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Dissertation Sample: Internal Communication Can Improve Human Resource Management

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ABSTRACT

 
 
Social media and leaders are important in enhancing internal communication that can help in managing human resource effectively. Most of the organisations in UK are keen in improving leadership skills and adopting social media to enhance the efficiency and productive levels of employees. The companies are using different social media tools and providing training to leaders in order to stay strongly in the competitive market. Therefore, this approach can be effective in building strong internal communication through every employee can be updated with the plan and strategies of an organisation.

Researcher has carried the following dissertation study in order to know the effectiveness of social media and leaders in improving internal communication and gaining better human resource. The study has focused on overall organisations in UK. The researcher has followed secondary data for analysing the study. The recommendations have been given by researcher can be adopted for better achievement of human resource.

Acknowledgement

The specific research was one of my best experiences that enhanced extremely my knowledge to understand the things in deeper manner. The research provided to face the upcoming situation and develop analytical skills. The professors, peers and all the related people were supportive, without their support the work would have been difficult for me to complete. I would like to thank my supervisor ____________ for the continuous support and directing me to use the techniques for completing the research in more analytical way. The academic guides were also too valuable like my supervisor. My friends also helped during collecting secondary data that can applied in my research paper. The support from all these people motivated and boosted me throughout the research work.

Heartfelt Thanks and Warmest Wishes,

Yours Sincerely,

Table of Contents

 
 

Chapter 1. 6

Introduction. 6

Background of the Topic. 6

Rationale of the Study. 6

Research Aim.. 7

Research Objective. 7

Research Question. 8

Purpose of the Study. 8

Summary. 8

Chapter 2. 9

Literature Review... 9

Introduction. 9

Conceptual Framework. 9

Concept of Internal Communication. 10

Importance of Internal Communication. 11

Challenges of Internal Communication. 12

Melcrum’s Internal Communication Competency Model 12

Path Goal Theory of Leadership. 14

Forms and Channels of Internal Communication. 16

Impact of Internal Communication. 19

Role of Social Media in Internal communication. 20

Impact of Social Media. 21

Summary. 22

Chapter 3. 23

Research Design And Methodology.. 23

Introduction. 23

Method Outline. 23

Research Onion. 24

Research Philosophy. 25

Justification for selection of chosen Philosophy: Post Positivism.. 25

Research Approach. 26

Justification for selection of the chosen Approach: Deductive. 26

Research Design. 27

Justification for selection of the chosen Design: Descriptive. 27

Data Collection Procedure. 27

Data Sources: Secondary Sources. 28

Data Techniques: Secondary Quantitative. 28

Ethical Considerations. 28

Research Limitations. 28

Time Horizons. 29

Summary. 30

Chapter 4. 31

DATA ANALYSIS AND DATA PRESENTATION.. 31

Introduction. 31

Quantitative Analysis. 31

Role of internal communication in enhancing employee’s performance. 31

Importance of Internal Communication in Human Resource Management 34

Effectiveness of Social Media in providing information. 38

Role of Leadership in increasing employee performance. 40

Summary. 42

Chapter 5. 44

Conclusion And Recommendations. 44

Conclusion. 44

Linking with the objectives. 44

Objective 1: To assess role played by internal communication in enhancing performance within organisation. 44

Objective 2: To analyse the importance of internal communication in human resource management 44

Objective 3: To investigate the role of social media in transferring the information. 44

Objective 4: To understand the leadership factors for enhancing the employee’s performance  44

Recommendations. 44

Future Scope of study. 44

Reference List 45

List of Figures

Conceptual Framework. 7

Importance of Internal Communication. 8

Melcrum’s Internal Communication Competency Model 10

Path Goal Theory. 12

Research Onion. 21

Research Philosophy. 22

Research Approach. 23

Research Design. 24

List of Tables

Channels for Internal Communication. 14

Gantt chart 26

Employee Opinion Survey Result in UK for 2010. 30

Tenure Rates of Industries in UK.. 33

List of Graphs

Employee Engagement in 2008 and 2005. 29

Employee Involvement from 2009-2007. 30

Internal Mobility, 2009 in UK.. 31

Increase in employee between Tesco and Sainsbury, UK.. 32

Overall Performance of Organisations in UK.. 34

Growth of Social Media in UK.. 36

Barriers preventing small-size industries using Social Media in UK.. 36

Growth of Leaders in UK.. 39 

 

Introduction

Internal Communication is important way for transferring the data among the working staffs of the company. The employer and employees of the firm can effectively communicate with each other in either the formal way or in informal way. The leaders of the company and use of social media can be the effective factor in passing on the right information and in quick time. The communication can be helpful in better flow of information that can increase the efficiency and productivity level of the employees (O'Kane et al. 2006). The strong internal communication can build strong relationship among the management and workers of the company. The current dissertation will be focusing on the role of leaders and social media for carrying internal communication in UK.

Background of the Topic

Internal communication is an effective process for exchanging the information all over the organisation. Therefore, a better atmosphere can be developed in the company through communicating with the employees in positive manner. Further, internal communication can help in building trust and faith of the workers on the management of the company. This can aid in achieving the objective of the company and improving the performance of the company. Effective communication can help in providing the correct information and on time to the workers that can guide the employees to perform the task in respective manner.

The conception of internal communication can be effectively achieved by proper guidance from the leaders of the company and applying social medium for passing on the information. Hence, it can help in understanding the working strategy of the company in effective manner.

Rationale of the Study

The researcher has adopted the particular research work in order to analyse the impact of internal communication on the productivity level of the employees. The study focuses on the behaviour of the employees while performing the task. Thus, effective inner contact can control the work flow of the human resource toward the achievement of organisational goals. The main advantage of the inner communication is that the employees can quickly and efficiently communicate with the senior management on any matter such as salary, respect, behaviour of other working groups, etc. Therefore, effective steps can be taken by the management to increase productivity and better working environment can be build.

Although, there are benefits attached with the internal communications there can be some drawbacks that can affect the work of the company. The leaders of the company can be biased to some working groups that can be of same caste and culture that can affect the other workers performance (Ralston et al. 2011). The social media is great way for communicating but it can be misused by the staff for their person satisfaction such as Skype can be used for chit-chatting, story mongering and exchanging office data with outside people. Therefore, it can hamper the productivity of company.

Research Aim

The particular dissertation will be focusing in analysing the relationship between performance and employees through building strong internal communication. The focus will be on managing the human resource of the company via in-house communication that can help in achieving the goal of the company in successful manner. The theories and models will be assisting the researcher in understanding the concept of internal communication.

 

Research Objective

In line with the research aim, the researcher has chalked out research objective that can be helpful in carrying the rest of the research topics in detail manner. The division of the topics can be done effectively on the basis of the objectives for better understanding of the research work. , the researcher has jotted down some objectives for reaching the aim of the study.

  • To assess the role played by internal communication in enhancing performance within the organisation, UK
  • To analyse the importance of internal communication in human resource management
  • To investigate the role of social media in transferring the information
  • To understand the leadership factors for enhancing the employee’s performance

Research Question

The formation of research question can be effective in carrying the research task in thorough and detail way. Therefore, it can help in understanding the concept of study and gaining the knowledgeable data about the research work. The researcher has listed some research question on the basis of the objective of the research.

  • How internal communication helps in increasing performance level of employee?
  • What is the role of internal communication in managing human resource?
  • What is the impact of social media in providing information?
  • What are the leadership factors that are helpful in increasing worker’s performance?

