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Discuss about the Cambridge Handbook Of Research To Business Ethics.

Discuss your understanding of the following terms under the NQF:



Answer/feedback received

NQF Structure

The national quality framework is a set of goal, objectives and principles that guide the education system to enable the achievement of the education system objectives (Sheils et al , 2016). The framework deals with the roles and responsibilities of assessors, the assessment framework, the assessment process and the moderation. In relation to the national quality framework, it is important to understand the role of education. Qualification refers to the planned integration of learning outcomes, which has set objectives and aimed at providing the intended learners to get a platform for further learning. It is important to find out that there is an existing connection between qualification and curriculum. NQF might be recognized as a group of relevant bodies incorporated to fulfil certain objectives.

NQF Objectives

According to Synge (2014), NQF objective is to develop, assess, and enable a continuous improvement in education. In this regard, NQF strives to –

-          Create an integrated framework for educational achievement.

-          Facilitates access, mobility, and progress within the education system.

-          Guides on the quality of education

-          Enhances the correction of the historical injustices in the education system

-          Guides to the full development of a learner.

Unit Standards

 According to Proctor& Adler (2016), the standard forms part of the national and internationally agreed framework. Each unit of learning or training has a set-out criterion of achievement which gauges if the participants are to be accorded the qualification or not at the end of the program based on a predetermined criterion. The syllabus to be taught in each unit should strive to achieve outcomes that align with the criterion set out in these standards. Unit standards entail all the required outcomes based on the objective of each unit. The standards form the basis of qualification. Standards refer to the established statements of intended education and resultant training in association with the assessment criteria. Further, it is associated with administrative related information as per the specific regulation. Unit standards and standards are similar as they look for the desired outcome. While discussing about NQF, it is important to know about the different levels and bands associated with it. The South African Qualifications Authority from the passing of NFQ Act in 2008 uses the National Qualification Framework.  

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There are ten levels of learning achievement and each edtablished South African qualification must adhere to the specific NQF level. The level signifies the curriculym that the students will learn and the skills that he will acquire by doing the same.  Qualification is the accreditation to the learner as having achieved the unit standards set out in the units learned or trained (Kinkle, 2015). Qualification is determined by the examination body authorized by the South Africa qualification authority in its role of executing the authority’s objective which is overseeing the quality of education in South Africa. The results of the qualification include awards, certificates, and degree.

Key Concepts


This is an acronym for outcomes-based education and training.  These are assessed based on the outcome or achievements or nonachievements from a certain training or education(Dmytriyev, 2017). These achievements or non-achievements are then gauged against the existing objectives. Usually, this assessment is done by the examination body. The examination body that has been appointed by the South Africa qualification authority has the same objective on the qualification as the authority. In other words, the examination body strives to execute and implement the objectives of the qualification authority. OBET is focussed on the final outcomes or achievement of a learner or the final product expected.

Validity (including fairness)

In order to grant qualification, an assessment is done to the learners to ensure that they have achieved the unit standards. In this assessment, certain principles and practices which include fairness, validity, reliability, and credibility (Fulcher, 2013). Fairness literally means justice, in this regard, fairness means that the assessment is done by considering the outcome and not an individual. The assessment is done through the laid down unit standards only and therefore should not be personal or seem to exhibit any other motive apart from qualification assessment. The validity of this relation means that the assessment is done by a qualified assessor. The qualification of the assessors is laid down in the national qualification framework. Validity in general means that the method used in assessment is the most appropriate and reflects the required outcome.


Reliability in this regards means that the assessment results are from a qualified source (Poitras, 2013). This is done in order to ensure that the qualification results truly reflect the outcomes and achievement of the learner or trainer from the learning program undertaken.

Practicality (including sufficiency and integration)

According to Swerdlik et al (2017), in this regard, practicality means that it is achievable and rational in that it is not extremely expensive, it has a specific timeline, it is easy to implement and that it has an evaluation procedure that is specific and with timelines.  Sufficiency, on the other hand, refers to the fact that the portfolio is fit to gauge the learner while integration means that the assessment seeks to achieve most if not all the achievement of the standards set and for all fields required for this purpose.

Authenticity of portfolio

According to South African Qualifications Authority (2013), a portfolio is a set of student’s work that is used to gauge or assess the learning or training of a learner. In this regard, the authenticity of a portfolio means that the portfolio selected actually is the work of the learner. It is an assurance that the work to be assessed is from the learner and that there is no dishonesty in the presentation.


Role & Function of Sector ETQA’s

ETQA is an acronym for education and training quality assurance. Its role is to oversee the implementation of standards and qualifications criteria  (Roosendaal.A, 2014). It monitors, audits provisions, assessments, and achievement of the specific standards. It is a partner in skills and leadership development division.

