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What is the name of the National legislative framework?

What are the 2 legislative documents that underpin the national framework?

What is the approved learning framework?

What suggested elements should be typically included in a curriculum framework?

Explain the ‘structural components’ that make up quality children’s service provision?

What might be considered a reasonable number of children for a small group experience with the following groups and experiences?

What should be considered when planning for a small group experience?

What are the primary benefits of project work in relation to children’s learning?

What is the key difference between a learning centre and a project?

Legislative Documents Underpinning National Framework

The aim of this assessment is to assess your skills and knowledge that are required for this unit. Use the Learning Resources that the Trainer provides you and also your Trainer to assist you in completing this booklet with accuracy.

This section of the assessment incorporates the unit scope, underpinning knowledge, critical aspects and the appropriate employability skills. This assessment can be given as a self-paced written assessment, administered orally by an assessor or a combination of both. Whichever method is used, the answers to the questions will be recorded on this assessment schedule.

The Student must complete ALL questions correctly. If an answer is not correct, the Assessor must investigate the level of understanding. The Assessor will then document any discussions in the Assessor Box provided at the bottom of each page. If the Assessor asks any additional questions, these will be documented in the Assessor Box and include the Student's answer.

If the Student does not demonstrate the required underpinning skills and knowledge, then the Student is deemed not yet competent in this unit. Some possible solutions to achieve competence are:

  •    Any incorrect questions may need to be completed again and re-submitted
  •    Additional training may be required
  •    Additional research may be required
  1. Listed in the table below are some of the key elements that must be present for the effective delivery of quality early childhood education and care.

For each element listed, describe one way it can be translated in early childhood settings. Think about policies, procedures, curriculum and routines.


How it can be translated into practice.

a. Recognition of the family and relationships within the family as critical to healthy child development.

To help children recognize and value family relationships, a play based session can be planned where children are asked to enact the role of their mother or father or other members of the family.  A child may be asked in the play sessions to describe about their family and the things they like about their families. They may be encouraged to say positive things about their family. Such activity will create a sense of connectedness and children will experience pride after sensing and respecting their family relationship (Newman and Newman 2017). As children constructs meaning about family relationship in different ways, educators can intervene to teach children to show respect for their family members.

b. A key focus on the principles of development, learning and play.

Play based learning can be implemented in child care setting which targets specifics areas of development, encourages learning as well as play in children. It helps children to learn through discovering things while completing activities.  Meaningful play activities can develop language skills, fine and gross motor skills and social skills in children (Edwards et al. 2017). For example, a group of 5-6 children may be asked to engage in a dramatic play related to some moral stories. Through this kind of play, children will learn cooperation and self-help skills. Enacting the play in a group will develop social skills and encourage them to freely talk with others. Apart from this, specific moral story based dramas will make children make sense of their role in society and awareness regarding desirable behaviour in community.

c. Early childhood programs recognise that learning occurs in a social context and that family, cultural and environmental factors impact significantly on learning opportunities and learning outcomes for young children.

In the social context, making children aware about diversities in society is important to promote learning and development. Hence, in child education setting, a cultural dress program can be arranged where children are asked to dress up according to their culture.  Such activities in child care setting can make children aware about social and cultural context around their environment.  It will give them the opportunity to learn about different cultural aspects and it will act a new experience of learning for children (VanHoorn et al. 2014).  Children may be asked to try on dress of different culture and the educator in turn can give short speech about that culture. Such educational activities engage children in learning and they can be related to cultural and social aspects that they see around them.

d. Recognition of the early years as a unique period.

Educators can facilitate recognition of early years as a unique period respecting and recognizing the unique qualities and abilities of each child. Children can be provided opportunities for unique learning by arranging outdoor plays for children (McClintic and Petty 2015). Shifting to outdoor space instead of teaching in a confined room provide opportunities for unique play and learning. They will learn to engage in physical activities, develop gross motor skills and make sense of the environment. Outdoor spaces are dynamic and it can promote educators to take flexible approach to provide unique learning opportunities to children and establish their connection with the natural world.

Assessor Notes:

  1. To complete this task go to your text and refer to the following reading:
  • Guide to the National Quality Standard (pp. 7-9 and pp. 21-22), ACECQA (2011).

The National legislative framework is known as the National Quality Framework which is underpinned by Education and Care Services law and Education and Care Services National Regulation (ACECQA 2011).

