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Describe the Promote Childrens Agency For the Alphabets.

Indoor and Outdoor Activities

Since Keira is highly advanced when compared to other children the indoor that will be appropriate for her abilities and interests are (Soini et al. 2014)-

Engagement in activities that includes numbers or alphabets and involve thinking

  • tally marks to show numerals,
  • cutting practice to cut pictures from magazines of numbers or letters that she can recognise
  • assign a task to hunt colours by collecting items of same colour

The outdoor activities that will help Keira take interest and enhance her abilities are-

  • Engagement in physical activities such as Swimming and Bowling to develop motor skills
  • Make different shapes with wet mud 

Keira appear to be academically gifted therefore utilising her intelligence will help her in brain development. Brain undergoes rapid development at this age (Mischel 2013). Therefore, for such students problem solving experience is adapted which enhances cognitive function. It includes allowing them to solve puzzles and different types of problems, pursue inquiries, analyse information, think of alternate plan to reach their goal. 

I will teach the child to learn numericals, alphabets, colours, identification of animals, solving a puzzle and so on. In each task Keira have to apply different knowledge and it will maintain her interest. The tasks will be designed by me as per Keira’s interest. 

In my service, Piaget theory of cognitive development is used in developing indoor and outdoor environment for children. According to the theory, children construct an understanding of the world and later based on their discoveries and experiences identify the discrepancies between what they knew and what they have newly learnt (Mischel 2013). As per the theory a child can best learn through active exploration (Bjorklund 2013). Therefore the indoor activities are designed where a child have to be collaborative. It also helps in developing social skills. Indoor games also include playing with toys such as Megafort, Popsicle stick crafts, or cooperative board games. The outdoor activities involve risk and physical and emotional challenge. These include activities such as hunting or playing detective or a simple hide and seek or a blind fold to identify objects in sand. These activities help children like Keira who are advanced as include thinking and planning. These activities are in alignment with the National quality standards or NQS that mentions of physical environment that supports children’s learning in the areas stated by EYLF “Early Years Learning Framework” (Grieshaber and Graham 2015). Three main areas out of them are children’s health and safety, physical environment, collaborative partnership with families and communities.  





Vibrant and flexible indoor and outdoor environments

For indoor environment use of many sources of natural light, spacious rooms, and room painted with different colour and different games and colourful toys.

For outdoor environment-

Play ground attached with garden having flowers of different colours, pets, aquarium, and waterways.

Use of different colors makes the environment vibrant and develop child’s excitement. Having different pets and plants in garden area may attract them to the place. It may prevent children from getting bored

Environment that supports children learning

Incorporate indoor and outdoor activities that are age appropriate such as puzzle play for 3 years old

Activities that involve thinking and curiosity help to use five senses. It promotes children learning in turn as they tend use their senses.

Materials and resources that are natural and familiar

Use recyclable materials wherever possible such as plastic water bottles and cereal boxes.

Design rooms with paintings or posters that represent the children’s culture Develop spacious garden.

Children love to stay in natural environment. Outdoor activities in garden help them enjoy fresh air, birds, sunlight, flowers, trees and hear different natural sounds. Using paintings of different cultures may help student feel familiar

Materials and resources that provoke interest

Art and craft, home corner, puzzle play, music and toy table

These materials and resources fascinate children   where they can extend on their ideas

Experiences reflect children’s interests

Develop activities that match students intelligence. For example, Using number games for Keira who is excellent with numbers

When a child shows high enthusiasm in playing number games it reflects his or her interest in numbers

I will encourage Thalia to direct her own play and leisure by allowing her to explore more colours and craft work equipments. Exposing her to different materials and resources and will help her to touch, observe, poke, smell, use imagination, develop creativity, experience and learning. This exploration will help her participate in new drawing activities or paper cutting (Porter et al. 2017). 

Materials and Resources

I will encourage Thalia to direct her own play and leisure with scissors, glues and papers. It will help hr devise new play and leisure activities as per her interest such as making cards with papers and glue (Bredekamp 2014). 

