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Discuss about the Construction Management Plan for Demolition and Excavation.

A construction management plan is a documentation that details the manner in which a project team is expected to implement the construction project as well as the manner in which this team is able to carry out the tasks and responsibilities of managing the construction site. It assists professionals in the construction industry to sufficiently estimate the overall budget of a construction project, through identifying the amount of resources needed to take care of the construction process itself. It looks into the technologies of building that have been implemented and the tasks that are related to the project in order to estimate the amount of resources required to run the construction (Hughes, et al., 2015). The plan focuses on the details of the construction activities including the demolition, excavation and building processes, to estimate the impact the construction will have on other stakeholders like the workers of the site and the neighbouring facilities and amenities. It therefore seeks to provide interventions on the impacts that the project will have on the traffic of the area through a traffic management plan, the occupational health and safety of the employees in accordance with the law, as well as other amenities that will be affected by the project (Halliday, 2008).  

As such the plan also considers wider and broader implications of the project as well as interventions that can be placed on specific amenities such as waste management to guarantee that the construction of the property does not become a liability for the adjoining properties and neighbours. Examples of interventions proposed in this plan include an occupational health and safety considerations as well as solutions for waste management. This explains why some local authorities require the construction management plan for a specific project before approving the commencement of construction to ensure that the project does not become a social liability to the other stakeholders (Potts & Ankrah, 2008).

Since the site location is surrounded by streets, the construction management ought to factor in the disruption to the smoothness of the traffic as well as the pedestrians who utilize the roads affected by this construction. Further the construction will also have to run with minimal impact on the neighbours who live in this area. The construction project will also have an impact on the public transport systems of the area because the bus transport stops will have to be maintained or relocated to other areas (Mitchell, 2006). Access to some roads will also be affected by the construction. The project team will commence by identifying the specific area, where the construction office, the accommodation, and other facilities on the site will be located. A survey will also be carried out to ensure that the surrounding assets and properties are completely dilapidated and the necessary licenses and approvals have been obtained. Temporary services including the water, electricity, and the sewer will also be among the primary activities to be installed on the construction site so that it will service the site and also the amenities (Ahuja, et al., 2014).


The aim of the construction management plan is fundamentally to ensure all the construction processes, including the preparation, demolitions and building processes are facilitated in accordance with the specifications of the said project. This will guarantee that all the recommendations and design specifications have been incorporated in to the construction process of the report and thus ensuring that the objectives of the project are delivered with certainty (Wong, 2001) . For this case, the plan seeks to demonstrate the strategy that the construction of a project that will require the demolition, excavation, and construction of a residential and commercial space complex situated in West Perth on 19 King spark Road.

The goal of this construction management plan is to explain the site establishment and the entire process of managing the amenities and environment around the area during the construction period. In so doing, the plan will present how it will cause the minimum amount of disruptions to the stakeholders of the construction project as it will guarantee those affected a smooth running of the project without friction between the contractors and the neighbours. It will also detail the individual measures that will be installed to guarantee that the site is also a safe working environment where all occupational hazards have been controlled for their sake (Al Bakri, et al., 2008) .

This plan seeks holistically address the different aspects that ought to be considered with regard to all the construction processes of the project. The scope of this report highlights the issues of legality with regard to the compliance of the project team with the requirements of the construction based contracts. The plan also seeks to clearly identify and define the objectives of the construction project in order to ensure that any targets that are relevant to the construction project are prioritized. The plan also details any constraints of the project, to ensure that the project team remains aware of these factors. As such all the risks associated with the project can thus be identified and even mitigated, so that the project brings in more good than bad (Brown, et al., 2013). The plan also details the strategy that the construction project is expected to follow to guarantee the attainment of other important considerations of the project, including resource management, site management and organization, and control of the impact of construction activities to other stakeholders (Odeh & Battaineh, 2002) . It also details the management plans of noise, dust, the environment, traffic, stormwater and waste management. 

Project Description

The proposed construction project is a commercial and residential complex that is to be situated in West Perth, 19 Kingspark Road, composed of 7 basement floors, 4 parking levels, 2 podiums, and 3 towers that will consist of about 27 floors each for use as commercial space, residential areas, and a 3-star hotel. As such the project will be carried out in distinct phases that will involve different strategies and procedures of material handling (Semblat & Pecker, 2009). This will ensure that that the construction activities will run in an optimized manner such that any impact felt by other stakeholders including the streets, the waste management system, the environment, the urban stormwater system, as well as the neighbourhood. All the strategies utilized in this project regarding material handling and construction plan were arrived at after consulting with the different authorities and the stakeholders (Barrie & Paulson, 2004).

The land where this construction project is to be erected is an existing property that is terraced and currently stands as a theatre garden. While the land’s availability is guaranteed, there are a number of environmental constraints that will have to be removed for the construction process to be commenced. Some of the constraints include the presence of trees and grass on the premises, which attract different kinds of animals. The land has also recently been taken through a geotechnical analysis to measure the stability of the soil and its suitability for the size of the project (Arditi, et al., 2007). The geotechnical analysis will look into the shear strength and yielding points of the soil to ensure that the soil is able to withstand the weight of such an immense structure.

In addition, the project will be funded through a design and build type of contract between the proprietor and the contractor. The proprietor is an insurance company in Adelaide, seeking to open up offices in Perth in order to expand their business. This implies that all the necessary budgeting has been done and the funds for commencing the project are ready and available. Other than the geotechnical engineers, experts like the structural designers  and landscape architects are also on board the project to guarantee that the design is viable and the project will run smoothly once it takes off. (Wolshon & Pande, 2016).  The project will also be overseen by an experienced construction manager who will guarantee that the construction process runs in a coordinated manner. Finally the project is also working with a landscape architect to guarantee that the landscape of the premises after the construction is complete is aesthetically pleasing, in order for the project to remain attractive and become profitable to the proprietor (Casto, 2000). The project entails 3 towers of 27 floors each, which will become residential apartments, a commercial space, and a three-star hotel. The location appears to be right in the middle of West Perth and this could really affect a lot of the residents, although the plan is dedicated to ensuring that minimal disturbances are felt by the surrounding assets and properties.