The two legislative documents that underpin the national framework include Education and Care Services law and Education and Care Services National Regulation. They are also known as National law and National Regulations respectively (ACECQA 2011). 

  1. List the National Quality Standard (NQS) and Element that instructs educators on curriculum.

The national Quality Standard is one of the elements of the National Quality Framework that gives guidance to users about quality of education and care services. The NQS has 18 standards and a total of 58 elements for the standards. The standards has been arranged in seven quality areas of educational program and practice, children’s health and safety, physical environment, staffing arrangements, relationships with children, collaborative partnership with families and communities and leadership and service management. The list of standards includes the following:

  • Approved learning framework promotes development of curriculum according to each child’s learning needs and development
  • Educators need to active and reflective to develop and design program for each child
  • The health of each child needs to be promoted
  • Programs for children incorporates healthy eating and physical activity
  • Protection of each child is necessary
  • Design and location of premise should be considered for service operation
  • An inclusive environment should be provided that promotes competence and individualized learning through play
  • The services should be actively involved in protecting environment
  • Staffing arrangement is necessary for children’s learning and the safety of children
  • Ethical action and respectful behaviour are the key attributes for educators, co-ordinators and staffs members
  • Equitable relationship established for each children
  • Responsive and sensitive relationship is built with each children
  • Child care staffs maintain supportive relationship with families
  • Families are given ideas related to parenting role and values needed to rear children
  • Child care service collaborates with other organizations to promote well-being of children
  • Effective leadership in child care service fosters positive organizational culture and professional learning environment
  • Commitment to continuous improvement is a priority
  • Administrative systems play a role in proper management of quality service (ACECQA 2011).

The approved learning frameworks are two national learning frameworks that is part of the National Quality Standard. It supports child learning from birth and provides guidance to develop quality programs for children. The two approved learning frameworks are as follows:

  • Belonging, Being and Becoming: The Early Years Learning Framework for Australia (EYLF)

My Time, Our Place: Framework for School Age Care in Australia (MTOP) (ACECQA 2011).

Assessor Notes:

  1. What is the general purpose of learning frameworks?

Approved Learning Frameworks

The general purpose of the learning framework is to support child learning from birth and provide necessary guidance to develop quality programs to enhance child learning. For example, the EYLF provides guidance to educators about the early childhood principles and practices needed to facilitate learning from birth to five years of age. The MTOP specifically provides guidance regarding practices and principles for children attending school age care settings (ACECQA 2011).

  1. According to the text,

According to ACECQA (2011), the curriculum framework should have the following:

  • Child’s knowledge, culture and interest should be the foundation of curriculum framework
  • The routine for children should be arranged in way that enhances individualized learning for each children
  • The child’s program documentation should be made available to families
  1. Early childhood programs function within, and are shaped by, the social and cultural context in which they exist.

Explain what is meant by the term cultural context.

Cultural context refers to the family background and cultural identity within which the child has been raised (Roskos 2017). Hence, when any early childhood programs are shaped by cultural context, it means program is developed by incorporating cultural interest of children to make experiences relevant and engaging. By this approach, child’s learning is promoted without compromising their cultural identities.

  1. Quality Children’s Services is made up of both structural and process components.

The structural components of Quality Children’s Services include those components that can be measured within child’s service environment. For example, staff training, qualification of staffs, group size and staff-child ratios are examples of structural components ( 2018).

Assessor Notes:

  1. Explain the ‘process components’ that make up quality children’s service provision

The process component is defined as those components that relates to experiences and dynamics within child service environment ( 2018). Some example of process components includes staff skills, workings conditions in child care services, child-carer relationship and stability between staffs.

  1. List the key areas that are generally included in mandatory licensing requirements for early childhood services

The areas that are included in mandatory licensing requirement for early childhood services includes the following:

  • Name of proposed education and care service and applicant’s name
  • Date of operation of service
  • Proposed age of children to be educated in the service
  • Estimated maximum number of children to be educated in the service
  • Estimated hours and days of operation
  • Details regarding nature of education and care service
  • Statement regarding compliance of policies and procedures with regulation 168 (Little and Sweller 2015)
  1. Describe the pedagogical practices that typically occur in an early child education context.