I will help Thalia to do things on her own and help only when physically required. I will give her more of group activities than working alone. I will praise her efforts instead of results to help her see herself as capable. To adjust the degree of competence I would help her try new activities related to paper work such as origami (Hyndman et al. 2014). 

Intentional teaching is to teach with a goal in mind. I would work on to build her thinking skills during play. For this purpose I would introduce concepts such as colour, number, using paper work. I will ask her to pick up an apple from the bowl and draw the shape of the apple on paper and colour it (Maita et al. 2014). 

I will expose Thalia to the play environment where she can develop the play scenario, organise things and execute her plan. For instance she can select her centre of stage and choose pops that demonstrate her interests such as origami made of papers. It will provide opportunity to think and play in her area of interest (Collado and Corraliza 2015). 

Two common routines are “child-directed free-choice activity” and “teacher directed learning” 


How to ensure







1.      child-directed free-choice activity

2.      Peer scaffolding   occurs

During play hours


Using play materials

Drawings or puzzles or pets

Early life trainers for surveillance and do not engage with children

Fist aid


How to ensure







1.      Teacher directed learning

2.      Learning is maximised

Teaching hours


Using materials for academic learning

Paper Toys related to numbers, alphabets

Early life educators

First aid


Existing practice

New practice



Allow children to direct their own play and leisure experiences with peers

Instructing orally to help other children in games

Devloping activities that can be completed in group with the help of others which also includes taking turns.

In the given photo it can be seen that the children are taking turn in ararnging the stack of boxes.

Creating an opportunity to intentional teaching

Intentioanl teaching was implented for specfic purpose and usually developed one specific activity for achieving the goal

The goal of the intentional teaching is tried to achive by multiple options. Different activities are developed through which specific goal can be achieved.

In the given photo it can be seen that the the child is guided in leaning numbers while playing with toys

A child initiates new play experience

Only mateials and resources were provided but was not ensured if a child is intiating a new play experince.

In addition to providing materials and resources it is ensured that the child is taking new challenge or trying to explore. It is ensured that the child is coming out of the comfort zone.

As seen in photo the boy is left alone with the toys to exxplore new ideas. The trainer is not near by so that he can create or do some thing his as pr his interest. His new play experinece will further demonstare what he wants to do.


Decision to make changes

Desired Changes

Allow children to direct their own play and leisure experiences with peers

The existing practice was not promoting social skills as oral instructions are not enough to direct the child to initiate play and leisure experiences with peers (Hyndman et al. 2014).


Creating an opportunity to intentional teaching

Taking advantage of multiple opportunities helps in achieving the set goals rather than relying on one single activity. For example numbers can be taught through different activities (Maita et al. 2014)


A child initiates new play experiences

Creating a situation where children need to think and act may give a new experience (Prado and Dewey 2014). It will help children to build confidence as they express freedom.



Rationale for not changing

Develop independence by giving challenging activities

As children attempt difficult tasks it helps develop perseverance. Practicing them over a period of time develops their resilient and gives them a sense of tremendous achievement (Brazelton 2013).

Activities such as gardening, cooking utensils provide opportunities to use real tools and demonstrate their abilities.

Learning social skills

Activities such as cooking, group play activities are experiences that develop communication skills and help learning sharing and cooperating such as waiting for turns in group activities (Michelson et al. 2013).

Caring for pet

These experiences teach children about how to be in charge. It creates respect and loyalty. Children tend to focus. It gives children a positive experience (Travis 2014).

Develop intelligence

Everyday literacy activities such as learning numbers alphabets and other mathematical skills make them more advance. It enhances their cognitive function (Prado and Dewey 2014).

I would help children watch what gardener is doing and explain in simple language what garden bed is. I will clear their query considering their interest about how we get food and why gardening is important. To explain what the Gardner is doing I would create mounds like mini raise beds and plant a tree on top of it and will explain that the garner will do the same thing (Mayesky 2014).