Purpose of the Study

The researcher has opted for the particular study for understanding the role of role of inner communication for enhancing the efficiency level of the human resource of the company. The leaders can play important role in influencing the attitude and behaviour through guiding them and increasing their knowledge for doing the job. It can help in providing better services to the customers. The application of social media can be effective tool for disseminating the information that can help in building business partnership and also using the information by employees in carrying the job. In this study, the researcher will highlight on the importance of internal communication for managing the human resource of the organisations.

Summary

The concept of internal communication is effective in building the relationship among the employees and manager of the company. The leaders are the major factor for analysing the performance of the employees and guiding them to mitigate their performance error by supplying right information and knowledge. The role of internal communication can be useful for the senior manager for taking effective decision for showing the right direction to the employees to deal with the job. The current chapter briefly explains the ingredients of the research topic through different sub section such as research objectives, aims, questions, background of study and rational study. Thus, on the basis of this chapter, literature review of the topic will be carried that will be comprised of different theories and concepts.

Literature Review

Introduction

In an organisation, there are number of people working under one roof therefore, it become necessary for the management of the company to pass on the information to the employees in right time. Thus, the employees can conduct their job successfully that can be related to production of product, manufacturing, marketing of products and customer service (Welch and Jackson, 2007). Communication with the employees is important for achieving the desired productivity and effective communication can significantly improve the efficiency level of the employees. However, the inside communication can motivate the employees and provide them satisfaction that can help the company in managing the human resource effectively.

The current course will be highlighting on different theories and models that can be helpful in explain the topic in broader sense in context to the research topic. The researcher can be able to analyse the topic in a critical way that can be helpful for the readers to understand the topic in correct manner. The theories will be based on the internal communication and on the role of leaders and social medium for transferring the information that can be effective for managing the working staff within the organisation.

Conceptual Framework

The conceptual framework can be supportive in simplifying the number of theories that can assist in analysing the topic in better way. The internal communication and performance of employees will be taken into account for giving deeper emphasise on the theoretical concepts. The researcher will be great support from the framework for carrying the further research topics in a detail way. 

Conceptual Framework

Figure 1: Conceptual Framework

(Source: Created by Author)

It can be viewed from the above diagram that effective internal communication can enhance the performance of the company. The right communication has the potential to stimulate and inspire the employees to increase their efficiency that can be effective for motivating the employees in providing higher productivity to the company. The researcher will be trying to analyse the affect of internal communication on the performance behaviour of the workforce in order to analyse the research in a depth way.

Concept of Internal Communication

Internal Communication is transfer a message within the industry. The communication can be in the form of official and unofficial. The official communication can comprise the policies, guidelines and procedures of the company whereas unofficial communication is related with the working staff of the company. Therefore, the employees can effectively share their ideas and thoughts that can help in building better relationships in the organisation. According to Argenti (2007), a good internal communication can provide information to the employees that may be required for carrying the job in efficient manner. The management of the company can provide feedback on the performance of the workers that can be helpful on the part of the company in managing the workers. Thus, it can help in increasing the performance level of the employees to benefit the company in earning income and revenue.

As per Hamm (2007), providing the right information to the employees can enhance the effectiveness of the company that can help in attainting the organisational goals that can be relate to higher sales or earning higher profits. The communication plays effective role in mitigating the problem that may be floating in the organisation that can be helpful in strengthening the relationship between employers and employees.

Importance of Internal Communication

The management of the company can perform their activities effectively through better flow of communication in the organisation. The internal communication can be helpful in coordinating the activities of the different departments such as production and manufacturing, packaging, marketing, etc. The behaviour of the employees can be effectively controlled through effective communication that can help the company to extract higher productivity from the employees (Briggs, 2008). A sound internal communication can provide a feeling of job satisfaction among the workers as employees can carry their task in right way that can help the company in reducing the employee turnover. A mutual trust can be build through correct communication between the management and the employees that can be effective for reaching higher productivity and smooth running of the business.

Importance of Internal Communication

Figure 2: Importance of Internal Communication

(Source: Christensen and Knudsen, 2010, pp. 76)

 

As discussed by Ralston et al. (2011), the inside communication in the company can be beneficial in developing the communicative skill among the employees that can help in sharing the opinions. Hence, the information can be applied in production process and carry the operation of the business. The employees can be effectively engaged in the decision making process that can help the management of an organisation to understand the working behaviour of the company.

Challenges of Internal Communication

As per Berry (2007), the employees of the company can be overloaded with the information or messages that may be irrelevant to the kind of jobs performed by the workers. Therefore, it may not add value to the organisational goal. The inefficient internal communication management can give rise to internal problem in the organisation as they may not be able take important decision on time and may not be able to transfer the message to the respected employees (Managementhelp.org, 2014).

In the terms of Droppers (2006), the employees can have a demotivation feeling if they are not provided the proper information about the job and policies of the company. Thus, the employees may lose their interest to perform the task that can lower down the productivity of the company. According to Holtz (2006), the leader of an organisation, if not 100% dedicated to prioritise the internal communication, can pose challenges that can be difficult for the management in managing the human resource. According to the survey of Society for Human Resource Management, the challenges that are most faced by companies are retaining and rewarding the efficient employees and forming a corporate culture for gaining best employees.

Melcrum’s Internal Communication Competency Model

The communicators or the management of the company has to follow systematic approach for enhancing the competencies and skills. Thus, it can help in manage the duties and responsibilities that are attached to the internal communication effectively. The management has to build a team for internal communication that can be effective for delivering the message to the right employees. The management of the organisation may have to provide training to the internal communication team that can enhance their capabilities and knowledge in carrying the information to the employees (Neoninc.org, 2014).

On the contrary Fu et al. (2010) mentioned that the team has to develop a network with the employees that can help in sharing the information from both ends that can be effective in solving any issues that can be prevailing in the working place. Therefore, strong networks can be helpful in developing better teamwork that can increase the productivity level of the company and the employees too. According to Kliem (2008), the employee can be engaged in the planning process of the company that can help in building better strategy such as improving the quality of the workers through training and better wages or providing health provision. , it can help in meeting the organisational goal successfully.

Networks and Collaboration

New Media

Organisation Design

Digital and Social Strategy

Project and Function Management

Impact Measurement

Planning

Team and Professional Development              

Partnership

Content Development and Delivery

Written Communication

Messaging

Public Speaking

Management of Channel and Content

Business Leadership

Change Management

Business Knowledge

Influence

Innovation

 

Argenti (2007) opined that leadership skills of the managers can be effective in guiding the workers towards the aim of the company. The workers can be significantly motivated that can inspire them to perform according to the requirement of the company. The sales of the company can be increased that can ultimately lead to earning better profits. The competency of the working group can be improved through better internal communication that can develop the communication skills of the employees.

The internal communication team may need to develop strategic thinking such as involving the employees in training session for providing production and marketing knowledge. Thus, it can increase the labour productivity and product quality that can be assisting the company in acquiring better income and revenue. The content development and delivery can be effective in messaging the authentic information to the employees (Bledow et al. (2011). Therefore, the public speaking can be adopted for gathering required information about the working behaviour of the employees. It can help in channelling the management in successful way.

The project management can be crucial for the IC team for measuring the performance of the employees that can help in achieving better human resource for carrying the activities of the business. Thus, the management of the company can gain be successful in building strong team for performing various jobs of the company such as production, manufacturing, auditing, marketing, etc (Instituteforpr.org, 2014).

