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Advantages of Vehicular Communication Systems

Discuss about the Vehicular Communication Systems.

Vehicular communication systems may be defined as the networks that are used by the roadside units and vehicles for communication. The vehicular communication systems are beneficial as they can help in reducing traffic congestion as well as accidents. The vehicular communication systems help in providing traffic information and warnings. The deaths caused in car crashes may be unavoidable. The main objective of vehicular communication systems is to eliminate the cost of traffic collisions. Vehicle-to-vehicle or V2V is an automobile technology that allows automobiles to talk to one another. The ad hoc networks that are formed by such vehicular networks help in avoiding accidents and determining blind spots. The V2V communication allows the vehicle in transit to send speed data and position over the network. It is estimated that V2V communication is expected to be more effective than current original equipment manufacturer for blind spot detection, lane departure and adaptive cruise control. Vehicle-to-vehicle communication shall be the future. The vehicles shall be able to transmit important information to the surrounding vehicles for improving the overall safety and efficiency of the road system.

The authors and researchers Wu et al. (2013) address the vehicular communication issue in urban hybrid networks. The paper proposes an online probabilistic localization algorithm using Hybrid Routing in vehicular ad hoc networks. This article reviews theories and literature such as types of communication in hybrid ad hoc vehicular networks (VANETs). The article provides strong evidence for verifying the performance of hybrid routing. This article shall also act as a piece of foundation for hybrid communication networks in urban environments. There is a need to evaluate more crowd vehicles and the urban environment related factors. This technology shall be beneficial for the society as there is a need of robust and seamless strategy for managing urban vehicular ad hoc networks.


According to Kurmis et al. (2017), the quality of wireless communication channel needs to be analysed. The main strength of the article is that it applies various context and theory such as context data utility, vehicle clusters formation and evaluation of channel quality. The literature shows that there is channel congestion and it arises due to mass data dissemination techniques. The results of the article indicate that decision tree algorithm is most effective in managing the channels. Three separate context data management algorithms for cloud computing, locally stored data and data stores in other nodes are proposed. The article indicates that the performance of accumulated value changes with time based on certain parameters namely- number of rejected packets, channel bandwidth and quality parameters.

Challenges of Vehicular Communication Systems

As opined by Aliyu et al. (2017), the vehicles of the current times have the capability of supporting real time multimedia. The article highlights a comprehensive review on video streaming in Internet of Things (IoT) environments. The paper focuses on the vehicular communication perspective with respect to 5G enabled technologies. The authors stress upon the significance of video streaming in vehicular IoT environment. The main strength is that critical review is performed with a focus on major functional model. A few supporting technologies for video streaming are automotive sensors, traffic data analysis, RFID aided positing technologies, vehicle for surveillance communication, vehicle to green communication and multiple others. It is argued that mobility is one of the significant challenges faced in video streaming over mobile networks. Further, robust traffic video encoding, real time traffic video relaying and other challenges are also experienced in video streaming. However, a few authors claim that SSIM index has more accuracy for the evaluation of video streaming performance. The article has strong evidence and references that make the information credible.


According to Sulaiman, Raja and Park (2013), road traffic can be managed using Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) communications. This article states the advantages for bringing VANET into practice. The authors have found that the successful deployment of vehicular communication depends upon two factors-privacy and security. The author provides strong literature that gives an in-depth analysis about the management of road traffic with advanced technology. The findings of the article suggest that a large number of messages need to be verified within a short span of time for improving the system performance. This article proposed a secure message authentication scheme for an infrastructure based vehicular communication. Therefore, there is sufficient evidence for using one-way hash chain method for public or private key pairs for the vehicles.

The living quality in modern cities is affected by traffic congestion. The vehicular pollution is damaging the environment adversely. The traffic jams and idling vehicles emit greenhouse gases such as nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide. Through vehicular communication, the traffic controller can collect information about the vehicles before they pass the intersection. The authors have proposed a dynamic traffic control framework that maximizes intersections through utilization of lane positions and turning intentions. Thus, vehicular communication shall help in reducing the idling of vehicles and traffic jams. The technology shall allocate green signs to the traffic flows with higher passing rates vehicles as well as lower passing rates. This strategy shall ensure fairness on the roads between higher and lower passing rate vehicles. Therefore, with less traffic jams and idling of vehicles, there shall be decrease in greenhouse gas emissions (Lien-Wu Chen, Sharma & Yu-Chee Tseng, 2013).