I will ensure that the gardening program is flexible by choosing the crops that grows quickly. It will maintain the children’s interest in the gardening activity. Allowing children to use the entire space in the garden area will allow them to explore on their terms (Evans et al. 2016).

To follow up activities of high interest I will communicate with the preschoolers about their experience and convey the same to the educators and the stakeholders through an open discussion. While consulting them I will ask them open ended questions to know their experiences (Kipping et al. 2014).

Intentional Teaching Methods

The teaching and the learning experience that is currently provided in the environment-

After discussing with the preschoolers (5 years) about the experience, I have listed their views and ideas by asking questions on gardening. Their views and ideas includes-

  • To learn more about seeds
  • To learn about plant nutrients
  • Idea to grow plants that consume less water
  • To learn how to grow plants in aquarium
  • To know what is greenhouse
  • To have more practical classes on gardening

More activities were developed it includes sowing different types of seeds and its name. Children were allowed to recognise plants that consume less water and explaining them the reason. This observational experience was enjoyable as children learnt while doing things in practical. They learnt quickly than explaining about gardening orally.

I have informed the educators and the stakeholders that children enjoy gardening. After consultation the educator and the stakeholder has decided to develop new physical development activities. I have collected the above data from preschoolers by asking open-ended questions. The consultation with the stakeholders was mainly formal which include meetings (Cook et al. 2015).

The method of gathering information from preschoolers-

  • Approach the child after they have finished gardening activity
  • Build rapport with children by telling interesting fun facts
  • Ask short open ended questions while engaging them in conversation

Some of the Open-ended questions for preschoolers include-

  • Do you like gardening?
  • How much do you like gardening?
  • What more you want to know about gardening?
  • Do you like sowing seeds?

Method of conducting meetings with stakeholders-

  • Organising all the data collected from the preschoolers
  • Personal data collected from peer reviewed articles on new physical development activities appropriate for children
  • Preparing notes on what to be conveyed in meetings

I would assess the teaching and the learning experience by developing a set of questionnaires for the teachers that are close ended. It will help identify the number of children taking interest in gardening and other physical actvities. Later open ended questions will be asked to the preschoolers to identify new interest demonstrated by the children (Maita et al. 2014).

Based on the assessment it was found that children love to engage in activities that have target practice such as bull’s eye. They enjoyed activities like treasure hunt, cycling, and running, skating, playing bow and arrow, dancing and jumping in addition to gardening.

The area of high interest among the kids was different form of physical activity instead of old traditional form of exercises. The follow up activities for supporting the area of interest includes-

  1. different form of physical activity such as skating, bating or dancing
  2. plastic water bottle hanging tomato planters
  3. Development of egg carton greenhouse
  4. Make seed mosaics
  5. Climbing activities

Due to ethical issues exact details or evidences cannot be provided. Only a part of the details are briefed here.


Learning stories


Children said “ like skating” some said “We enjoy outdoor activities than indoor and different forms of exercises but do not like knees up, bounce and catch ball


Supervisors and educators said “It is okay to incorporate new games and activities in curriculum that matches the children’s interest”.


Stakeholders said “Since students are not enjoying the current forms of physical activities it is effective to replace them with the new ones that they have not experienced before”.


Together with the educators I have planned new activities that could meet the developmental needs of children


For children of 4-5 years child’s interest was responded by including activities such as

Climbing on stairs

Jumping on one spot



Dancing on music



Meeting with parents and educators to follow up if children where participating more on area of high interest at home or do talk about it often


Old activities were replaced with the new ones

The decision to make changes was that the children were not enjoying the old physical activities that are simple exercises and walking. In order to develop their interests it was necessary to introduce new activities.

New resources were added such as new bicycles, music system to teach dancing, play garden was cleared of unwanted objects to create more open space for running and jumping.

There were some changes in children. There were more number of participants than before. As per attendance report the children’s regularly attended all the physical activity classes there was less absenteeism and it increased enthusiasm of children.  