Path Goal Theory of Leadership

 
 

Leadership capabilities are an effective approach in influencing the behaviour of the people. The style of working of leader can be effective measure that can motivate the workers to put their best effort in increasing the productivity of the organisation. According to O'Kane et al. (2006), the main purpose of the leader is to motivate the employee, increase empowerment and provide satisfaction in the working environment. Apart from that Ali (2012) mentioned that the less capable leaders can guide the employees in a wrong manner that can affect the work flow of the company seriously.

According to Northouse (2013), the path goal theory analyse the act of the employees that they are performing job in the expected manner. In order to communicate with the employees, the leaders may have to primarily understand the characteristics of the employees. The characteristics can be related to need of the staffs, perceived degree of ability, affiliation and desire for control. Therefore, the leaders can easily contact with employees that can help in motivating them in performing in an impressive manner.

Karatepe and Aga (2012) pointed that the leaders has to provide ample support if the task is too ambiguous for the employees to perform. The authority can be provided to the task force that can help them to perform tasks in effective way. The provision of authority can be effective for the employees that can help them to apply them ideas in the job. Hence, it can support in having better control over the production. Thus, providing support and authority can enhance the two way communication among the workers and leaders.

On the contrary Weigelt (2012) discussed that the leaders may develop tough leadership behaviour if the employees are not supportive. Therefore, it can help in controlling the behaviour of task force and the employees can be devoted towards the achievement of organisational goal. Thus, hard leadership attitude can be effectively adopted for carrying internal communication and ensuring that the employees are following the information in the expected way.

Path Goal Theory

Figure 4: Path Goal Theory

(Source: Trahant, 2008, pp. 71)

In the words of Chen and Hung (2010), path goal theory is based on the four main pillars that are regarded to leaders’ behaviour for guiding the employees.

Directive

Jacquie (2008) opined that the leader of the organisation has to inform the employees regarding the expectations that the workers need to perform. The leaders can communicate with the subordinates how job is to be performed and time within which the job has to be completed. Lyn and Pamela (2008), pointed directive leadership can be effective in a situation when there is heavy uncertainty in the working environment. Therefore, the employees and their work can be effectively coordinated that can help in enhancing goals and gaining better rewards.

Supportive

The leader has to adopt friendly and approachable behaviour towards the subordinates in order to make working atmosphere pleasant (Shahrina et al. 2011). The leader has to support the psychological well being of the workers. The support from the leader can minimise the stress level and frustration among the subordinates that can be helpful in carrying the assigned job in productive manner. According to Toth (2007), the leaders can take up supportive behaviour that can be cognitive and affective for designing tolerant working environment. Thus, it can help in enhancing the self confidence and decreasing anxiety among the employees.

Participative

A participative leader may have to perform important role for ejaculating better performance from the employees. , leaders may have to consults with the working staffs in order to retrieve opinions and ideas and integrating the performance of the staffs for organisational decisions. Hassan and Bahtiar (2009) discussed that the leaders has to share the information and communicate with them so that better decision can be made for achieving the projected goal of an organisation.

Achievement

As per Kalla (2007), an organizational leader may have to design challenging target for the subordinates and expecting from workers to put in their highest effort for doing job. Therefore, an employee has to deliver best of their ability and confidence to meet the expected work. The continuous improvement is monitored by the leaders in order to achieve the target that can be related to sales or increasing the production quality. Thus, effective communication with subordinates can guide the employees in reaching to the goal successfully and without having much confusion in the working place.

Forms and Channels of Internal Communication

According to Nance (2007), an organisation can follow three methods of communication for transmitting the message to the people. The non-verbal communication such as face to face meetings can be effective for conveying the information to the employees. The verbal communication can be considered as casual conversation among the subordinates or a formal speech for having an effective internal communication. The written communication can be in the form of annual report or casual note for passing on the information to employees and customers. As per, Zulfqar et al. (2010), the written and verbal communications have been significantly replaced by the electronic mail systems. The formal communication can be in the form of chain of command that can be followed from top management to lower management and from lower management to higher level. The informal communication in the organisation is related to grapevine that is social relationships. Thus, the employees of an organisation can effectively meet their requirements to carry the job.

The channels that can be related to internal communication can be classified into close channels and distant channels. According to Christian et al. (2011), the close channels is concerned with serving the small working staffs or needs of the individual employee whereas the distant channels is involved in transferring the necessary messages to the whole working group in the organisation.

 

DISTANT CHANNELS

CLOSE CHANNELS

Conveyed Communication

·         Internal Radio

·         Web Communication

·         Bulletins Board

·         Annual Report

·         Mass Media

·         Circular Letters

·         CEO’s re-evaluation

·         Personnel and Customer Magazine

·         Telephone News

·         Web Communication

·         Circular Letters of Department

·         Bulletins Board of Department

·         Personal Magazine

Direct Communication

·         Direct conversation with the management

·         Meetings and negotiations

·         Briefings

·         Committees and selected officials

·         Cooperation

·         Colleagues in different departments

·         Department meetings

·         Immediate superior

·         Unofficial occasions to swap information

·         Colleagues

·         Other higher superiors

Table 1: Channels for Internal Communication

(Source: Mudor and Tooksoon, 2011, pp. 43)

As per Dewhurst (2007), internal communication is based on the network of superior and employee. The management can conduct meetings for working teams and the departmental personnel. Therefore, the operative matters that can be related to work can be discussed in the meetings. The operative data can be forwarded through horizontal nature that is from one worker to another worker. Thus, it can be reliable source to gather information in enhancing the working environment.

The employees can effectively converse with the management of organisation regarding any production issues or wages issues. Therefore, a manager has to build a strong bridge that can be helpful in solving the issues of workers successfully. Toth (2007) pointed the organisation that follows hierarchical structure has to efficiently listen to the query or any ideas of the workers that can be passed from the managers to the higher officials. The unofficial occasions can also be valuable for switching the opinions and ideas that can help in gaining various creative new thoughts for the betterment of organisation. Therefore, the manager can communicate with the employees during the coffee break or lunch break, etc that can help in gathering opinions of the working staffs. Thus, it can also motivate them to perform impressively.

The distant channels of communication hold a large number of working units or individual associate for transmitting the message. The informative meetings or briefings can be conducted for passing the information that can very crucial for running the business. Therefore, the briefings can be effective internal communication for contacting different working groups under a single roof. Therefore, the management can effectively interact with the staffs for sending the information. The circular letters, bulletin boards or CEO’s review can be essential for passing message to the mass group of working employees. The employees can get idea about the holidays, working time, annual position of the company, etc (Uaf.edu, 2014).

According to Jacquie (2008), the managers are following the informative routes in order to receive information about the work of the individual workers through the respective superiors. Therefore, the management can communicate with the employees if the employee is not able to perform as expected and can guide them that can help them to increase their performance and productivity. The superior or personnel magazine can be effective in providing information about the training or leisure schedule activities (Bakker et al. 2008). The superior can be effective source of data through which the employees can communicate for acquiring the information (Tharenou et al. 2007). The employees can seek information regarding the work related matters such as using equipments, production issues, etc.

Impact of Internal Communication

Kalla (2007) propagated that the internal communication does not only provide correct message all over the organisation but it can also take account of the employee satisfaction. According to the survey recently done reveals that the leaders of an organisation communicate with the working staffs that directly influence the two major measures of working environment such as employee engagement and job satisfaction. For instance, the CEO of COMMS app, Jeff Corbin, pointed that the increase in the technologies such as mobile devices is altering the behaviour of employees within the company for communicating with the other employees (Argenti, 2007). The internal communication has radically put the workers in one line that is beneficial for the organisation to ejaculate the best performance from the employees.