Probabilistic Localization Algorithms for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks

Bronzi et al. (2016) argue that Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is gaining recognition and importance in the recent times. One of the recent additions in the smartphones are communication and sensor interfaces. This article evaluates the characteristics of wireless channels and the ways in which BLE is affected by speed, distance and traffic conditions. The data findings suggest that the maximum communication between two devices could exceed 100m with a capability of handling interferences and sudden signal losses. The main strength of this article is that it states the advantages and limitations of BLE so that potential applications can be proposed. BLE is considered a successful application as its availability, ultra low power consumption and low latency. It is suggested that BLE can be used as multi-hop communications between moving vehicles. BLE is a very reliable and quick solution for inter-vehicular communication in cases of excess traffic.


The aim of research study conducted by Liu, Yang, Ding & Song (2016) is to analyse the impact of narrow-band interference (NBI) and impulsive noise (IN) on vehicular communications. It is argued that vehicular communication requires high-speed data transmission due to the increased number of vehicles. Moreover, other features such as vehicle-to-grid, vehicle-to-vehicle and modern vehicular control also require high-speed data transmission. This article reviews CS-based NBI and IN cancellation scheme for high-speed vehicular communication. It is found that the proposed frame structure shall overcome the current vehicular communication barriers. The CS-TFM-OFDM framework is introduced for solving the mitigation problems of NBI and IN.

According to Xinzhou Wu et al. (2013), Dedicated Short-range Communications (DSRC) is another technique to support vehicular communications. This technology has been designed in a manner that can be deployed in production vehicles. The article discusses the challenges for DSRC such as channel estimation, convolution code decoding, channel congestion and adjacent band leakage. It is argued that obstacles such as tunnels, buildings, surrounded bigger vehicles can degrade the radio performance. The DSRC technology has been proven very effective in vehicular safety applications. The congestion levels are constantly tested by vendors and automakers. Therefore, the DSRC technology is considered to enhance safety in the Vehicle-to-infrastructure and vehicle-to-vehicle applications while reducing crashes at the same time.

The authors Ge et al. (2016) argue that cooperative transmission is an effective approach for improving wireless transmission capacity in the 5th-generation (5G) small cell networks. In the futuristic 5G networks, the smaller cells are expected to provide a high transmission rates for users. Due to high vehicular speed, the wireless networks are under the risk of recurring links and become highly dynamic. Also, there are problems such as coverage issues and frequent handoff in the 5G small-cell networks. The small cell 5G networks are expected to overcome these issues and act as a promising solution in the vehicular communications. The article analyses the vehicular mobility performance based on the distance between vehicle and small-cells.

BLE as a Solution for Inter-Vehicular Communication

In the research study conducted by Sommer et al. (2015), Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) is becoming one of the significant fields in the networking community. The inter-vehicular communication can be categorized as efficiency applications, safety critical applications and entertainment applications. The authors argue that radio signals obstruct vehicular communications. However, the article identifies opportunities such as less channel load which can be taken advantage of. Dynamic beaconing shall help in reacting aggressively to the dynamics in the network. Transmit rate control as adopted by the ETSI performs better and paves for dynamic beaconing solutions.

There is rapid development and advancement across the wireless technologies and mobile data traffic. Vehicular communications have gathered quite an attention for ensuring road safety and improving traffic efficiency. The article provides a comprehensive overview of vehicular communication from the physical layer perspective. It is argued that an increase in terminal mobility such as high reliability, ultra low latency and service heterogeneity shall be inefficient (Liang, Peng, Li & Shen, 2017).

According to Tal, Ciubotaru, and Muntean (2016), smart transportation is the necessity in the current area. Electric bicycles are the most popular electric vehicle that offers several advantages in comparison with traditional bicycles. This article reviews the literature related to eco-driving, eco-routing and simulation model validation. The authors propose SAECy which recommends strategic riding at appropriate speed. The results suggest that the proposed speed advisory system shall help in saving energy. The future study shall involve micro-simulation models for the cyclists. Smart transportation is one of the most sustainable forms of transportation.


The article suggests that the characteristics of vehicular communication suggest a dynamic environment and high mobility help in evaluation protocols and applications. This article classifies the models based on the propagation mechanism implementation approach. It is argued that the models include modelling specific environment. The article is supported by strong references. The authors are scientists and lecturers at reputed institutions that make the information reliable (Viriyasitavat, Boban, Hsin-Mu Tsai & Vasilakos, 2015).