The purpose of this construction management plan is to ensure that the project is awarded a development permit or approval as is conditioned by the local authorities. Other requirements by these authorities prior to the commencement of construction include a notification to the Council to commence development projects in their property and jurisdiction, as well as permits for road occupancy during a construction project, application for road closure or even a temporary lane allocation, permit for conducting operational works as well for operation during after-hours (Lisle, et al., 2006). These Building approvals are to be obtained from a local authority with the mandate of certifying construction work. The approvals obtained will be done so in the following order. First, an approval to conduct excavation and demolition works as the project to be constructed will entail a basement (Halpin, 2010). This will be closely followed by a permit to carry out any structural constructions of the parking, basements, and the podiums. The authority will after this stage authorize the construction of the towers before approving any internal fittings and servicing of the project.

This methodology of sectioning the approval and construction stages into individual sections is important for ensuring that the construction activities begin soon, while sufficient time is dedicated to the works and activities that require plenty of time for structural design like the towers as well as the finishing and fittings. This will guarantee that the constraint of time is taken into consideration at all times to guarantee that the minimum amount of construction time is taken so that the cost of the project is minimized (Bryden & Mace, 2002).

The proposed development will be situated in 19 Kingspark Road, West Perth, in a site called The theatre Garden. The site is bound by Ord Street, and Outram Street. The area is approximately 456 square meters in area.

The environmental management policy is included in this plan to propose methods, interventions, and solutions that can be used to minimize the environmental impacts that will be felt by the immediate environment as a result of this plan. Some of the popular forms of environmental pollution and degradation that will emerge as result of this construction project include air quality degradation as a result of dust, vibration, and noise as a result of the activity taking place within the development (Lingqi & Xiaol, 2009). To guarantee that the quality of air in the construction site is minimally disrupted, the construction team will have to conduct all the construction activities with the knowledge that they are surrounded by a group of residents who do not need to incur the liabilities associated with constructing the project (Shen, et al., 2010). While the goal of the construction is primarily to successfully complete the construction of a mega project within the set time and budget constraints, the achievement of this goal while paying proper attention to the protection of the environment will be an even bigger achievement.

Thus the project team will ensure that all the legislative and regulatory requirements are complied with in order to ensure that the minimum amount of air degradation is experienced as a result of this project (Zutshi & Sohal, 2004). While this will guarantee the air degradation standards of the local authorities will not be superseded in this compliance, the project team will go a step further to guarantee that the air quality is maintained at the level preferred by the residents. This will be identified through the communicative strategies that the team will use to reach the stakeholders of the project, to guarantee their comfort and approval for the project. This is because any collision regarding the environmental conditions instigated by the construction project may affect the efficiency of the project leading to consume even more budgetary and time resources (Holling, 2008). The residents ought to be aware that any environmental impacts of the construction project should be the liability of the construction owners and not the residents in order to prevent the occurrence of conflicts between these two groups of stakeholders.

As such environmental management in this project will be conducted through interventions that comply with both the regulatory requirements and the concerns of the neighbours of the facility (Harris & McCaffer, 2013). First and foremost, all the stakeholders of the project, including the proprietor, the construction manager, the construction management committee, the neighbours and residents of the surrounding area, and also local authority’s representatives ought to meet in one gathering. This will allow the two groups to work a way around the air quality degradation concerns that are associated with the construction, as the people to be held responsible and those to follow up on the issues will be identified. Issues of dust, noise and vibration will be addressed in the following sections. Finally, for all the machinery that will be utilized in the project, only fuel with very low emission rates will be used to ensure that the project does not continue to emit more emission thus giving the project a high carbon print (Hajkowicz, 2009). This is because the machines may run for long periods of time and thus leaving the alternative of using low emission fuel as the only intervention for minimal emissions for the entire project. All machinery that is able to comply with the standard set about the carbon emission reduction will have to comply with the standard. Finally, to protect the workers in this industry from the occupational hazards of dust, the working environments will also be installed with forced air ventilation systems which will be monitored at all times to ensure the air quality in the site is kept at a high (Born & Sonzogni, 2005). 

Noise will be a great source of discomfort and disruption for those who live very close to the construction site. For their sake, all the possible interventions that can be taken in order to guarantee their comfort will be taken. For instance, in the event that the construction operations of the day will entail noisy activities, the residents of the adjacent properties will be notified in advance in order for the residents to agree on the time that is best suited for them. The construction is expected to run only during the normal working hours of the day, which is typically between 7:00 am and 6:00 am from Monday to  Friday and the from 9:00am to 1:00 pm on Saturdays only excluding the public holidays that will fall in this time frame. Further, the construction management plan will implement a noise reduction and management solutions according to the recommendations of QLD DEHP criteria which require keeping a log and maintaining the site to ensure there is no unnecessary emission of noise (Roome, 2012). The plan also recommends and prefers the use of electrical machinery instead of the mechanically operated machines which have way higher noise emission rates. Further, every subcontractor will be liable to ensuring that all the noise produced during the construction project is managed, and vibrations that affect the other stakeholders are damped down.

For the workers of the site, wearing personal protective equipment like earplugs will be a mandatory requirement so that the occupational hazard of noise is monitored. The workers will also be monitored to guarantee that they are wearing these PPE equipment when carrying out noisy activity and to guarantee that they are not exposing themselves to that noise beyond the exposure times that are permitted in this industry (Yang, 2017). Audio equipment or even radios will also be prohibited from the site to prevent any reports of noise resulting from the volumes at which the device is played or any electro-magnetic interruptions that could cause noise on audio devices when they cross an electromagnetic waves from the radio.

With regard to the management of dust, this plan is in strict compliance with the Environmental Protection Act as well as the QLD occupational health and safety regulations that prioritizes dust management due to its impact on the respiratory and eye care health of those affected. Some of the interventions for managing dust that will be put in place during any demolition or excavation projects the include installing a perimeter for the site. The perimeter is set to be a timber sheeted hoarding that will be as high as 1.8m to protect all the that are outside the site from being affected by dust. To ensure that the dust remains within the site facility, all the trucks that will be moving the materials excavated from the site must be loaded while within the site premises and securely covered before leaving the premises to ensure that no dust spreads to the surrounding areas during the transportation process (Gilchrist, et al., 2003) Further, before any excavation works are commenced the area ought to be watered down to ensure that no dust is raised when action is applied on the working surfaces. This construction plan also discourages against stock piling of excavated material as it has an impact of raising dust when the pile is being cleared. It will also be important for the construction activities to be well maintained at all times to guarantee that there are no chances of dust being blown by wind from within the site into the neighbourhoods and the surrounding amenities (Wiss, 2011).