On the contrary Christensen and Knudsen (2010) opined that employee is not effectively engaged in the job when there is lack of communication between the organisation and the employee. Thus, the money, time and effort of the company can be wasted if the passed information does not reach to the concerned employee. Therefore, the employers of company have to modify the way of communication in order to increase the engagement of employees in the job or in making decision. Internal communication can significantly help the managers in understanding the framework of the information that can shared with the staffs.

The effective internal communication can increase the process of work and can effectively motivate the employees in increasing the efficiency level. The company can use live chat or VoIP or video communication in order to enhance the communications channels. Therefore, it can help in the growth of employee engagement and reaching the satisfaction level. Droppers (2006) argued that an effective internal communication program can have impact on the external functions of an organisation such as community, marketing, investor relations and government relations.

The application of intranets, e-mail, interactive websites, virtual teleconferencing can be useful for keeping the internal employees up to date (Hamm, 2007). Thus, all the above techniques can be valuable in enhancing the internal communication and increasing the productivity line. As per the Learning Consultancy study, a good employee communication can be good indicator for measuring the financial performance of an organisation. Therefore, the performance of the employee and an organisation can be enhanced that can be supportive for attaining the expected return or profit and revenue. The internal communication can increase the quality level of the employee that can also help in better formation of organisational structure. Therefore, the company can be able to gain better and quality customers that can help in development of the company (Ijsrp.org, 2014).  

Role of Social Media in Internal communication

Social media is considered as social instrument for exchanging or sharing messages. According to Berry (2007), social media is the communal of channels of online communication that is related to content sharing, interaction, association, etc. Facebook, Twitter, Google+, Linkedln, Reddit, etc are some social networking sites that falls under social media. The social media can be effective in acquiring data from social websites or blogs in order to examine the data for forming best decision for an organization. Therefore, social media can be effective in backing up employees and customers by providing relevant information about the marketing and the service activities.

As per Christian et al. (2011), social media can be related to marketing that can help in enhancing the brand exposure of the company and broaden the customer base. In an organization, social media can play effective role in communicating with the staffs regarding various matters. As, the internet user has considerably increased, therefore, the employees can be much equipped with the use of social networking websites. Therefore, the information can be easily passed on the respected employees and informing them the necessary plan or guidance to perform at the work place. According to the report of Social Media Examiner’s 2013, an organization that follows social media as business approach can be able to gain 1.5 to 2 times revenue growth in comparison to the companies that is related to ad hoc user (Hamm, 2007).

Kalla (2007) pointed that on an average of 35 minutes every day, the employees of an organization in UK spend on social media. Therefore, the management can effectively use the media for communicating with the number of employees at one time and comprehensively. The statistical research shows that around 33% employees in UK use Facebook while 19% use Google+ and 9% use Linkedln for sharing and communicating with each other. Therefore, it can be effective in building relationship among different perceptions of the employees and with the higher management too. Thus, social media can be effective building employee management relationship that can together help in achieving the growth for the company.

Impact of Social Media

 
 

The employees of an organization can use social tools that can help in accessing the resources and information in order to carry job effectively and solving business issues. The social media can be valuable way for increasing sharing of knowledge, motivating teamwork and adding value to the experience of employee. Therefore, the business can successfully connect and collaborate with the staffs and stakeholders. The effective utilization of social media can help in engaging the employee in the discussions that can be useful for the flow of communication that can be from bottom up, top down or side-by-side (Ijsrp.org, 2014).

According to Toth (2007), organizations in UK are employing social media for encompassing internal training lessons and recruiting staffs and forming online community to provide best knowledge to the internal stakeholders of an organization. Therefore, social media can be beneficial for internal communications that can help in promoting the product and services of company, reaching quickly to the workers, enhancing brand awareness internally and forming positive working atmosphere (Chen and Hung, 2010). Moreover, the staffs can be motivated to use the information to the best in the production and marketing of product.

Apart from the beneficial role of social media, Nance (2007) discussed that restricting the use of social medium for the workers can lower down the morale of the working units. The company may fail to capture the opportunities for developing team and skills of the employees. Therefore, the business networking can be affected that can make difficult for forwarding the information in the organisation. Thus, the employees of an organisation may not be able to access the information of other companies. The employees can be engaged in social networking most of the time that can affect the productivity of the company. Hence, it can decrease the performance of the company and the workers. According to Gartner Analysts report, 2013, at the end of 2015, around 80% of social system within an organisation may not be able to receive the perceived advantage due lack of leadership and using more technology (Neoninc.org, 2014).

On the contrary, the social networking can offer a fresh and innovative means to the organisations for meeting various challenges that may be in relation to employee engagement, corporate culture association and managing the co-workers. Therefore, employees can effectively share the ideas and can also comprehensively participate in the business growth and attaining the company’s goal. The leaders can adopt social medium for building community that can help in engaging workers towards enhancing performance. The news and information can be quickly shared with the employees through social intranets. Jacquie (2008) opined that social media can increase the productivity of workers between 20-25% through enhancing collaboration and communication.

Summary

The particular chapter has greatly helped the researcher in extracting the right and correct information. The researcher was able to analyse the beneficial role of the internal communication. The behaviour and attitude of the employees has been significantly influenced by an effective internal communication. Melcrum’s Internal Communication Competency Model has been discussed that helped in enhancing the skill and competency level of the employees and teamwork. The adoption of leadership theory that is path goal theory within the organisation has assisted in motivating the employees in using the supplied information in the best possible way.

Therefore, the managers and leaders can be effectively communicated with the workers on important matters. The forms and channels relating to internal communication have been mentioned, that can be used for exchanging the message. The social media is effective in enhancing inner communication and engaging the employees in increasing the performance and growth of the company. Therefore, the inner communication is effective in passing the relevant information to the workers and building the strong bonding and relationship among employees and managers.

Research Design And Methodology

Introduction

In this chapter, the researcher will be focusing on the role of internal communication within the environment of organisation in UK. The research methodology can be effective in examining the study in order to draw best conclusion for the research work. The outline can be effectively designed through the methodology that can be helpful in the process of research. The researcher for briefing the research process has selected the philosophy, approach and design. However, Creswell (2013) pointed that the research topic can be better explained through narrowing down the theories and concepts through research methodology.

The reader and researcher can be able to gain an understanding of the behaviour of the employees through adopting internal communication in UK’s organisation. The limitation of the research study will be discussed in this chapter. Therefore, the researcher will be trying to analyse the working behaviour of workers in the organisation on the basis of research style.

Method Outline

In the current chapter, the researcher will be adopting research techniques that can be useful for analysing the successful characteristics of inner communication and its impact on the performance of working groups. As per, Saunders et al. (2009), the process of research work can be related to design, philosophy and approaches that can be effective in structuring the best format for completing the task. The research philosophy that has been selected by the researcher is post-positivism that is an extension of positivism. Therefore, it can be helpful in gathering required information on the basis of appropriate logic and evaluation (Jackson, 2009). Further, the researcher has focused on the deductive approach in order to carry the research study for analysing the secondary information. It can be effective in describing the employee’s performance trough effective implementation of leadership role and social media.

