. Alansari 2016).
Australia scores 90 in the given dimension where it means the country had high individualist culture. In addition, this means Australia translates into a loosely knitcivilization where the hope of people are to look after themselves and their direct families as well. As far as trade world is concerned, employees are expected to remain independent as well as assume initiation at first place. In case of exchange-based world of work, hiring as well as promotion decisions depends upon merit or confirmation on what they perform (Upadhyaya, Shikha and Terri 2015, p 59).
Singapore scores 20 in this dimension and is a collectivist culture (Rallapalli, Kumar and Cameron 2015, pp. 73-77).
Australia scores 61 in the dimension where it means it comes under masculine society. Some of the attributes are the behavior in school, work and play where they share values and strive to be the best and winner takes it all. It is the Australians who are proud of their achievement and success and offers fair hiring and promotion decisions at workplace. Here, conflicts are mainly resolved at individual level as well as goals for winning activities (Upadhyaya, Shikha and Terri 2015, p 59).
Singapore scores 48 in this dimension and is in the middle of scale that had more of feminism. Feminism means softer aspects of culture such as sympathy, consensus (Yacout, Omneya and Lamiaa 2015, pp. 37-52).
Australia scores 51 in this dimension named as Uncertainty Avoidance
Singapore scores 8 in this dimension and it is very low because Singapore people abides by too many rules and need for structure.
Australia scores 21 in the dimension and therefore follows normative culture. In addition, people who belong to normative societies actually have strong concern in establishing absolute truth and they are normative in their thinking. Therefore, they exhibit great respect for traditions where it is relatively small propensity for saving it for future and focusing for achieving in quick results.
Singapore scores 72 in this dimension where they show cultural qualities as they support long-term investment such as perseverance, slow results as well as sustained efforts and sense of shame (Rallapalli, Kumar and Cameron 2015, pp. 73-77).
Australia scores 71 and is an indulgent country. In addition, a high score classifies people in societies in indulgence as it displaysenthusiasm for realizing their impulses as well as desires with regard to enjoying life and having fun. It mainly possesses a positive attitude as well as having a propensity towards optimism (Yacout, Omneya and Lamiaa 2015, pp. 37-52)
Singapore scored 46 in the dimension as it becomes impossible for determining a preference on the dimension.
A company which went through change will be an Australian listed company named as Wesfarmers Limited that had acknowledged that the world is changing because of cultural change. In that case, most of the communities are experiencing the need for cross-cultural recruitment and how it helps in daily activities. The company actually engages in recruiting right people for right job so that the recruited employees know their responsibilities well and work hard for becoming the asset in the near future.
In conclusion, on comparing both countries such as Australia and Singapore, it is now understood their cultural dimensions by implementing Geert Hofstede Model. This model had been classified into six broad categories such as power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance, long-term orientation and indulgence. After comparing countries like Australia and Singapore and argued that Singapore scores higher in power distance than that of Australia. In case of individualism, Australia scores higher than that of Singapore. In case of masculinity, Australia scores higher than that of Singapore. In case of uncertainty avoidance, Australia scores higher than that of Singapore. In case of long-term orientation, Singapore scores higher than that of Australia. In case of indulgence, Australia scores higher than that of Singapore. After making the comparison, it was clearly taken into account that the model help in highlighting the unique culture that these two countries (Australia and Singapore) follows in their daily lives. It is important to keep a score of each country and then evaluate the performance as well as carrying out further research for future activities. Making cultural sensitivity considers as the daily part of the life and valuing people differences on how to respect things that make people who they are. It is necessary for challenging oneself about one culture and comparing it with Hofstede score as well as determining their accuracy and relevance.
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Bakir, Aysen, Jeffrey G. Blodgett, Scott J. Vitell, and Gregory M. Rose. "A preliminary investigation of the reliability and validity of Hofstede’s cross cultural dimensions." In Proceedings of the 2000 Academy of Marketing Science (AMS) Annual Conference, pp. 226-232. Springer, Cham, 2015.
Chien, Shih-Yi, Katia Sycara, Jyi-Shane Liu, and AsiyeKumru. "Relation between Trust Attitudes Toward Automation, Hofstede’s Cultural Dimensions, and Big Five Personality Traits." In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 841-845. Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publications, 2016.
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