In addition, bonfires on the set are strictly prohibited, as they tend to leave ash behind, which is composed of small and light particles that can be blown away in the same way dust is. The set-up of the site will also be in a manner that any activities that could lead to the development and rising of dust are situated in areas that face away from the neighbouring amenities and facilities. Even then, the use of water will be highly emphasized in order to guarantee that the chances of spreading dust have been minimized to the utter minimum (Coggins, et al., 2011). Machinery with technologies like the local exhaust ventilation can also be used in place of pouring water to prevent the rising of dust as the system sucks in the dust for it to be disposed at a later and safer time. This is due to the fact that water is able to supress any cases of dust rising, and thus protecting the area from issues of dust. To ensure that the cleanliness of  the area is maintained regardless of the risk of dust, the roads in the area like to be affected by dust from the project will occasionally be swept clean to ensure that the aesthetical value of the neighbourhood is not compromised by the on-going construction,

The construction project will only affect the trees and the grass growing within the project site and this will all be done right at the beginning of the project. This fauna will be replaced at the end of the project in order to ameliorate the aesthetics of the completed project. The type of trees selected for replacing the fauna that will be removed will be selected in accordance with the findings of the landscape management report. (Hanson, et al., 2003).

In this project, security of the site will be guaranteed by utilizing solutions such as hoardings and fences, such that access is only limited to gates that will be manned by security personnel. This is because entry to the site will only be limited to the personnel that have been trained and inducted as part of the people working in the projects. Further, any machinery that will be utilized at the site will also be tightly manned and controlled using a system known as Smart Technology where the machinery will be secured with a password when it is not in use and guarded by the security personnel. This will ensure that only the authorized individuals on the site have access to these machines When the site is not operational, all the doors and windows to the site will remain closed to guarantee the security of the premises and the materials even when the site is closed (Cenek, et al., 2012) 

Any visitors reporting to the site will have to pass through the site office in order to report, where they will be inducted and registered for purposes of security monitoring. The registration will entail signing in when the visitor comes into the premises and signing out as they leave. The visitors will also be offered personal protective equipment while in the site to protect the visitors against any risks of fall or injury the site might pose (Zhang & Wu, 2008). These strict measures can be incorporate into the rules and regulations of the site and also ensure that all visitors coming in are inducted into the regulation. 

The site is currently inhabited by a theatre garden that is no longer operational and there are a number of structures on the property. The property will first and foremost have to be demolished before any excavation processes commence. There are other trees that appear within the site which will have to be removed before any activities commence of the site. On the other hand, any existing amenities or facilities remaining on the land will be reconsider in order to identify if the facilities will be repurposed or if they will continue to be used in place of the amenities required on the site for the sake of the workers. The geotechnical analyses conducted on the area will be used for the design of the retention walls to the mega-construction project, while the overall design specifications will be conducted in accordance with the structural design of the proposed project (Zhi, 2005).

The recommendations of the geotechnical analysis will provide a recommendation for arrangements that are done at the site before the construction process begins. These include the footing and the bored pad and pier of the projects in order for the required machinery to be acquired in time for the commencement of the construction activities. The most fundamental steps to the commencement of the construction work include activities such as the excavations and the erection of tower cranes ( (Tah & Carr, 2001). The role of the crane is to be a material handling solution especially in situations where it would not be economically feasible to utilize any other material handling methods like in high heights. The site is also broken down into different section and zones to allow for different activities to continue taking place at the same time to save up of the time resources. After the excavation stage has been completed, the foundations of the building according to the specifications of the structural design will be constructed and the fittings of the building into the ground will commence (Wiss, 2011). The basements will then be constructed and then the construction of the other parts of the design will follow as accordingly.

In the following stages of construction, the core and the structure of the project will be constructed using concrete and prefabricated construction components. The concrete used on the construction will be supplied through a satellite boom or through the use of pumps which are advantageous as they reduce or even completely eliminate the risk of injuries associated with material handling the concrete, as well as the extra labour and packaging used if the concrete was to be mixed at the site (Tah & Carr, 2001)For the core of the building to be cast, the design recommends that each basement level is divided into zones that will allow the core of the tower to cast without the tower foot print level being arrived at. The core will be made constructed through a vertical system of forming up the cast of the core as the building advances. As the building’s height continues to increase, the material handling method that will be used is the tower crane which will carry out the responsibility of lifting the materials. The satellite boom will also be used in the process of placing the prefabricated concrete slabs and beams. Alimaks will also be widely used in this construction project for the purposes of transporting the materials and workers on site onto the different sections and levels of the site (Mills, 2001) . The propriety perimeter edge screens will be used throughout the construction process to protect the workers from falling off the construction sites and also to prevent the fall of construction materials on the pedestrians and residents who are not within the site as the progress continues.

As soon as the flows of the site are ready to begin the waterproofing process, the façade of the buildings will be erected to allow for the fittings and finishing touches on the building can be embarked on. After the process of fitting in the fit outs and installing the finishing of the building, the embellishment of the roof can begin to be installed in order guarantee and seal the watertightness of the structure. After the slabs for  every floor and the formwork for that floor has been removed from the floor, the services on that floor can then be installed although the installation is done in tandem with  the installation of the façade and the embellishments. This is because the façade also serves the purpose of protecting the workers working in the constructions site doing these fittings, as the structure in this stage is still very risky as they tend to work very close to the edges of the building. In addition, the façade will serve the purpose of protecting the equipment used on the structure from weathering due to environmental aspects as they are mostly very sensitive to moisture (Mills, 2001). The services will be scheduled to be commenced in time after the finishes have been installed to ensure a time-conscious approach to construction.

The machinery and equipment when required will be lifted to the floors they will be required on using the tower cranes, builders’ lifts, or even Alimaks depending on their size. Every floor will also have a specified area of the loading dock in order to prevent the development of congestion which increases chances of occupational hazard within the site (Smith, et al., 2009). Any external works that had been done on the site will then be removed after the tower fabric has been completed to allow any works being done outside the structure to be commenced. This will guarantee that any external works are completed in time with the structural works of the towers for more time conscious result. At this stage, all the areas outside and inside the buildings that may have been affected by the construction are then beautified to increase the aesthetical value of the new construction. A landscape architect will be sought to guarantee that the aesthetic value of the building is appropriate for the project to achieve its objective and to remain profitable to the proprietor. The roads around the newly constructed buildings will all be refurbished and footpaths constructed if need be to retain the original beauty of the area (Wiss, 2011). The beautification of roads affected by the construction and the erection of footpaths might require the roads to be closed so they can be fixed. In such cases the authorization of the local authorities will always be sought. To ensure that the resources on the site are utilized efficiently, the temporary structures and services like the gantries and the hoarding can be easily constructed from reused materials from the site, so that a lot of resources do not have to be purchased from the budgeted resources dedicated to the construction. When temporary structures are made from material that has been reused from the site, the resources that would be spent on removing the material from the site to a different place is also saved in the process, and thus ensuring that resources for the project have been maximized (Mills, 2001).