Pedagogical practices relates to strategies used by teachers to support learning of children in different context. In early child education context, the key pedagogical practices include:

  • Implementing play-based learning to help children develop social skills
  • Promoting children’s communication skills by group based activities
  • Use role play to explore aspects of identity in children

Assessor Notes:

  1. Explain the key principle ‘Belonging: family, culture and wider community.’

The belonging principle emphasizes that child belongs first to a family, culture and wider community. This means children’s relationship with others helps them to define identity. These relationships create a sense of belonging in children. This principle encourages maintaining secure and respectful relationship ( 2009).

  1. Explain the key principle ‘Being: self, relationships with others and meeting life’s challenges.’

The principle ‘Being: self, relationships with others and meeting life’s challenges recognizes that children needs to make sense of the world. This involves knowing about present, exploring oneself and engaging in life’s joy as well as challenges to understand the importance of being here and now. This principle incorporates concepts that can prepare children for future as well as the present ( 2009).

  1. Explain the key principle ‘Becoming: reflects the process of continuous change in self, knowledge, relationships, understandings, skills and capacities.’

The key principle ‘Becoming’ is based on the concept that children’s knowledge, skills and relationship change during childhood. Hence, the principle indicates the process of significant changes in children in early years that facilitate their learning and development. According to this principle learning is necessary to actively participate in society works ( 2009).

  1. The photographs below show typical play experiences that may be provided for children on a daily basis to support learning and development.
  1. Identify a learning outcome linked to the EYLF.
  2. Identify the key developmental areas which may be supported by the play.
  • Identify the key role of the educator in supporting children’s learning

Play Experience

a. Block play

i. Learning outcome: Outcome 4: Children are confident and informed learners

ii. This kind of play will support children in developing problem solving skills, experimentations kills and inquiry skills. It develops spatial sense and motor abilities in children.

iii. The educators can support children by responding to children’s learning interest and encouraging them to improve. By giving feedback, they can help children to try new ideas and take on challenges. They also provoke imagination and confidence in children through block play.

b. Gardening

i. Learning outcome: Outcome 2: Children are connected with and contribute to their world.

ii. Gardening may support children to develop their thinking abilities and make sense of how the world works. They start showing respect for environment and nature.

iii. By engaging in gardening acts, educators promote sense of community and teach them to use environmental resource in an effective manner. By providing access to plants and flowers, educators can develop children’s appreciation and respect for natural environment.

a. Learning Areas

i. Learning outcome: Outcome 4 and 1

ii.   Different learning area is relate to developmental areas of language, social development, approaches to learning and movement skills.

ii. By providing toddlers the opportunity to engage in play with dolls, educator can enhance enquiry and teach children to develop reasoning for different acts. Complex concept and thinking can be facilitated by these acts. 

b. Shared Experiences

i. Learning outcome: Outcome 1, outcome 2 and 4

ii. Shared experience relates to emotional and social developmental areas of children

iii. Child educators can help children to learn about fairness and negotiation skills by shared experiences. Educator’s can expose children to issues of fairness by sharing experiences. Children become socially responsible through such experiences.

Curriculum Framework Elements

Match the examples of educator interactions with one of the specific types of strategies used to scaffold learning:

Collaborating as a learning partner.

Building connections.

Extending children’s thinking to develop deep understandings.

Educator Interactions

i. Drawing children’s attention to learning and everyday situations in which learning is used.


ii. Inquiring and investigating together.


iii. Providing opportunities for choice.


iv. Assisting children to make connections between experiences.


v. Collaborating and working alongside children.


vi. Making language and thinking strategies explicit.


vii. Providing environments for independent and collaborative learning.


viii. Assisting children to pose and solve problems.


ix. Negotiating and collaboratively planning projects and experiences.


x. Drawing on children’s prior knowledge and making links to new experiences.


xi. Discussing and explaining meanings and ideas.


xii. Using teachable moments.


xiii. Verbalising and modelling thinking and problem-solving strategies.


Assessor Notes:

  1. Identify the Element within the NQS that refers to children’s strengths and capabilities with regards to program development

The element 1.1.2 relates to the children’s strength and capabilities with regards to program development as it states that children’s abilities and interest are the foundation of the program (ACECQA 2011).