It may be concluded that vehicular communication- the latest advanced technology shall be beneficial in managing traffic congestion and reducing road accidents. It is estimated that V2V communication is expected to be more effective than current original equipment manufacturer for blind spot detection, lane departure and adaptive cruise control. There is a need to evaluate more crowd vehicles and the urban environment related factors. Three separate context data management algorithms for cloud computing, locally stored data and data stores in other nodes are proposed. A few supporting technologies for video streaming are automotive sensors, traffic data analysis, RFID aided positing technologies, vehicle for surveillance communication, vehicle to green communication and multiple others. The authors have found that the successful deployment of vehicular communication depends upon two factors-privacy and security. This strategy shall ensure fairness on the roads between higher and lower passing rate vehicles. The main strength of this article is that it states the advantages and limitations of BLE so that potential applications can be proposed. It is argued that vehicular communication requires high-speed data transmission due to the increased number of vehicles. The congestion levels are constantly tested by vendors and automakers. It is argued that obstacles such as tunnels, buildings, surrounded bigger vehicles can degrade the radio performance. Due to high vehicular speed, the wireless networks are under the risk of recurring links and become highly dynamic. The inter-vehicular communication can be categorized as efficiency applications, safety critical applications and entertainment applications. Electric bicycles are the most popular electric vehicle that offers several advantages in comparison with traditional bicycles. It is argued that the models include modelling specific environment. The small cell 5G networks are expected to overcome these issues and act as a promising solution in the vehicular communications.

References

Aliyu, A., Abdullah, A., Kaiwartya, O., Cao, Y., Lloret, J., Aslam, N., & Joda, U. (2018). Towards video streaming in IoT Environments: Vehicular communication perspective. Computer Communications, 118, 93-119. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.comcom.2017.10.003

Bronzi, W., Frank, R., Castignani, G., & Engel, T. (2016). Bluetooth Low Energy performance and robustness analysis for Inter-Vehicular Communications. Ad Hoc Networks, 37, 76-86. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adhoc.2015.08.007

Ge, X., Cheng, H., Mao, G., Yang, Y., & Tu, S. (2016). Vehicular communications for 5G cooperative small-cell networks. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 65(10), 7882-7894.

Kurmis, M., Voznak, M., Kucinskas, G., Drungilas, D., Lukosius, Z., Jakovlev, S., & Andziulis, A. (2017). Development of Method for Service Support Management in Vehicular Communication Networks. Advances In Electrical And Electronic Engineering, 15(4). https://dx.doi.org/10.15598/aeee.v15i4.2388

Liang, L., Peng, H., Li, G.Y. and Shen, X., 2017. Vehicular communications: A physical layer perspective. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 66(12), pp.10647-10659.

Lien-Wu Chen, Sharma, P., & Yu-Chee Tseng. (2013). Dynamic Traffic Control with Fairness and Throughput Optimization Using Vehicular Communications. IEEE Journal On Selected Areas In Communications, 31(9), 504-512. https://dx.doi.org/10.1109/jsac.2013.sup.0513045

Liu, S., Yang, F., Ding, W., & Song, J. (2016). Double Kill: Compressive-Sensing-Based Narrow-Band Interference and Impulsive Noise Mitigation for Vehicular Communications. IEEE Transactions On Vehicular Technology, 65(7), 5099-5109. https://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tvt.2015.2459060

Sommer, C., Joerer, S., Segata, M., Tonguz, O., Cigno, R., & Dressler, F. (2015). How Shadowing Hurts Vehicular Communications and How Dynamic Beaconing Can Help. IEEE Transactions On Mobile Computing, 14(7), 1411-1421. https://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tmc.2014.2362752

Sulaiman, A., Kasmir Raja, S., & Park, S. (2013). Improving scalability in vehicular communication using one-way hash chain method. Ad Hoc Networks, 11(8), 2526-2540. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adhoc.2013.05.017

Tal, I., Ciubotaru, B. and Muntean, G.M., 2016. Vehicular-Communications-Based Speed Advisory System for Electric Bicycles. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 65(6), pp.4129-4143.

Viriyasitavat, W., Boban, M., Tsai, H.M. and Vasilakos, A., 2015. Vehicular communications: Survey and challenges of channel and propagation models. IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine, 10(2), pp.55-66.

Wu, D., Zhang, Y., Bao, L., & Regan, A. (2013). Location-Based Crowdsourcing for Vehicular Communication in Hybrid Networks. IEEE Transactions On Intelligent Transportation Systems, 14(2), 837-846. https://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tits.2013.2243437

Xinzhou Wu, Subramanian, S., Guha, R., White, R., Junyi Li, & Lu, K. et al. (2013). Vehicular Communications Using DSRC: Challenges, Enhancements, and Evolution. IEEE Journal On Selected Areas In Communications, 31(9), 399-408. https://dx.doi.org/10.1109/jsac.2013.sup.0513036

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