The plant and equipment that will be utilized in the project will mainly focus on the areas of transportation of material, both in terms of distance through truck as and in terms of height with help from the tower cranes. The plant and equipment will also take over the material handling function within the site as well as the management of logistics to guarantee that any possible delays are eliminated for the time resources of the construction to be optimized. While the use of machinery has been greatly embraced in this project, it is also keen to ensure that there remains a balance between amount of machine reliance and human labour interaction to maximize on the resource use on this project. This is because the over reliance of machinery will bring the operating costs to be too high although the project will be finished sooner and quicker. To bring abought a balance, both machinery and human interaction will be utilized on this site in order to balance the costs of operation while still trying to finish the project on time (Coggins, et al., 2011).   This will thus ensure that plant and equipment has been utilized as a strategy of optimizing resource use in the course of the project.

The plant and equipment that will be brought to the site has been functionally classified, and then the classification used to select the machinery that will have to be hired or purchased in the course of this project. The machinery classification that will be considered in this project will include the excavating equipment, material handling equipment, as well as equipment for placing and finishing the construction s. The following are images of some of the machinery that will be used in this construction project

At the site, all construction workers will have to be enlightened on the risks that the construction site poses, through an induction to the site and the risks it poses before they begin any work activities on the site (Bing & Tiong, 2009). The induction will specifically seek to enlighten the workers and subcontractors on the risks associated with their safety while at the facility as well the different amenities that are available and their use. They will also be inducted on the different access routes and the emergency exists that exist on the site to ensure that they can make it out quickly and safely in the event of any emergencies. This can only be achieved if the employees are knowledgeable about the best evacuation procedures as well as having facilities to offer any injured individuals first aid. The amenities located on the site also ought to be well understood by those working on the site so they don’t put themselves in danger while in search of these amenities (Edwards & Bowen, 2008). The site hours should also be made crystal clear to those operating at the facility. Induction is also an efficient risk mitigation measure as it can help the workers to know how to operate the machineries used on site for material handling thus preventing possible occurrences of accidents due to ignorance and lack of knowledge. It also informs the workers about the occupational safety and health requirements that could affect the workers in the long-term such as noise and dust. Environmental management can also be achieved through the proper induction practices

To guarantee safety on the construction site a safety management plan will have to be designed by the subcontractors who come to the site for the sake of their workers, which will conduct regular and random safety inspections in order to guarantee the safety of the workers and make recommendations concerning the occupational health and safety of the workers, both in the long-term and in the short term. Further, the site will be fenced with timber hoarding and temporary fence to ensure access to the facility is only limited to the entry point. Further, gantries will be installed at the periphery of the site after permits have been acquired to ensure that pedestrians are protected from any risks (Akintoye & MacLeod, 2007). 

The waste management plan ought to be based on the Master Builders Association Master Builders Waste Reduction Guide 2014 which highlights the most important points to consider when designing a waste management plan for the project. In this specific project, the plan seeks to identify the types of waste to be generated during the project and the waste streams that will be generated during the construction of the project. This is all based on the type of waste that will be generated and the rate at which they will be generated so that the necessary mitigation measures can be taken up (Tam, 2008). As such, inventories of the construction materials that will be used will be taken daily as well as the materials that can be recycled, or even reused. In this way, the materials that create the least waste can be preferred. In so doing, the specific types of material that are preferred for this construction project are chosen for the purposes of only purchasing the required amount of material so that the waste stream is completely minimized (Faniran & Caban, 2008).

The materials selected also ought to be clean and in good condition to ensure all the procured material is utilized in the design instead of it being turned into waste. The good quality and clean material is also easily recycled and reused, allowing for the budget of the contractor to be minimized through the management of waste in the construction. In the event that any hazardous material are utilized in this construction, for instance either lead or asbestos, the recycling or reuse of materials is limited by the possibility that they may have been contaminated by the presence of such material such material may also require to be disposed individually and differently (Yuan & Shen, 2011).

However, this construction project focuses on avoiding the generation of waste instead of its management through a number of solutions. For instances, any temporary structure  built with the knowledge that it will be deconstructed after the project’s completion ought to be built materials that are easily modified so that any works associated with demolishing them generate the minimal amount of waste possible. Further, a construction methodology of implementing prefabricated construction offsite that are made off-site then ferried to the site as modular construction components (Yuan & Shen, 2011). This intervention will not only reduce the amount of waste generated on the site, although this is on condition that the modular components are sized according to the design specifications to guarantee their application in industry.

Another strategy used in the avoidance of waste is using a lean procurement policy which ensures that only what is required is purchased in the required amounts to optimize the resource management and also reduce wastage. This will avoid waste through the minimization and in some cases complete eradication of the packaging which turns out to be waste. In so doing, the project team will be able to avoid the generation of unnecessary waste in terms of unusable materials and packaging (Mcdonald & Smithers, 2008). The management team can also guarantee that materials that have already been procured are responsibly handled and stored to minimize any chances of the material being damaged by the machinery, human traffic or even as a result of weathering. Any form of damage that is incurred on the material translates to the material not being useable for the construction, and thus it becomes waste. Proper storage and management of the materials will in this case eliminate any arising needs to purchase any more materials to replace the ones that have been damaged due to poor storage.

For the management of the little unavoidable waste that will be generated on the site, a qualified service provider or contractor will be hired so they can provide waste disposal or other waste management solutions for the streams of waste that will be generated. These contractors are also very resourceful in providing insights for waste avoidance and waste recycling within the site. The project team also ought to understand the principle of the waste management plan through an induction so that it can facilitate the implementation of other waste management solutions within the  site such as placing bins in accessible places and teaching the stakeholders how to use  them. To prevent things from being  accidentally disposed  into the waste management systems, storage management and organization is a key aspect which ensures that material are stored appropriately and in easily accessible places to guarantee the safety of the workers and the durability of the materials  to prevent waste (Yuan, 2013). This also guarantees the aesthetics of the material storage requirements so that they appear orderly and thus further enforcing good condition of the materials and their cleanliness.  Managing the waste on the site will also call for the establishment of a waste collection system or plan to ensure that the hired contractors collect the recyclable materials and the waste for different purposes regularly. This will prevent the accumulation and build-up of wastes on the site.