  1. Identify the Element within the NQS that promotes children as active learners and decision makers.

The element 1.1.6 promotes children as active learners and decisions makers as it states when children’s agency view child as active participants, they can move beyond preconceived expectation of children (ACECQA 2011).

  1. Identify the Element within the NQS that outlines the importance of utilising planned and unplanned interactions, experiences, routines and events to foster children’s learning.

Focuses on interactions, experiences, routines and events to foster children’s learning (ACECQA 2011).

Assessor Notes:

  1. In relation to Element 1.1.2 of the NQS, list five ways educators can demonstrate evidence of how they utilise each child’s current knowledge, ideas, culture and abilities as a foundation for the program.

The five ways by which educators can demonstrate evidence of fulfilling element 1.1.2 are as follows:

  1. Educators can interact with children for certain time to get idea about current knowledge and thinking in children. Inquiring them about any topic can make them aware about child’s idea and their culture too.
  2. An educator can also engage children in plays like cooking or mimicking their mother to analyse the culture of children and incorporate respect for culture in programs.
  3. Educators can also give short task to students such as drawing or showing some creativity to assess the capability of children
  4. Educators can also give children’s solving puzzle task to assess the interest and enthusiasm in solving the puzzles. This can give idea about a child’s imagination and concentration during complex activities
  5. Educators can also arrange outdoor play to sense children interaction with the environment and they can use it develop specific programs to respect diversity in environment.
  6. Define the concept of a ‘teachable moment’ and give two examples

A teachable moment is an unplanned activity done by child educators in class where they seize certain opportunity to develop certain concept in children based on their interest (Perry 2015). The two examples of teachable moments are as follows:

  1. During lunch time, one children suddenly asked why we need to use napkins all the time while taking lunch. Based on this inquiry of children, the teacher can convert this moment into a teachable moment by teaching children about the importance of table manners.
  2. During one of the class, a child suddenly asked why we need to do to home and do homework. The teacher used this opportunity to create a teachable moment where the teacher first asked all children what they think about homework. After collecting student’s idea, the teacher engaged in 15 minute session to explain children that homework helps children to practice lessons that they have learned in class and develop their grasp in subject.

Assessor Notes:

  1. To complete this task refer to the following reading:
  • Guidelines for planning, Kearns Education (2013).
  1. Explain the purpose of group goals in early childhood education settings.

Group goals are used in early childhood education setting to consider different context of children’s lives and plan developmental needs of children. Group based goals help to track, support and improve children’s progress in relation to specific plan. It facilitates learning, development and individual child’s learning (Malekoff 2015).

Group experiences, if well planned can provide rich collaborative learning opportunities for children. Explain why it is important to limit numbers when conducting small group experiences with young children.

Group experiences provide children with learning in the area of collaborative and inclusive education. While providing children group experience, it is important to limit numbers because small groups facilitate students to close observe each children. Children also tend to learn well when working in small groups. By conducting small group experiences, children can easily learn lessons about cooperation, compromise and conversation with other. A large group may make children inattentive and they may not pay attention to the experiences. Another advantage of a small group is that more focused attention is given to each child when they complete task and activities. Hence, it can be said that teachers get the opportunity to closely observe each child and priorities specific lesson for each children.

Assessor Notes:

Group and Experience

Number of Children

a. Toddlers - Sharing a story


b. Toddlers - music & dance


c. Pre-schoolers - sharing stories, dramatisation


d. Pre-schoolers - exploring maths & science concepts


When planning small group experiences for children, the following things should be considered:

  • Size of the group:The size of the group should be decided based on learning objective and the judgment regarding appropriate members to promote the ability to work efficiently.
  • Role of each member of the group:  After deciding specific group experience, it is necessary to consider the role of each member to achieve desired results from the experience.
  • Group dynamic: It is necessary to consider group dynamics while planning small group experiences to encourage proper collaboration and sharing perceptions among children. This can influence the success of interaction in small group experiences.

Explain some of the difficulties and limitations of large/whole group experiences.

The challenges and limitations of large/whole group experiences are as follows:

  • Executing activities in a large group is difficult due to size of the group
  • Large groups limit’s educator’s ability to closely pay attention to each child. Such experiences are chaotic and does not serve the purpose of group experiences
  • Large  group experiences becomes stressful for teachers and targeted learning is not disseminated to all group members
  • A large group makes many children feel socially isolated as they are left behind in discussion. Hence, full attention to all group members is not possible.