Who does the ETQA report to

According to Fulcher.G (2013) ETQA reports to the South Africa quality assurance (SAQA) authority which is a body appointed by the minister of education in consultation with the minister of labor. The objective of SAQA is to oversee the quality of education on behalf of the ministry of education.

Discuss the importance of having an appeal procedure

(Ward.P, 2013). Sometimes after the reassessment, the learner may feel that the assessment was unfair and is given an opportunity to appeal for the purpose of reassessment. The importance of the appeal procedure is to give an assurance to the learner that they shall not suffer from unfair assessment. An assurance of justice in the learning process.

The National Qualification Framework stresses on a number of applied competencies so that each specific level highlights intellectual and academic skills. These skills include ability for problem- solving and the process of self- learning. It can be stated that an increase in the level of NQF qualification signifies that the individual is skilled in an intellectual manner. The table given below will throw light on the qualification required as per the NQF level


NQF Level

General certificate


Elementary certificate


Intermediate certificate


National certificate or Matric


Higher certificate


Diploma and advanced certificate


Bachelor’s degree and advanced diploma


Honours degree and postgraduate diploma


Master’s degree


Doctoral degree


The South African Qualifications Authority looked into the 10 major areas of academic skills. The areas included accountability; management of learning; context and systems; producing and communicating information; accessing, processing and managing information; ethics and professional practice; problem solving; method and procedure; knowledge literacy; scope of knowledge.

            Various kinds of bands used in the South African NQF structure are given below:

  • GET or General Education and Training
  • ABET or Adult Basic Education and Training
  • Compulsory schooling upto standard eight- grade ten
  • FET or Further Education and Training

Furthermore, it can be summarised that unit standards of the NQF structure is related to the course curriculum of teh leaning process. It is considered as the standard benchmark on which the learning abilities depend. The presence of bands and levels has made the process easy. With the specific bands and levels the identification and requirement is clear. Moreover, it has helped in the evaluation process of seeking the person with the highest intellectual skill. Additional processes include decision- making and problem- solving.

As per the evaluation plan, the objectives of the training were clearly identified. The participants of the training were encouraged to take part in the discussion process. This was helpful in bringing out the issues that they were facing in the organization. The involvement of the participants in the discussion made them realize their value in the organization. The topics that were discussed were relevant to the issues faced by the individuals. Therefore, they could actively take part in the discussion and share their experiences. The first three questions in the training evaluation form got maximum positive responses. However, the fourth question was based on the management participation to focus on the arrangement of the training session. This question received mixed response, as 50% of the respondents were not satisfied with the content. The feedback received from the participants suggested that the training content was not generalized. It was referred only to the specific group of trainees who were existing in the organization for a long time. Therefore, it became difficult for the new trainees to have an understanding of the concept.  

NQF Structure

The next question was aimed at the effectiveness of the materials that were distributed during the training. This question got mixed responses as the previous one. A certain group of respondents said that the materials were helpful, however another group contradicted that those were not helpful. They complained that visual representations would have been better in understanding the content. Only handouts were provided to them, which consisted only a brief of the whole content that was discussed in the session. Some recommended that if they could get practical hands- on experience it would help them in achieving their career objectives in a better way.

The question on the usefulness of the training in personal work managed to get a slightly more than average response from the trainees. The responses focused that the trainees were not confident if the training experience will be helpful for them or not. This was evident from the fact that most of them had responded in the third option, which was neutral. It was clear from their response that as they were confused about the question therefore, they found the safest answer. The response could be effective if the trainees were asked individually about their feedback instead of ticking n the options.

Again, the following question on the knowledge of the trainer got the maximum responses. All the trainees except a few agreed to the fact that the trainer was knowledgeable enough to show them the right way in their career. Although the materials and the content of the session was not helpful to the new trainees but the verbal knowledge that they gained from the trainer was extremely helpful. The trainer was well prepared about the topic of the session. He has shared his personal experience with the trainees to make them comfortable with the situation. The way he described his personal stories helped in removing the fear of the new employees about their career in the specific field.

The training objectives were not properly met was evident from the fact that the trainees were not satisfied with their personal outcome. They were not satisfied with the way the training was conducted and the equipment used was not effective. They wanted simplicity in the procedure, which was not done. However, the responses received from the trainer were contradictory to that of the trainees. As per the trainer, the training objective were met because he was satisfied with the interaction of the trainees. The active participation of the trainees and their opinions on various issues made the trainer realize that the training objective was fulfilled.