The descriptive research design will provide depth examination of the different research topics. The researcher can define the applied concepts and models in detail way in order to increase success level of the research paper. The appliance of primary and secondary can be supportive to researcher in analysing the research topics that can help the readers to understand the purpose of research work (Dul and Hak, 2012). The limitation and ethical nature of the research has also been considered by the researcher to complete the research in effective manner.

Research Onion

According to Crouch and Pearce (2012), the research onion can be valuable tool for understanding the nature of the research topics so that topics can be analysed in better way. The research onion methodology can assist in segmenting the research for examining the topics carefully. Therefore, the academic students can get help from the structuring of research onion. The each stratum of the research onion helps in forming the right results of the research procedure. The research can be alienated into six factors such as philosophy, approaches, designs, strategies, time horizon, techniques and procedures.

Research Onion

Figure 5: Research Onion

(Source: Saunders et al. 2009, pp. 52)

The above presented figure shows the process that will be followed by the researcher for understanding the every section of the research technique in order to draw better results. Therefore, better analysis can be done in every process of research.

Research Philosophy

As stated by Christensen and Knudsen (2010), the employments of research philosophy that can be carried for doing the research study in successful way. He also mentioned that research philosophy is a concept that will be directing the researcher in deriving the better results from the research topics. Cameron (2009) opined that the assumption procedure can be explained by following philosophy. The changing behaviour of thinking process can be taken care by research philosophy through appropriate alignment. Epistemology, axiology and phenomenology are the common composition of philosophy of research. Therefore, ethics, knowledge and facts of the research work can be effectively highlighted.

Research Philosophy

Figure 6: Research Philosophy

(Source: Brannen, 2009, pp. 9)

According to Bakker et al. (2008), the research philosophy is the part of paradigm of research that can assist the researcher in finding all the required information in a detailed process. The philosophy consist three form of approach that is Positivism, Realism and Interpretivism. As per Tharenou et al. (2007), the positivism philosophy highlights on the learning of research study whereas the realism approach is related with the real data that can used in the work for proper analysis and evaluation. On the other hand, Interpretivism throws light on the adoption of logic for applying in the study in order do the research paper.

Apart from positivism, realism and interpretivism, the researcher has moved ahead with selecting post positivism philosophy for the appropriate analysis. The post positivism is the extended form of positivism in order to build effective work and receiving the best understanding of the work (Flick, 2007).

Justification for selection of chosen Philosophy: Post Positivism

The researcher has chosen the post positivism research philosophy for assessing the research in proper way. The positivism and interpretivism is related with logical and knowledge factors whereas realism is concerned with the real facts. Therefore, post positivism has been selected as it can help in cross checking the work of research and analysing the gathered data for better results. Due to limitation of time, realism and interpretative has been aborted.

Research Approach

The research approach will provide great assistance to the researcher in conducting the research work on the basis of information that has been accumulated from the external environment. According to Dul and Hak (2012), the research philosophy carries two characteristics such as Inductive and Deductive. The researcher can follow inductive approach if he/she finds that enough data is not available and it is difficult to find the required information. Crouch and Pearce (2012) opined that observation is considered as initial point of inductive approach that can help in generating the relevant data for reaching the objective of the research work.

Research Approach

Figure 7: Research Approach

(Source: Dewhurst, 2007, pp. 7)

On the other side Jackson (2009) discussed that deductive approach explains the practical implementation of the already present models and theories for enriching the content of the research. Therefore, specific explanation of the theory could be done along with better analysis of data.

Justification for selection of the chosen Approach: Deductive

In the particular study, the researcher will be trying to understand the concept related to the employees behaviour and performance through imparting internal communication. Therefore, the related theory will be further helpful for the study of research and the respected topics that is covered. The deductive approach has been opted for evaluating the theories and models in own way that is related with the research paper. Therefore, research work can be explained in precise and effective manner. The researcher has discarded inductive approach, as new theories or models are difficult for the researcher to build. Therefore, existing concepts and models can be comprehensively linked through deductive approach for better presentation of study.

Research Design

 
Research Design

Figure 8: Research Design

(Source: Cameron, 2009, pp. 147)

As discussed by Creswell (2013), the research design is based on the process for collecting the information in context to contemporary aspects. Therefore, research design comprises three types of design that is exploratory, explanatory and descriptive.

According to exploratory design, the ideas and thoughts can be assessed for completing the research work. However, the explanatory research design can be used for describing the reason behind the rise of any events and its effect on the situation. Further, the descriptive design aims at explaining the topic in brief way.

Justification for selection of the chosen Design: Descriptive

The explanatory design has been avoided as it is related to longitudinal study, which was not appropriate with the current research work. Therefore, the researcher has selected the descriptive design in order to analyse and evaluate the data in better manner. The researcher can focus on the concept of leadership and social media for enhancing the internal communication. The exploratory design has not been used as the research cannot be analysed on short notice. Therefore, due to time constraint researcher has chosen descriptive nature.

Data Collection Procedure

Dul and Hak (2012) stated that data can in the form of Primary information and Secondary information. The primary data is gathered through field research, survey research, experiments, etc. On the other hand, secondary information can be acquired through newspapers, online surveys, company’s past sales or financial data.

Data Sources: Secondary Sources

The researcher has followed secondary data for analysing the research study. The information can be used for understanding the effectiveness of leadership and social media in the organisation for using internal communication.

Data Techniques: Secondary Quantitative

The researcher has adopted quantitative data for surveying the managers of the company in UK and discarded qualitative technique as the study focus on the employee performance and behaviour. Therefore, to analyse the secondary data, the researcher has used the quantitative method. The researcher has collected the necessary information from various books, journals, annual sales, and financial report of the companies in the UK (Hamm, 2007). The researcher for analysing and evaluating the research has used the secondary statistical data that is based on the secondary information.

Ethical Considerations

During the research methodology process, the researcher has followed code of ethics so that any wrong line is not crossed that can affect the research process. The ethical consideration has been pursued for analysing the role of internal communication for enhancing the human resource management.

Application of data: Commercial implementation of information has been erased and has only used for academic purpose. The Data Protection Act has been followed to enhance the authenticity of the research. The data has been collected with the permission of the respective person and writers in order to maintain the authenticity of information (Flick, 2007).

Feedback of Participant: The researcher has taken cared that participants are not forced to participate in the survey. Therefore, the respondents were free to give their feedback.

Research Limitations

The researcher has found that due to some restriction the overall flow of the research has been affected to quite extent.

Time Limit: The time that was assigned for doing the research was very less because of that, some topics were not discussed in deeper sense. Therefore, if time was allotted bit more then the research paper can be done in better and effective way.

Fewer Budgets: The amount of budget that was required was not available because of which the research work has been hampered. Therefore, the researcher was not able to apply SPSS software. Therefore, if SPSS software would have been used then the research study can be enhanced.

Time Horizons

Performed Activities

Week 1

Week 2-3

Week 4

Week 5

Week 6-8

Week 9

Week 10

Week 11-12

Choosing Appropriate Topic

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Information Collection Procedure: Secondary

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Structuring Layout

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Literature Review

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Conceptual Framework

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Designing of Research Plan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Choosing Appropriate Research Techniques

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Findings of Data

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Analysis of Data

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Interpretation of Data

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Coming to Conclusion

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Develop of Rough Draft

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Completion of Research Work

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 2: Gantt chart

(Source: Created by Author)

Summary

This current chapter shows the different method that has been followed by the researcher in order to evaluate the research topics. The research design, approach and philosophy have helped in designing the structure for doing the research. The quantitative technique and secondary sources has been regarded for doing the survey. The tools that have been applied will be providing help to the researcher in evaluating the concepts of internal communications within the organisation of UK. The research methodology has provided great support in outlining the best methods that can be helpful in understanding the behaviour of employees and use of leadership and social media for the management of the human resources in the organisation. Therefore, with the help of this particular chapter, the researcher has tried to make an alignment through different methodology that can improve the outcome of the research. The research limitation has somewhat influence the effectiveness of the research.