During the construction, it is important for the project teams to delegate responsibilities so that all those who enter the site premises are aware of how they play a part into the waste management plan. It is also important for the project team to communicate with the other stakeholders in order to get any feedback about the interventions that have been implemented into the waste management plan and its effectiveness. Ensuring that all stakeholders of the site are on board with regard to its application and the role that each one of them plays in ensuring its effectiveness is also very vital in the effectiveness of a waste management plan. The team could also monitor how well the plan is being implemented through consulting with the workers and other stakeholders on the site about the effectiveness of the system (Gavilan & Bernold, 2014). The waste management service provider is also a very resourceful stakeholder to consult about the efficiency of the plan. Another very effective method is actually observing the practices of the workers on site.

After the construction is completed, the plan recommends that the project team evaluates the efficiency of the waste management plan by comparing the estimated amounts of waste according to the plan and the actual amounts of waste generated during the project. Any recommendations obtained from the personnel would be resourceful insights on the effectiveness of the waste management plan in order to recommend problems that can be avoided in the future (Udawatta, et al., 2015) 

Before the commencement of the project, a stormwater and sediment control plan ought to be designed to guarantee no stormwater from the construction project being developed flows into the other properties and assets surrounding the site (Brown, 2005). Further the plan also seeks to protect the storm water management system manned by local authorities from different forms of contaminants like silt. Some of the possible solutions that can be implemented as storm water management plan interventions include incorporating sieves and screens around site’s perimeter to guarantee that any stormwater that may run off from the site flows to the adjacent properties or even the council’s system free of any contaminants or silt. These screens also have to be installed at the openings of the drains that drain the stormwater, and highly maintained by cleaning and raking to reduce chances of damage that may occur on the screens (Roy, et al., 2008). This is due to the impact that any debris or contaminants caught by the sieves will have on the condition of these mitigation measure.

As the construction progresses, slab drainage ought to be installed progressively with every phase of the construction process in order direct the stormwater into the council drains through the screens. This will guarantee that any silt or debris that is washed away with the storm water is caught by the screen to ensure it does not make its way into the drains (Lloyd, et al., 2002) 

Traffic management will guarantee that the operation of roads remains reasonably practical, such that the deliveries of the materials for the construction or even other construction processes do not interfere with the transport system demands of the residents around the site and other road users. The construction will adopt a strategy for the deliveries such that the materials are only brought in when they are required on site which is commonly known as the just-in-time strategy (Doody & Doody, 2003). This will ensure that no storage services are required on site to prevent trucks coming to deliver materials and causing a snarl up of traffic that will affect the residents and other road users.

During unloading, a number of precautions will be taken to guarantee that no workers or pedestrians are caught up in the unloading bay when materials are being unloaded. This will be achieved through guaranteeing minimized and highly monitored movement of materials to ensure that no individual is kept at risk during unloading. In addition, all the personnel authorized in the trucks used for the transportation of materials are to be having competent people directing and helping vehicles to reverse. Further, during unloading of any materials being delivered, both vehicles and pedestrians will be shown road signs and barriers that can be introduced at these specific times to prevent pedestrians and vehicles from accessing the high risk unloading area. It will also be mandatory that the vehicles and transportation facilities only be operated by competent persons (Haas & Hudson, 2008).

For any project to be successful there ought to be good and effective communication between the stakeholders of the project to ensure that no conflicts occur to slow down the project and make it even more costly. This project has many stakeholders given it is situated around many other existing building and facilities as is shown of the map (Mawdesley, et al., 2002). Effective communication among all the stakeholders will guarantee that the work practices implemented are the most efficient and thus guaranteeing a successful achievement of the quality result. For the different stakeholders in this project, the common goal thy share is allowing the construction to be completed with minimal disruption or disturbances to the residents around the project site. As such, effective communication is important for purposes of sharing any information related to the project for purposes of creating a common understanding surrounding the common goal they have. This is because it has an impact of improving the quality and productivity in construction projects and thus guaranteeing that the project will be completed within the shortest time possible (AbouRizk, 2010).

Since the nature of people and their schedules is completely different, different methods of communication ought to be selected to ensure that all stakeholders receive the information in a manner that spurs action. Important information that will be shared among the stakeholders will incorporate both visuals and information using formal methods of communication. These methods include sending letters, emails, and even text messages in order to spur action at the earliest. It is also necessary that there be a known chain of communication to prevent the occurrences of dispute among the stakeholders. In this project, all the communication to those who will work on site will come from the project manager, and communication among the different stakeholder groups will be done through selected representatives of those groups. For instance, in the event that a noisy operation is to be carried out on the site, the project manager  will alert the representative of the residents in advance, and the this representative will have the  responsibility of notifying the affected residents ahead of time (Murray, et al., 2007).

Good communications guarantees that the concerns of all the stakeholders are considered through taking a professional and yet considerable stand on these concerns maintains a good relationship among all the stakeholders, to guarantee timeliness and quality of the project (Doloi, 2009). In addition to using different forms of communication to ensure that all stakeholders are aware of the future events of the project, it is also of key importance to mount appropriate signs and signals on the perimeter of the site to guarantee that all can tell that there is a construction site in order to remain safe at all times (Wikforss & Löfgren, 2007). There will always be a signage illustrating the contacts of the key personnel in the given project to guarantee that any concerns can that any resident or road user has can be  directly communicated to the right people in the event of anything. There will also be a suggestion box near the gate of the site to ensure that anyone with complaints, compliments, or suggestions can communicate them to the right people to guarantee prompt resolutions.

With effective communication between the subcontractors and all the workers the project will run in a smooth manner, enabling the construction to be completed in a timely manner and within the cost budget. This is because communication ensures that the project is well coordinated to guarantee its feasibility, construction process, the implementation of the project runs efficiently in order for the cost of the project and the time taken to complete it are optimized while the quality of the project is left at the highest. Some of the common communication strategies applicable between the project team and the subcontractors include written communication methods that include proposals, as well as reports (Chan, et al., 2004). For instance, the course of action is determined after inviting the subcontractors of different construction activities who communicate their ideas with regard to the implementation of the project through a proposal. Project writing is also recommended in cases where concepts and figures are explained in formal manner to ensure that all stakeholders are on boards and aware of the next courses of action for the project.