NQF Objectives

The final question on the time allotment got mostly neutral answers. This is because the trainees were not sure of the exact time that should be allotted for an effective training session. They felt that the time was perfect for the session, as more time would have led to monotony among the trainees. The trainer felt that the time could be elongated to provide sime more input to the participants.

The evaluation plan took place through the filling of the questionnaires. The questions in the questionnaire were designed to evaluate the training outcomes in four broad areas namely reaction, learning, behavior, and the results. For the purpose of evaluation, the learners were given a standard questionnaire to fill after every session. The questions here were in two parts, part one contained questions which tested the level of training that had been achieved for example, whether the objective of the training had been achieved, if participation and interaction were encouraged, whether the topics covered were relevant to the learns among other question which in total amounted to ten questions. The multiple choice answers whether the learner

  1. Strongly agree
  2. Agree
  3. Neutral
  4. Disagree
  5. Strongly disagree.

Part two of the questionnaire required explanation of the opinion of the learner. This part contained five questions which are

  1. What did you like most about the training?
  2. What aspects of the training could be improved?
  3. How do you hope to change your practice as a result of the training?
  4. What additional trainings would you like to have in the future?
  5. Please share other comments or expand on the previous response

The questionnaires forms were given to the learners after every session and collected for evaluation.

To the reaction evaluation questions included whether the students felt that the training was worth their time if it was successful, the strength and weakness of the training, if they liked the venue and the presentation of the syle, if the session accommodated their personal learning styles and a summary. The answer to all above questions was to the affirmative.

On the learning evaluation outcome sections, the questionnaire was designed to test what the students had learned. In this case, all of the individuals all got more than the 80% benchmark even one candidate that has special needs.

On the behavior, the evaluation tested whether the learners put their learning into use, is able to teach their new knowledge, skills, or attitudes to other people and if they were aware that they've changed their behavior. Upon evaluation, the learners had put their learning into use in their stores, they had transferred the knowledge to their sales staff and were aware that they had changed. The conclusion was delivered from their managers as a feedback from their observation and interviews were done over time.

As a result of the training, the employee retention rate was high, there was increased production, high morale, increased sales and customer satisfaction. The training was successful, and all learners are equipped, and the outcomes was successfully achieved.

A workplace skills plan is a document articulating how the employer is going to tackle training and development needs in the work place. To come up with these, four steps are required. These steps include: -

  1. Analysing the skills that the organization already has. This is done through skills audit which can be done through panel audit, consultant audit or one-on-one audit.
  2. Determining the skills that the company want to develop. Determination of the skills is done by analysing the company strategies and strategic plan. The required skills to achieve strategic goals are then analysed vis-à-vis the existing skills to establish a skill gap.
  3. Deciding on how to close this skills gap. The gap closing can be done through impacting skills, knowledge, re-skilling et al.
  4. Determining the requirement for the training in terms of resources required to implement the training for example place, finance, trainers et cetera.

When determining the workplace skills plan, the overall goal is achieving the development that is required in the workplace in terms of skills for the organization to achieve its objectives and goals. The audit of the skills and training plan is done differently for different job levels since different levels have different requirements. The plan/ schedule includes the objectives of the training, expected outcomes, schedule of activities.

Authority, S. A. Q., 2010. Criteria and Guidelines for Assessment of NQF Registered Unit standards and Qualifications. P0LICY DOCUMENT, pp. 5-70., 2017. Cambridge Handbook of Research Approaches to Business Ethics and Corporate Responsibility. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Fulcher.G, 2013. Practical Language Testing. Abingdon-on-Thames: Routledge.

Kinkle, J. T. A., 2015. Cartographies of the Absolute. illustrated ed. Washington: Zero Books.

Poitras.G, 2013. Commodity Risk Management: Theory and Application. illustrated ed. Abingdon-on-Thames: Routledge.

Proctor II, F. A., 2016. Looking Out, Looking In. 15 ed. ‎Boston: Cengage Learning.

Roosendaal.A, 2014. Digital Personae and Profiles in Law: Protecting Individuals' Rights in Online Contexts. illustrated ed. Luxembourg: Wolf Legal Publishers.

Sheils, 2016. The language dimension in all subjects: A handbook for curriculum development and teacher training. Strasbourg: Council of Europe., 2017. Psychological Testing and Assessment. 9, illustrated ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Education.

Synge, J., 2014. The Well of the Saints - A Play. Leshgold: Read Books Limited.

Ward.P, 2013. Continuing Professional Education for the Information Society: The Fifth World Conference on Continuing Professional Education for the Library and Information Science Professions. reprint ed. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

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