Data Analysis And Data Presentation

Introduction

In this specific chapter, the researcher will be focused in conducting the analysis of data on the managers of the organisations in United Kingdom. The quantitative analysis will be supporting the researcher in the evaluation of data that can help in enhancing the quality of the research work. As per Dul and Hak (2012), the data analysis can be effective in breaking down the theoretical aspects of the research paper that can help in drawing the better conclusion and achieving the better result. On the contrary, Crouch and Pearce (2012) opined that the data analysis could have some limitations and complexities such as genuineness deficit or incorrect data that can affect the research in the evaluation process of the data.

The researcher will be using the secondary source of data that is already present in the websites, books and journals. Therefore, the researcher can effectively analyse the information in order to present the information that can be easily understood by the readers. The role of social media and leadership in managing human resource management through internal communication can be comprehensively analysed that can provide the better results of the research.

Quantitative Analysis

Role of internal communication in enhancing employee’s performance

The internal communication within the organisation has considerably enhanced the performance of the working staffs by adopting two-way communications between employees and managers. It has been found that due to improvement in the internal communication, the engagement of employee in the company has been increased. The increase in the employee engagement is almost twenty that is 19.2% in 2012 that positively affected the operating income of the company in UK that resulted in the growth of company in the globalised market.

From the data of 2008, the percentage of employee that was engaged is 30.99% and non-engaged employee is 48.1% whereas disengaged employee is 21.0%. Therefore, it has been seen that in 2008, the percentage of employee engagement in UK has decreased because of that has affected the earnings of the UK’s company. The employee are feeling satisfied due to strong bonding with the line managers of the organisations. The researcher has found that around 66.7% in 2010, employees were satisfied from the relationship from line managers and 60.9% were happy with the communication bonding with senior managers.

Employee Engagement

Graph 1: Employee Engagement in 2008 and 2005

The employees were not satisfied with the performance of the company in 2008 due to arise of recession that offset the employee engagement. In 2010, the performance of the company has improved as most of the company has focused to enhance the internal communications that have increased the quality and effectiveness of the employees.

 

Favourable (%)

Unfavourable (%)

Neutral (%)

Customer

78

5

17

Quality

80

7

13

Employee Engagement

77

8

18

Communication

70

11

19

Health and Safety

74

9

17

Operational Excellence

69

11

20

Personal Flexibility

66

13

21

Table 3: Employee Opinion Survey Result in UK for 2010

Therefore, it can be analysed from the table that the employees were able to enhance the quality of product and performance that helped in increasing the percentage of customers to 78%. The involvement of employee were also increased that helped the companies in making fine decision in relation to production process, marketing of product and building customer employee relationship. The individual employee was able to discover flexibility within them that helped in performing the job in much free way and less pressure. The employee opinion poll that was conducted in 2010 clearly represents that there is growth in the employees’ skills and capabilities through better improvement in the internal communication in the organisations. For instance, Tesco has the biggest private sector workers in UK that is 295,000 employees and in order to enhance the communication the company has adopted Listen and Fix strategy as two-way communication. Therefore, it helped in increase of 90% employee engagement in Tesco.

Employee Involvement

Graph 2: Employee Involvement from 2009-2007

According to Regional Survey, 2010 the involvement of employee increased in 2009 in UK to 64%. In comparison to nation like North America and Latin America and Asia Pacific, UK has less percentage. The increase in percentage in 2009 from 2008 and 2007 respectively depicts that enhancement in the internal communication in UK’s organisation has motivated employee to involve themselves in activities of industry. As, there was no comparative data present for Latin America for the years 2008 and 2009 therefore, UK’s growth cannot be compared with Latin America in those two periods.

Importance of Internal Communication in Human Resource Management

The management of human resource is necessary for performing the various activities of the company such serving customer, producing product, marketing product, distributing product and building relationship with consumers. According to Wilson (2012), internal communication is effective in UK’s industry in managing the existing as well as new employees that helped in growth of performance of the company and of employees too. On the other hand, EU member state that as UK is a position based systems that follow decentralised approach. Therefore, it provides higher flexibility and permits an individualised advance to Human Resource Management.

It has been found from the Online Survey of 2010, that UK implements various measures for supporting internal mobility in organisations.

Internal Mobility

Graph 3: Internal Mobility, 2009 in UK

From the above graph, it is clear that the job posted on intranet is helping the companies in gaining maximum number of application from the candidates. The technological tool that is Intranet is helping many companies such as SCH Group, First Source Solutions, TJ Morris, etc in sustaining the internal mobility. Thus, it supports the HR strategies of companies such as modernisation and accessing the information in better way. Most of the companies follow civil servants before processing external hiring. Therefore, vacancies are available through the civil service for posts in number of ministries. According to survey, UK has high internal mobility.

Increase In Employee Between Tesco and Sainsbury

Graph 4: Increase in employee between Tesco and Sainsbury, UK

According to survey conducted by Store Wars in 2011 shows that in Tesco, the percentage of staffs has increased along with increase in Sainsbury. However, the growth in Sainsbury is less than Tesco. Therefore, it can be analysed that improving the internal communication has helped both the companies in managing human resource. The adoption of campaign coordinator and weekly meetings with employees by Tesco has supported the company in increasing the quality employee every year. Therefore, almost 40% hike was registered in 2010 in assembling employees. On the other hand, Sainsbury adopted My Week email, Email Groups and Phone Hook Ups methods was effective in increasing the rate to around 35% in 2010.

SECTOR OF INDUSTRY

AVERAGE TURNOVER

Pubic Administration Services

13.1%

Accommodation and Food Services

39.3%

Electricity, waste and water services

9.6%

Rental, Hiring and Real Estate Services

27.3%

Education and Training

12.1%

Arts and Recreation Services

21.6%

Administrative and Support Services

15.7%

Agriculture Forestry and Fishing

19.8%

Mining

15.7%

Information, Media and Telecommunications

19.6%

Manufacturing

16.2%

Health Care and social assistance

18.6%

Transport, Postal and Warehousing

16.9%

Professional, Scientific and Technical Services

17.2%

Wholesale Trade

18.5%

Construction

17.5%

Financial and Insurance Services

18.4%

Other Services

18.8%

Table 4: Tenure Rates of Industries in UK

According to UK Bureau of Statistics Data represents the huge difference in business tenure rates, which ranges from 9.6% to 39.3%. The seasonal business in Accommodation and Food Services such as holiday destinations that have large occupancy during summer or holidays can upset the employees to remain in the industry. According to the survey, the average turnover in UK is around 17.5%, which is less in comparison to US and Australia that is 23.5% and 26.2% respectively. The better internal communication in most of the industry resulted in less turnover of employee. The human resource management channels of communicating are better in UK than other nations such as Canada, Sweden, Netherlands, etc.