Meetings are also a good communication strategy as they encourage that information is well shared between the project team and the other subcontractor. This provides an instant way of people to communicate and present their grievances as well as communicate any unclear points to ensure the project is completed within the recommended time and budget. These meeting ought to be well planned for them to be successful. Other strategies such as value engineering to manage the time, cost and quality of the project at its very beginning, sticking to the scheduling of the critical path, handling any delays or  change orders, ensuring all subcontractors are in constant communication with the project  team through the use of advanced technologies of communication. Workers should also be allowed to freely communicate with the project team to manage the workers’ freedom to lodge complaints (Chan, et al., 2004).

When the subcontractors and site workers are being selected to work on the project site, they will undergo an induction process that will prepare them for the different risks and hazards that exist on the site and the different control measures put in place to protect them. In clearly and efficiently communicating to the workers and subcontractors will allow them to be informed about any occupational health and safety risks thus preventing any harm to the workers and subcontractors or even the damage of property. In the event that these occur, the project may stall in order to take care of the occurrence, and thus compromising its completion in the set time and budget, leading to wasted resources. Site induction ensures that the workers and subcontractors are aware about the site organization and the procedures of operation to ensure that all are aware of their responsibilities in ensuring the site remains a safe place and thus maximizing the budgetary and time resources. (Emmitt & Gorse, 2009) 

During toolbox meetings, the project the contractors and the workers informally discuss the safety aspects of the site, to ensure that all those involved are aware of the hazards present and how safe work practices can be utilized to control the risk of occurrence of these hazards. This is done before a shift or even a specific job on the site is commenced to refresh the memory of the workers and subcontractors about any safety precautions that need to be taken to prevent any occurrences that may stall the project thus ensuring that resources are always optimized through the avoidance of incidents. Safety walks and site diaries also ensure that the safety culture on the site is enforced through emphasis on safety checks to prevent the occurrence of incidents. Safety walks allows the subcontractors and workers to walk through the area they’ll be working on in order to identify anything that may compromise the safety of the site. Site diaries on the other hand ensure that all site activities are noted down, in order to establish any possible hazards or risks and thus allowing for the risk to be mitigated in time thus optimizing the resources of the project.

Before any works are commenced on within this site, a site establishment survey will be conducted to ensure that the site does not possess any risks that could affect the success of the project (Emmitt & Gorse, 2004). The soil will undergo bi-chemical and geotechnical analyses to guarantee that there are risks that exist on the site that could affect the successful completion of this project. These analyses will identify any possible risks of presence of chemical contamination on the site that would pose great health risks to all the stakeholders of the project. The analyses will also seek to identify where the sewer, water, and other services are laid on the site, to prevent any dangers that could arise during the excavation process. It will also identify if the existing buildings existing on the premises contain any contaminants like lead or asbestos (Chan, Scott, & Chan, 2004). The soil stability to hold a project of such immense magnitude will be predicted by the geotechnical analyses.

During site establishment all the possible risks that could cause different risks on the site to cause harm or even destroy property on the site, causing the construction to stall which amounts to the wastage of resources on the site. This can be achieved through ensuring that the site is kept well managed and free of rubbles and spills which make the site a risky environment that can cause harm or even the destruction of property on the site. Keeping the site well managed will ensure that the resources are maximized within the site. Another strategy that can be utilized will include Further the management of waste within the facility through proper storage methods and the avoidance of waste in recycling will ensure that all the purchased materials on the site are to be used in the project ensuring that no resources are spent on replacing damaged materials. In this manner, site establishing to identify ways in which waste can be avoided or minimized is also an effective method for maximizing the use of resources on the site. Finally, identifying all possible risks and implementing risk control measures will also guarantee that resource use on the site is maximized by ensuring no that no possible hazards can occur and stall the progress of the building. In this manner, the site establishment ensures that both the time and the budgetary resources are maximized. (Emmitt & Gorse, 2009)

Occupational health and safety management seeks to ensure that the project team ensures that a systematic approach is used to identify the hazards that exist within the project site and to further eliminate these hazards or reduce their impact through risk control measures (Mohamed, 2002). This can be guaranteed by ensuring that regular exercises to monitor the hazards are carried out. This will also guarantee that the rules to be observed when on site are reinforced on every worker, so that the safety levels in this site can be further reinforced (Lingard & Rowlinson, 2004).

The employees would be of extreme importance in the identification of these risks and in devising risk control measures that can be used, as they are the ones who experience these hazards first hand. The personnel who will be work on site will also be required to be trained on emergency procedures when joining the project team to ensure they know how to act in case of an emergency thus preventing the risk of worse cases (Gallagher, et al., 2003) .

Further, the project team will ensure that the property is completely fenced with timber hoarding or other forms of resilient erections to prevent any occurrences of incidences caused by materials falling outside the project site and posing a threat to the residents of the neighbouring area. Further, the team also ought to have installed safety signage indicating that the area is a construction site to encourage people outside the site and the workers to be aware of any risks that could occur in the vicinity of this area (Sanchez, et al., 2017). This guarantees that people remain vigilant and are able to protect themselves in the event of an incident.

Services within the site like electricity which may pose the risk of electrocuting anyone who is not aware will also be eliminated by terminating the transmission of the line to remove any possible cases of injury or damage. Ensuring the recycling of materials also guarantees that the occupational health and safety of the workers is guaranteed by reducing the amount of waste generated from the site (Teo & Ling, 2006). Following the correct procedure of construction activities will also be mandatory to ensure that any possible incidences do not occur as a result of ignorance. The adjacent buildings will also be protected to ensure no hazards from the project site can spread the risks to the adjacent buildings thus guaranteeing safety for the residents of the neighbouring community. All parts of the building will have to be left in a safe state after the construction has been completed to ensure no hazards on the project site can risk the damage of property or harm to those who reside near the site. Finally any cases of rabbles or pebbles on the construction site will be quickly cleaned to guarantee that hazards related to falls are minimized through great house-keeping (Koehn & Datta, 2003).

In emergency cases such as the occurrences of fires, the contacts and the names of the project team will be placed at the entrance of the site to allow people to notify the right people early enough. The team will also implement a fire management plan in the event of a fire so that the degree of the damage can be assessed, and fire control measures are implemented. This will include the installation of equipment used to fight fire like fire extinguishers. The control measures will also need to include establishment of fire points where people can gather in the event of a fire. An evacuation alarm also needs to be installed onto the project site to notify all the workers about the occurrences of emergency situations. Finally the project ought to factor in the methodology that the fire brigade system will implement in order to access the site in the event of a fire emergency (Mohamed, 2009).