Flexibility in Gardening Program

Current experiences


Rationale for not changing


To enhance caring

It is important for children to become responsible


For development of bones

It is important for physical health. The old ones are slightly modified to increase interest of children.




Activities that worked















Was the experience age appropriate



Was the experience effective and enjoyable for children


Feedback received

Teacher’s comments: Students are more enthusiastic than before and regularly attend all the classes.

Parent’s comments- children stay active all the day and do not appear dull or lazy. They do not feel sick as frequently as before. Parents also said that the children are more advanced and are showing good typical patterns.

Feedback I have received:- I have received a positive feedback from the parents. They did not recommend for anything new to be added in the curriculum.

Learner considerations and prior knowledge


Learner aspects relevant to this lesson have been identified.


Learner prior knowledge


Learner prior knowledge and understanding/skills have been identified.



Since parents and educators are observing positive changes by implementing the activities that are meeting the interests and abilities of the children my future plan is to continue with the progress and ensure that the curriculum is well executed.

Tania is 5 years old. She shows interest in trains and aeroplanes and only loves to draw. She loves to play only indoor activities and does not participate in outdoor activities. She approaches carer only for scissors and paints and talks very less with her other peers.

There is a need to consult her parents to identify her concerns. It is necessary to know if the child goes outdoor with parents or plays with her neighbours. Her need at present is to increase her interaction with other peers and educators

The plan is to set appropriate goals for Tania and her parents. Her parents and carers are instructed to conduct her drawing classes outdoors where she will notice others children playing and participating in physical activity. Teachers will be asked to engage her in-group play activities outdoors, which will encourage her to talk more. It is instructed to the teachers and her parents that they must praise Tania when she obeys their instructions (Mayesky 2014).

If Tania do not want to participate in outdoor activities, I will conduct similar activities indoor that involves group discussions on personal experiences with craft work. It will help  Tania to give her ideas as well. Other outdoor activities will designed that involves scissors and paints for instance cutting grass or panting flower pots as Tania loves to play with scissors and paints. It will encourage her to play outdoors (Cook et al. 2015).

The experience that suits one or more preschoolers are- learning musical instrument- piano

Upon consulting the preschooler about the learning experience I received a positive feedback. There are very few children who willingly engage in piano playing. Two of them said “I enjoy the music and love to play”. Some students showed interest in violin and guitar.

I will take this positive feedback and try to involve more number of preschoolers in learning music. I would ask other children about what musical instrument they like or love to learn.

Adjustment to the experiences was made by providing children with mini musical instrument kits that would develop their attitude towards music and create their own (Lagerlöf et al. 2013).2.

Children’s efforts were supported by helping them in playing music by hiring professional trainers and teaching the right technique. They are encouraged to play by praising whatever they learn to play or when they create their own music. Engage the in group music instructions on literacy skills (Slater et al. 2014).

Those children who are facing difficulty are engaged more in music lessons. They are asking to know what pieces they are working. They are given songs that are easy to play and are rewarded for their performances to increase their excitement (Campbell and Scott-Kassner 2013).

Exact evidence could not be provided due to ethical issues.

Description of the evidence


By consulting children about materials and experiences I have learned about their preferences. It helped in providing different children with mini musical instrument of their choices as shown in evidence

Group activities are best to identify and acknowledge the child’s uniqueness as each child will perform differently

Children were praised for their smallest of effort to learn music. Some of the students have expressed their interest in playing piano and others were supported for different interests.

They were shown the videos of other children playing music efficiently in order to encourage them. They were provided with adequate resources and materials as shown in evidence. Consulting with the educators it was found that more number of children were participating in playing different musical instruments. There was a positive change in children’s attitude towards music. No child was forced to uptake music and instructions were given to teachers to ensure the same.


Rationale for not changing

Help children in doing their activities themselves such as eating, cleaning, and dressing

It will help them grow independent. To help them dependent less on their parents.

To prevent particular child from engaging in one activity despite they prefer to. Ensure that the child is engaged in multiple activities.