Overall Performance of Organisations

Graph 5: Overall Performance of Organisations in UK

As per the Meta Analysis that is printed by Employee Engagement Task Force reveals that the performance of the employee has helped in increasing the overall growth of the organisation in UK. Many companies such as Tesco, ASDA, British Airways, etc has adopted employer branding that helped in focusing on main priorities, increasing productivity and enhancing recruitment, commitment and retention of human resource. The techniques of internal communication such as all staff meeting, department wide meeting, staff meeting and newsletter and email is of great help in communicating with employees and guiding them to perform according to requirements of industry.

It can be analysed from the above graph that there is 18% in the productivity of the industries and up to 90% employees are not interested in leaving the organisation. The internal communication provided great support to companies in managing and maintaining efficient human capital to achieve the objective of the companies such as higher profit and higher sales. From the figure, it has been seen that there is 250% hike in the sales revenue and 200% increase in the net profit from overall industries in UK. Therefore, the employees are more efficient in providing advocacy programs through delivering valuable service. Therefore, UK’s companies has register 18% higher customer advocacy.

Effectiveness of Social Media in providing information

The impact of social media is increasing with continuous pace that is helping the companies to communicate internally and externally. In UK, most of big organisations such as Tesco, ASDA, Sainsbury, etc using social medium to pass on the information to the employees in order to perform the task in expected manner. The survey conducted by GOSS Interactive and iGov Survey on public sector organisation of UK shows an increase of 87% in the use of social media. The survey was entitled Public Sector Social Media Survey 2013 survey 300 public sector that revealed there is an increase of 87% in 2012-2013 from 70% in 2011. The senior executives of public sector opined that social media is effective in developing online communities and generating feedback from the service user. The main aim is to enhance service in the future.

According to the survey, Twitter most used as social media. 21% of organisations are using Twitter and more 9% organisations are planning to use media in the coming future. The survey further mentioned 19% of public sector organisation is investing £500 per month for social media. On the other hand, survey carried by Work Foundation 2010 surveyed 1243 employees in industries that employ more than 500 people. It has been found that 85% of employees opined that they use email, desktop computers, internet and intranet. On the other side 13% employees access social networking sites like Facebook, MySpace and 4% uses mini blogs like Twitter.

Growth of Social Media

Graph 6: Growth of Social Media in UK

According to Social Media Market Research 2013 conducted on 500 fastest growing UK private companies reveals that blogging has increased by 7% whereas decrease in use of Facebook by 7% in 2012. The increase in use of Twitter and Linkedln is effective for communicating with employees and with business associates. Therefore, there percentage has increased to 67% and 81% respectively. Therefore, social media is effective in supplying the information to workers about the work. The corporate blog helps in gaining more traffic and publishing articles provide necessary information to the employees as well as to the customers. The company is gaining great importance in market due to their access to social media.

Barriers Preventing Small Size Industries Using Social Media

Graph 7: Barriers preventing small-size industries using Social Media in UK

As per the survey done by E-consultancy 2012, shows many small size industries such as Enkay Mailing List Inc and other companies’ faces obstacle in applying social media due to lack of resources followed by less knowledge about media and lack of budget. The other factors such as culture of company, regulation and reputation issues seriously affect the decision of companies in using social media.

The report published by My Job Group in 2010 on 1000 employees of UK’s organisation represents that 55% of employees are accessing social networking sites, which is helping in increasing workplace productivity. For instance, at British Telecom, the workers are allowed to access the social network during work under their policy, which is supporting the company in generating better productivity from workers. According to UK Survey on 2700 HR professionals, 45% opined they check social network profile to know who has applied for the job.

A survey conducted on social recruitment showed that number of organisations uses social networking sites as Human Resource tool. Therefore, it has been depicted that there is 44% increase in 2008 from 21% in 2006. The recent UKCES report represents that young youth companies is expected to utilise the social media in order to recruit the people. Thus, it can be analysed that the social media is effective in providing necessary information to the employees regarding work and vacant job position details to the new candidates.

Role of Leadership in increasing employee performance

The leaders are the guiding factors that guide the employee to perform the task in prescribed manner in order to achieve better productivity. According to Crouch and Housden (2012), effective leadership is mandatory for achieving success for long-term business. The performance of the employee can be enhance through supporting and motivating them to remove the errors and perform effectively. The research of Talent Management Consultancy, DDI and Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development shows that 36% of the leaders and 18% of HR professionals has ranked the quality of leadership high in the organisation. The survey was conducted on 56 HR professionals and 367 leaders in UK. The survey also revealed the key leadership quality that will be followed by organisations in coming three years such as managing and driving change, taking difficult decision and implementing organisational strategy.

The head of HR Practice Development of CIPD, Vanessa Robinson opined that budget for leadership development in UK is very stiff tight therefore; leader has to be equipped with essential skills. He also pointed that organisations in UK has to focus on commencing decision making and developing a norm of shared and meaningful values for the workers. The talent is also important that has to be focused by UK’s organisations.

According to, UK Commission for Employment and Skills reports that UK will be requiring fresh managers by the end of decade. The report also tells that over the past year the quality of management and leadership has been enhanced in UK. The researcher conducted by CMI shows that UK companies could be bearing cost of over £19 billion, due ineffective management, in lost operational hours. The study on 2000 employees all over UK presented that 75% of the employees waste around two hours of their total working week due inefficient leaders. 33% revealed worst management practice, 26% respondent micro management, 33% said lack of support and 25% opined lack of direction is affecting the performance of employees.

The Penna Research shows that 47% managers in UK use the current opportunities in order to apply the knowledge and skills that they have generated through their experiences. The evidence recommends that managers and leaders in UK are not well qualified in comparison to US, Japan, Sweden. The UK Commission Employer Skills presents that only 34% of the leaders are provided management training and 45% of the total managers in UK are given training. On the other hand, only 32% of Small to Medium Enterprises provide training and development to managers in order to improve the management and leadership skills.

The researcher conducted on leadership trust by ILM from 2009 to 2011 shows that employees have huge trust and faith on the leaders and managers but there is still room for enhancing the leadership trust. Therefore, effective leadership can help the employees to remove the errors and doubts relating to job while performing the job.

According to Leader Communication Survey, most of the companies train the leaders to develop communication skills that can be helpful in conversing internally with employees. The survey revealed that 58% of the employees, gathered from 1500 employees, are getting benefits from leaders and the way they communicate and guide the employees. For instance, Tesco is following Bridging the Value Gap technique for the senior leaders and line managers in order to enhance the relationship with workers that can help in building value for organisational culture.

Growth of Leaders

Graph 8: Growth of Leaders in UK

According to the survey done by Growing Industry in UK reveals that the skills and performance of the leaders has enhanced that is improving the quality and productivity of employees. The survey was conducted over 350 organisations in UK where the senior management of the companies opined that they highly focus on developing leadership quality and efficiency that can be effective in achieving long-term goals. Therefore, it can help in gaining the satisfactory response from the employees. The increasing rate in the growth of the leaders shows that leaders are efficient enough to capture the skills and training that is provided which is helping UK in gaining increasing rate every year. According to survey of High Performance Institute, approx 76% of the workers feel that they have high trust on the leaders if they are paid fairly that is helping in increasing the performance of the employee and overall organisation.

Summary

In this current chapter, the researcher has observed that internal communication is effective in enhancing the performance of the staffs. The whole discussion has been concentrating on the role of internal communication, social media and leaders. The use of social media has been increased in most of the public and private sector organisation throughout the period. The companies are able to communicate with the staffs and with the concerned people that are associated with the company. The role of leader is also effective in guiding the employees to adapt to the demanding situation and perform task accordingly. Most of the organisations in UK are providing training and development programs for enhancing the skills of leaders that can be helpful in controlling the behaviour of employees.