The OHS strategies and procedures used to guarantee safety with regard to the operation of the plant and equipment is maintained stems from ensuring that the workers and project team comply with the legislative and regulatory requirements to test, inspect, and even monitor the machinery to be utilised on site. The OSH guidelines according to Australian standards require that inspections that entail the observation of the work environment and practices, as well as the equipment used, as well as other reported hazards to assess a risk. Testing is recommended to utilise specific tests and equipment to identify the performance and effectiveness of a plant equipment or operation. Some of the procedures that are used to maintain safety of the plant and equipment will include coming up with an inspection and testing plan to ensure that inspection and testing of the equipment is done regularly to guarantee that the state of the P&E is always known. The testing should always be done by a competent person to ensure that all possible hazards are identified and noted down to guarantee that a risk control measure is put in place to avoid risks (Shen, et al., 2010).

Those allowed carrying out inspection and testing are certified individuals to guarantee the reliability of their conclusions. The findings of any inspections and testing should always be compiled in a report to ensure that the operational status of the machine is known to prevent any unexpected breakdowns that could stall the progress of the project This findings should be clearly communicated to all construction stakeholders to ensure that they are all aware about the progress of the project and any occurrences that could affect it (Peurifoy & Ledbetter, 2015). If any machine is established to pose a risk the machine should be scheduled to be repaired at the soonest possible and discontinued from use to prevent using it and exposing its workers to further risk of injury or harm. Continued use of the machine could also cause its damage. During the repair of the machine, it should be switched off at the mains and any operations halted until the repairs are complete and any lose parts are securely returned. Inspection testing and monitoring of plant and equipment is able to identify a hazard and report its significance, contribute to risks assessment and risk control measures establishment. It also ensures that any required data for purposes of investigating accidents is collected and the extent of the safety risk quantified for safety solutions to be generated. This process of inspecting, testing and monitoring machinery also evaluates the effectiveness of any training that workers and subcontractors obtained when coming to start work on site and ensures that the construction remains in compliance with the relevant building standards and codes and evaluates the effectiveness of the OHS management plan (Nunnally, 2000).

In the event of an incident that results in a serious injury or even the death of an employee, the case ought to be reported in accordance with the set guideline, to ensure the laws regarding occupational health and safety are taken into consideration in the resolution of a case. The injured individual ought to be allowed to seek medical attention soonest possible. After the individual is safe and has received medical attention, the project team will detail a report staring the exact cause of the accident and how the measures that had been implemented were not able to prevent the accident. The necessary authority, in this case WorkSafe will then be alerted to ensure that the injury is registered and the certificate of capacity as well as an injury claim form are filled for the authority to establish the compensation the worker will get as a result of the injury (Baldwin, et al., 2011).

The project team is also expected to keep in touch with the worker and their doctor during the entire recovery period and provide them with encouragement and support until full recovery. The recovering worker is expected to be returned to a productive working environment soon after they recover from the injury. After the victim of the injury has recovered, their capabilities have to be assessed in order to establish the duties and hours the worker can continue to work on site. This is achieved through conducting an evaluation of the restrictions that the doctor has placed on the worker after the injury to exempt them from the normal work schedule. The return to work plan will utilize the restrictions and assessment of the doctor to propose tasks and responsibilities that are suitable for the duties and hours the worker is able to do in accordance with their work capacity (Halliday, 2008).
On site Operations Management

While different operations are being conducted on site, there are a number of constraints that limit the ability of the construction to run smoothly and be completed in the set time (Skoyles & Skoyles, 2007). These constraints include site based limitations and even delays that affect the timeliness of the project as well as the occupational hazards that pose great risks to the lives, health, and the completion of the project within the set constraints of time. An occupational hazard can be described as a factor of the workplace with the potential of causing harm or damage to the people working in the site or even the property and machinery that exist there. These hazards could be caused by many objects that are present on site such as the machinery being utilized or even in the use of hazardous and dangerous chemical (Baldwin, et al., 2011) The material handling within the site also poses a great occupational hazard in the site of a construction project as the materials, which are handled in great bulk could drop down while being transported or moved to bring about accidents or even noise impacts that could affect the hearing of the workers (Sawacha, et al., 2009).  Occupational hazards on site could also contribute to the damage of property, like the machinery brought to site, implying that the project will need to stop or stall until such important infrastructure is repaired.

On the other hand, risks refer to the situation that arises when there is a chance that the identified hazards will go ahead and cause harm to those within the site or even lead to the damage of property found within the site (Guggemos, 2003). The degree of risks within a construction site depends on factors like the execution and performance of different construction activities to ensure that the hazards will not go ahead and cause actual harm as well as the population of workers who will access the site to established the risk factor of the number of people that may be harmed and the severity of the injuries in the event that any harm or damage is caused. As such, risk assessment has been devised as a method to quantify the risk and guarantee that it does not occur so that the occupational space within the site remains considerably safe for the workers (Alfeld, 2008).   This method offers a systematic strategy to guarantee that all the risks on site have been identified and that control measures are put in place to fix the hazards and minimize the risks to guarantee the highest level of protection against any identified hazards.

Possible hazards on site can be identified through consultations with the professionals who carry out these tasks on a daily basis, as they are the most resourceful people to identify any potential issues regarding the health and safety of the stakeholders (Toole, 2002). The hazards will be identified through identifying any forms of hazards that could result in damaging property and even the loss of the lives of those in the workers, as well as the potential causes of harm to the workers. It also calls for the project team to seek to establish the different ways in which people could get hurt when there are on site and the possibility that this could occur in order to measure the level of this risks. The project team after identifying the hazards will then move to find ways that these risks can be managed and handled in order to implement these measures as risk control measures that will be specifically effective for the problems of this site. These measures will be the most effective, reasonable, and practical solutions for the different hazards that will be noted in the project site (Fang, et al., 2001).

To manage the occurrences of any of these risks, the project team will also regularly monitor the risk control measures in order to identify their effectiveness in protecting the safety of the workers and all those who visit the site (Meckler & Hyman, 2010). This will be done through consulting the workers themselves and also through conducting research about emerging technologies, policies, and even interventions that are proving to be more effective. The workers would be very resourceful in providing insights for identifying for these hazards can be fixed in order for the risk of injuries or damaging properties are completely minimized. This is so because they are the ones that know what hazards they face while on site when they are doing       they jobs. This would be very helpful when identifying the risks that the workers face on a daily basis when doing their part. This will require for the possibility of occurrence to be identified as well as the kind of damage or hurt that the occurrence would cause (Shen, et al., 2010). To establish the risk control measures, the project team will seek to identify any courses of urgent action are considered as the mitigation measures for high risk hazards. For instance, in the event of an occurrence that hurts a worker or even causes damage to the machinery would call for actions like an immediate halt to operations to guarantee safety.