Assessor Notes:

Project work in early child care setting is an opportunity for nurturing young children’s idea and helps them achieve unmet learning objectives. Project works are open ended everyday topics in which developing children’s idea and thinking is necessary. The main advantages of project work for small children are as follows:

  • It enables educators to value young children’s idea and nurture them
  • It facilitates working on those areas where student’s learning needs are not met
  • Project work provides enriching learning experience to students as children discover their answer at field.
  • Project work develops thinking and promotes in-depth understanding about concepts in children
  • It helps educators to adapt flexible framework to plan experiences based on targeted learning behaviour (Temple et al 2017).

Structural Components of Quality Children's Services

A learning centre is a permanent area or organization where lesson and activities for children are planned. In learning centres, the curriculum for teaching is pre-planned and executed periodically in class. In contrast, a project is an activity that can be done in any location based on identifying topic areas that are of interest to student. A project work is more flexible approach as it enables planning learning experiences based on daily observation of children. However, in case of learning centre, everything is pre-planned and executed in a set time-period.

  1. Suggest two maths/science concepts that could be explored through a learning centre with 4-5 year olds.

The two maths concepts that can be explored through a learning centre with 4-5 years old children are as follows:

  • Children can be taught counting up to 100 by engaging them in task like counting chocolates or distributing sweets to children.
  • The number sense of children can be developed by giving them block or pencil and asking them questions like ‘I you have 10 blocks and I take away 5, how much will you have left?’. This activity in learning centres helps children to start estimating or setting the objects to add or subtract numbers.

Assessor Notes:

What does Element 1.2.1 of the NQS aim to achieve?

The main aim of the Element 1.2.1 of the NQS is to maintain an ongoing cycle of planning, documentation and evaluation of children by using variety of strategies to assess child’s learning. The element encourages educators to use variety of strategies to evaluate children’s learning (ACECQA 2011). Hence, it aims to regularly track a child’s progress during learning activities and identify their strengths, skills and learning abilities.

To complete this task go to your text and refer to the following reading:

  • Guidelines for planning, Kearns Education (2013).

Read the scenario and answer the related questions.

The Coffee Morning – Mardi – Observation taken 12/9/xx

Mardi (4 years 8 months) decided it was a beautiful day to have coffee in the garden. “I just need to get some things for my coffee morning”, she told me. “Do you need any help?” I asked.  “No thanks Brooke; I know where to get things. You can come for coffee when I’m all ready OK?”

“OK, sounds wonderful. I’ll see you later.”

Mardi busied herself with her preparations. She pulled the red table over near the rain tank, and then added a cloth & flowers. Next came the chairs. I was intrigued to see Mardi rearrange the table three times until it was in the right spot. As she worked she talked to herself. “No, too hot, just here. Oh, I think I need to move it.  There. “Now there’s no room for the picnic.”  Mardi moved the table for a third time then went inside and gathered her bits and pieces in one of the large baskets.   Lilly wandered over and asked Mardi what she was doing.

“Actually I’m making a coffee morning. That’s when you sit in the garden and drink coffee and eat cakes with your best friends.  You say, ‘Oh that looks delicious. I’ll just a have a little tiny bit.’

“I can be your friend and come to the garden Mardi”, said Lilly.

“Yes you can. Brooke is coming too so you will have to sit on the picnic blanket.” 

“OK”, said Lilly.

Mardi set out her picnic blanket and her flowers. She also had a bug catcher, shells, a drink bottle, paper, coloured pencils and some rocks. “There, it’s ready now, time for coffee.”  Mardi sat at the table and pretended to drink coffee.  “Would you like some delicious cake Lilly?”

The girls continued to pretend to eat and drink for a few minutes.

“Now it’s time to look at my shopping. See what I bought? Do you love this?” Mardi started to show Lilly the various items she had set out, discussing each one, the shop it came from and the cost.  

Lilly seemed a bit overwhelmed by Mardi’s lengthy descriptions and kept smiling and nodding her head.

“Well I’ll just go and put on the kettle and make some fresh coffee. I think Brooke is coming soon.”