It will help develop multiple skills. It is necessary for a child to master in different skills for cognitive enhancement and physical health.  


Bjorklund, D.F. ed., 2013. Children's strategies: Contemporary views of cognitive development. Psychology Press.

Brazelton, T.B., 2013. Toddlers and parents: A declaration of independence. Dell.

Bredekamp, S., 2014. Effective practices in early childhood education: Building a foundation. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Campbell, P. and Scott-Kassner, C., 2013. Music in childhood: From preschool through the elementary grades. Nelson Education.

Collado, S. and Corraliza, J.A., 2015. Children’s restorative experiences and self-reported environmental behaviors. Environment and Behavior, 47(1), pp.38-56.

Cook, R.E., Klein, M.D. and Chen, D., 2015. Adapting early childhood curricula for children with special needs. Pearson.

Evans, A., Ranjit, N., Fair, C.N., Jennings, R. and Warren, J.L., 2016. Previous gardening experience and gardening enjoyment is related to vegetable preferences and consumption among low-income elementary school children. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 48(9), pp.618-624.

Fullerton, T., 2014. Game design workshop: a playcentric approach to creating innovative games. CRC press.

Grieshaber, S. and Graham, L.J., 2015. Equity and educators enacting the Australian early years learning framework. Critical Studies in Education, pp.1-15.

Hyndman, B.P., Benson, A.C., Ullah, S. and Telford, A., 2014. Evaluating the effects of the Lunchtime Enjoyment Activity and Play (LEAP) school playground intervention on children’s quality of life, enjoyment and participation in physical activity. BMC public health, 14(1), p.164.

Kipping, R.R., Howe, L.D., Jago, R., Campbell, R., Wells, S., Chittleborough, C.R., Mytton, J., Noble, S.M., Peters, T.J. and Lawlor, D.A., 2014. Effect of intervention aimed at increasing physical activity, reducing sedentary behaviour, and increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in children: active for Life Year 5 (AFLY5) school based cluster randomised controlled trial. Bmj, 348, p.g3256.

Lagerlöf, P., Wallerstedt, C. and Pramling, N., 2013. Engaging children's participation in and around a new music technology through playful framing. International Journal of Early Years Education, 21(4), pp.325-335.

Maita, M.D.R., Mareovich, F. and Peralta, O., 2014. Intentional Teaching Facilitates Young Children's Comprehension and Use of a Symbolic Object. The Journal of genetic psychology, 175(5), pp.401-415.

Mayesky, M., 2014. Creative Activities and Curriculum for young children. Cengage Learning.

Michelson, L., Sugai, D.P., Wood, R.P. and Kazdin, A.E., 2013. Social skills assessment and training with children: An empirically based handbook. Springer Science & Business Media.

Mischel, T. ed., 2013. Cognitive development and epistemology. Academic Press.

Porter, G., Hampshire, K., Abane, A., Munthali, A., Robson, E. and Mashiri, M., 2017. Beyond the School and Working Day: Building Connections Through Play, Leisure, Worship and Other Social Contact. In Young People’s Daily Mobilities in Sub-Saharan Africa (pp. 123-152). Palgrave Macmillan US.

Prado, E.L. and Dewey, K.G., 2014. Nutrition and brain development in early life. Nutrition reviews, 72(4), pp.267-284.

Slater, J., Strait, D.L., Skoe, E., O'Connell, S., Thompson, E. and Kraus, N., 2014. Longitudinal effects of group music instruction on literacy skills in low-income children. PLoS One, 9(11), p.e113383.

Soini, A., Villberg, J., Sääkslahti, A., Gubbels, J., Mehtälä, A., Kettunen, T. and Poskiparta, M., 2014. Directly observed physical activity among 3-year-olds in Finnish childcare. International Journal of Early Childhood, 46(2), pp.253-269.

Travis, H.J., 2014. Children and the human-animal bond: Minimizing pet loss during disasters. In Teaching compassion: Humane education in early childhood (pp. 133-145). Springer Netherlands.

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