Throughout the process risk identification and the established risk control measures ought to be documented throughout the way to guarantee that the risk control measures will be implemented in the way the measure was intended to be applied since its implementation. Finally in site operations, the project team will need to constantly monitor and review the different methods of controlling the risks and hazards to ensure  that the impact and the effectiveness of every measure is assessed (Peurifoy & Ledbetter, 2015). The assessment should focus on aspects such as the materials, environment, or the equipment to make sure that the measure does not further contribute to the grow to the hazards that have already been identified, or  even introduce a new set of hazards altogether (Nunnally, 2000).  

Before the cost estimate project of a construction project is commenced, there are preliminary items that are included to administer a project, as well as provide the general machinery required, the staff who will work on the site and the services and items that cannot be included in the cost of construction. In identifying all the preliminary items before any construction work is commenced ensures that resources of time and money are optimized by ensuring that all the necessities are first taken care off (Kumaraswamy, 2017). Failing to take care of preliminaries will tend to avoid any cases of the construction stalling because there are services that have not been acquired, and this will lead to the cost of the construction becoming even higher. This is because the quality, time and cost of the construction are the most important factors when considering the resources of a project and any compromise on this affects the resource maximization on the project.

Any equipment or machinery brought on site ought to be primarily established as an equipment that is highly required on the site then hired, then brought on site when the rest of the procedure are in place to commence its use to ensure that no idle use days are paid for the equipment. All the maintenance costs and the hire charges are then compared, before any induction is conducted on the workers who will utilize it. This is keenly followed by the cost of inviting a technician to induct the workers on the use of the equipment. After this point, any use of the hired machinery is to be noted down to ensure it is used in accordance with the guidelines of the hire company and any weathering conditions are documented to guarantee agreeable payment conditions (Hughes, et al., 2015).

Legislation and laws in construction management are very important to the safe completion of a project. The contractor, engineers, surveyors, and other site stakeholders should all abide by laws and legislations that govern the proper undertakings of a project. Parties abide by contracts which are enforceable by law. This is to ensure that if a party fails to deliver on their part, they can be held accountable (Barrie & Paulson, 2004).

Contracts regularly used in Australia include:

  • Contracts made by Standards Australia. Standards Australia frequently gives fresh suites and versions of contract documents. For example, the body has lately issued a new draft General Conditions of Contract called AS11000.
  • The Australian Building Industry Contracts (ABIC) set of construction contracts, mutually drafted by the Australian Institute of Architects and the Master Builders Australia are projected to be used where an architect directs a contract which comprises the ABIC MW-2008 Major Works Contract (Hill & Bowen, 2007).
  • The Australian Defence Contracting Suite of Tendering and Contracting templates (AUSDEFCON templates) in use for contracts of defence.
  • The GC21 structure of contracts of government in use by some state governments and state-owned companies(Hinze, 2013).

Laws that govern the selection and appointment of engineers, architects, and construction professionals direct these professionals to be engaged by a professional consultancy agreement. There is an AS 4122-2010 (Australian Standard) agreement that covers for a risk allocation approving to consultants. During the tendering phase, professionals are engaged under different and separated tender services agreement (Jervis & Levin, 2008). During the tendering phase, the different parties concur on a skilled services agreement to administer the completion of the plan after the award. Legislation in the construction industry comes in many forms that help firms and professionals discharge their tasks in a standardized and professional manner. This minimizes losses due to waste, harm to the surrounding environment, delays and unnecessary traffic jams, and in some cases displacement of residents from their homes. These laws govern the conduct of firms and consultants from the tender process all the way to the delivery of the finished project (Pilcher, 2002). 

This report will ensue that all the necessary approvals are obtained following the right channels in accordance with the law. This construction management plan seeks to obtain a development approval from the local authorities in order to for the conditions of the construction and the payment of different fees payable to the council to be approved and thus the construction can take off (Hill & Bowen, 2007). Some of the consent conditions that were collected ought to comply with the legislation for Australian building codes including the Work Health and Safety Act before the commencement of the construction activities. Some of the permits that were taken during project include the permits listed below:

  • Permit for the erection of the gantry
  • Permit to utilize space on a section of the road or a footpath
  • Permits for the erection of the timber hoarding
  • Permit to be allowed to construct the road when repairing the roads and footpaths.
  • Permit to request full closure or even partial closure of the roads
  • Permit for using a crane tower
  • Permit for working outside the prescribed hours of the project if need be, and
  • Excavation permits (Kunishima & Shoji, 2006)

The above mentioned procedures and strategies will be most effective in ensuring that the proposed construction runs smoothly to guarantee its completion within the set constraints of time and budget. There are other alternatives that could further maximize the utilization of resources and ensure that the project is completed within the time frame. For instance, another construction method that could serve as an alternative would be for the proprietor of the project to directly involve the contractors and cut on the construction management costs. Another alternative is the use of in situ construction of the different components to cut down on the cost of transportation. While this could cut the transport cost of bringing in prefabricated structure and already mixed concrete, it could increase the labour and material demand, as well as the reliance on machinery as well as the amount of waste on site and alternative methods for management of these aspects will have to be devised. Further, plant and equipment is hired and even transported for large sums of money, and the reliance on machinery could be substituted by an increase on the human power dependence (Fellows, et al., 2009). However this will be affected by the dispositional factors of the individuals and may slow the amount of work done as human power cannot equally match what is implemented using machines.

The OHS requirement could also be addressed by ensuring that the project management team does all what is required to ensure that no cases of injury could occur and by ensuring that all workers are insured. While this could increase the operational cost of the construction, it guarantees that no extra liability is incurred in the event of an incident and thus could serve as a good alternative to OHS requirement. Planning and scheduling guarantee that the project continues to run smoothly and that all activities are effectively timed to ensure that the project is completed on time. The alternative for this would be to allow more workers to be taken in when there is a demand for work to ensure the project does not fall behind schedule. This could bring about changes in the scheduling through the progress of the work falling behind schedule. The best way to accommodate any changes in scheduling would be to notify the necessary stakeholders and to manage the number of workers to ensure that the progress of the construction is at par with the plan schedules. This could however have a negative impact on the resource utilization as more labour will require more budgetary allocations (Koehn & Datta, 2003).  

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