  1. Provide an analysis of Mardi’s learning and development as evidenced in the observation

By analysing the observations related to the coffee morning preparations by Mardi, a 4 years 8 months old child, it can be said that she is an active learner and good sense about community and her environment. Through her plans to arrange things for coffee morning, it Is clear that Mardi has her own concept in her mind and she is very clear about what she needs for her coffee table. This indicates good social development in the child as Mardi must have acquired those skills by relating to what she sees other do on a coffee table. The way she arranges coffee table three times depicts her gross motor skills and her strong perception regarding spatial identities.  Mardi also seems to have good cognitive skills as she was very organized and arranged her picnic blanket and flowers one by one. Mardi’s communication skills are also evident from the observation while interacting with Brookes and Lilly. She was courteous and well mannered while asking for Brooke to come for coffee. The knowledge and thinking pattern of Mardi is also understood from the way she discussed her shopping items with Lilly. This depicts that Mardi has good sense of understanding about basic things that happens in daily life.

  1. From your interpretation identify ways you could extend on this experience for future learning opportunities.

Since Mardi is a confident and active learner, her activities can be extended by encouraging Mardi to take part in pretend play by acting as her parents. By this skill, her respect towards family and understanding about family relationship can be explored. The conversations like what her parents does for her can gives idea about sense of relationship and social aspects of societies. In pretend play, the child may be asked to cook or bake minicakes to enhance imagination and creative thinking in Mardi.

With reference to Element 1.1.4 of the NQS, list five ways educators can communicate, exchange information, gather feedback and engage families in the program

In accordance with the Element 1.1.4 of the NQS, educators can communicate, exchange information and gather families in the program by the following ways:

  • Teachers can arrange regular family meeting with parents to share information related to their child’s progress. Teacher can inform parents about their philosophy and teaching practices so that parents understand the level of development in their children. They can communicate with parents to inform them about ways they can reach them and inquire about their child’s progress. The parents can also be engaged to participate in program by recognizing them regarding their help in making notes or projects for their child.
  • Teachers can send newsletters to parents to infirm them about class activities and progress in behaviour of parents. Through this form of communication, parents can always be aware about class lessons and the way their child in nurtured in childhood setting. This can enable parents to give their own feedback to strengthen or improve class lessons for their children.
  • When any special program is held in early childhood setting, then teachers can invite parents to see how their children perform in activities. This process of family engagement increases trust of parents in the program and good relationship with them is maintained during child’s learning process.
  • The communication with a child’s family can be increased by giving brief to families each day regarding what their child did that particular day. Any commendable acts by their child should also be informed to them so that effective communication continues with parents too.
  • When educators arrange any field trips for children, then they can encourage parents to volunteer in such activities. In this way, parents remain actively involved in the program and this increases their satisfaction with the child care service too. By volunteering, parents get the opportunities to directly witness their child’s enthusiasm in field trips and new learning activities. 


ACECQA 2011. Guide to the National Quality Standard. Retrieved 11 February 2018, from 2009. BELONGING, BEING & BECOMING Retrieved 11 February 2018, from

Edwards, S., Cutter-Mackenzie, A., Moore, D. and Boyd, W., 2017. Finding the balance: A play-framework for play-based learning and intentional teaching in early childhood education. Every Child, 23(1), p.14.

Little, H. and Sweller, N., 2015. Affordances for risk-taking and physical activity in Australian early childhood education settings. Early Childhood Education Journal, 43(4), pp.337-345.

Malekoff, A. 2015. Group work with adolescents: Principles and practice. Guilford Publications.

McClintic, S. and Petty, K., 2015. Exploring early childhood teachers’ beliefs and practices about preschool outdoor play: A qualitative study. Journal of early childhood teacher education, 36(1), pp.24-43.

Newman, B.M. and Newman, P.R., 2017. Development through life: A psychosocial approach. Cengage Learning.

Perry, A.J., 2015. The magic in teaching: Exploring teachable moments in early childhood practice. Early Education, 58, p.16. 2018.  Quality in children’s services. Retrieved 11 February 2018, from

Roskos, K.A. ed., 2017. Play and literacy in early childhood: Research from multiple perspectives. Routledge.

Temple, C.A., Ogle, D., Crawford, A.N. and Freppon, P., 2017. All children read: Teaching for literacy in today's diverse classrooms. Pearson.

VanHoorn, J., Nourot, P.M., Scales, B. and Alward, K.R., 2014. Play at the center of the curriculum. Pearson Higher Ed.

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