Conclusion And Recommendations

Conclusion

The whole research work has been focusing on the concept of internal communication through social media and leadership approaches. Improving the internal communication can enhance the performance of workers and managing human resource capital. The social media tools and leadership skills beneficially shapes the internal communication for acquiring better human resource. In this particular dissertation, the researcher has concentrated on the secondary quantitative data for analysing the study. The organisations of UK effectively focus on the effect of social media and leaders in enhancing communication within the organisation that can help in achieving better income and growth.

Linking with the objectives

On the basis data acquired, the researcher will be identifying the connection among objective of research and the data studied. In order to increase the credibility of the work, the researcher has correlated the objectives and data.

Objective 1: To assess role-played by internal communication in enhancing performance within organisations.

It has been observed from the first analysis that organisations in UK are getting benefit from better internal communication. Due to improvement in the communication the performance of the companies are able to receive better return both from the employees and from market. The Table 3 clearly shows that engagement of employees has increased which is enhancing the quality of workers and quality in production. The management of the companies are able to know whether the employees are facing any health issues during work or not.

On the other hand, flexibility of individual employee is increasing in the way of performing job and there are able to feel less pressure that is helping in completing the job in schedule time. From the graph 2, it can be seen that involvement of employee in major activities of organisations has increased. Therefore, it is motivating the companies to take most effective decision to provide best facility to employees that can increase the productivity to highest level.

Objective 2: To analyse the importance of internal communication in human resource management

The researcher has found from the second analysis that human capital effectively managed through internal communication. The organisations are able to communicate with the new candidate with the existing employee that can successfully carry the activities of company. The communication within the organisation is comprehensively affecting the performance of the human resource and flow of work can be easily handled. It can be viewed from the Graph 3 of internal mobility is helpful for the organisation to gain suitable candidate for various job position. The internal mobility within the organisation is helpful for the organisation’s management to expand or diversify the operations and production process of company. The human resource management is able to collect more number of candidate’s application through intranet.

On the other hand, it is seen from the Graph 4, the percentage of employees have increased that help the human resource management department to perform their task effectively. The better internal communication helps the HR department in work force planning, analysing and describing job, deciding wages and salaries, recruitment and selection, appraising performance, training and development, providing employee welfare and motivating employee, maintaining relations among labour and management, etc. Therefore, it helps in better control and management of the work force that support the organisation to have a high quality production with least wastage of resources.

Objective 3: To investigate the role of social media in transferring the information

The social media is effective in making communication with the employee or with the customers as well. The companies like Sainsbury, ASDA, etc are adopting social media to communicate with the employees working at different departments. The one employee of company can message to other employee through Whats App or Twitter without having physical movement. On the other hand, cost effectiveness of social media eases the burden of company to use social media as medium for conversation with the workers. It can be linked with the Graph 6 that there has been significant increase in the use of social media in UK. The top most social site that has been used in UK is Linkedln followed by Facebook and Twitter. The survey of Social Media Market Research on 500 private firms revealed that use of corporate blogging has helped them to gain higher traffic of employees and supply required information effectively to the workers. The performance and productivity of the employees have improved due to use of social medium within the internal structure of the organisations.

Objective 4: To understand the leadership factors for enhancing the employee’s performance

The leaders of an organisation are effective in motivating the employee to give their best effort in increasing the productivity of the company. The capability and skills of leaders is essential in understanding the behaviour and needs of the employees so that proper guidance can be provided to the workers. The factors of leadership such as active listening, building relationship, authenticity and honesty in attitude, etc is supportive for the employees to communicate with the leaders and solve their issues in best possible manner. The leaders have to take strategic decision during worst situation that helps in controlling the behaviour of employees while performing the task or behaviour with other working groups. The two-way communication skills of the leaders help in having better conversation with the individual workers. On the other hand, extrovert approach of the leaders is comprehensive in building friendly relationship with the workers.

The role of leader is more in supervising the new hire in order to guide them to perform the work in desired manner with minimum wastage. Therefore, it helps in increasing the knowledge and performance level of the workers. The Graph 8 shows that the growing potential of leaders of an organisation have increased in UK that helps in ejecting better and quality performance from the lower level employees. The leadership role in the organisation is very important to manage the movement of workers and providing best guidance to workers that can increase the income and sales of the company.

Recommendations

  • The company can use the electronic mail to deliver the message or information to the employees. The use of electronic mail can be fast that can reach to the individual worker within a minute so that information can be used in the work progress. Therefore, the work of an organisation can be carried in a set time so that production can be achieved in right target as per the set plan.
  • The company to provide information to the employees can adopt the All in One System approach. The company can place all instruction related to work in one place from where the employees of different organisations can gain necessary data to perform the task. The particular approach can be helpful in providing notice related to holidays, announcement of bonus and other related information at one place.
  • The company can work more effectively by leveraging technology and can help in transforming internal communication at better stage. The company can adopt cloud-computing techniques such as Salesforce.com, Smartsheet.com and Google Docs that can help in sharing the information from one company to other company. Therefore, information can be easily accessed for using in the marketing or building strategy for the company.
  • The Employee Relationship Management can be supportive to build better relationship with workers. The management of relationship can be helpful in sorting out the problems of employee and the management of company can provide best solution. Therefore, it can help in building trust and strong bonding between the employee and management.
  • The leadership development programmes such as skills and behaviour development programmes or mentoring coaching can be effective for developing the skills of leaders. Therefore, it can help in developing the knowledge and capability of leaders in handling large number of employees.
  • The company can adopt mobile technology in order to communicate with the employees in quick sessions. The operational efficiency can be improved that can ensure better productivity and flow of information in the organisation. The company can better engage the employee, as most of the employees are capable of using mobile. Therefore, internal communication can be effectively improved.

Future Scope of study

 
 

The purpose of the study was not completely attained due to occurrence of some limitations. As, the study is based on the total companies of UK, therefore, the study was not presented on accurate note. The study could have been better if the companies would have one line of industry. The social exchange theory and McLuhan’s media theory can be adopted for analysing the social media in the organisations. The understanding the concept of internal communication in a broader term can be helpful in carrying the research work in most effective manner. The comparative study can be helpful in analysing the two or more industry so that strategy of companies can be known in enhancing the internal communication via social media and leaders. The leadership theory such as Trait Theory, Situational Theory, etc can be helpful for understanding the skills and capabilities of leaders in guiding and motivating the employees.

Reference List

Books

Argenti, P. (2007) Corporate Communication. 4th ed. NY: McGraw-Hill.

Bakker, A. B ,Schaufeli, W. B, Leiter, M. P. and Taris, T. W. (2008) Work Engagement : An emerging concept in occupational psychology.

Creswell, J.W. (2013) Qualitative inquiry & research design: choosing among the five approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Crouch, C. and Pearce, J. (2012) Doing Research in Design - Page 68, 2nd ed. London: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc.

Crouch, S. and Housden, M. (2012) Marketing Research for Managers, 3rd Ed. England: Butterworth-Heinemann Publications

Dul, J. and Hak, T. (2012) Case Study Methodology in Business Research, 3rd ed. Oxford: Elsevier

Flick, U. (2007) An Introduction to Qualitative Research. 3rd ed. London: Sage Publications Ltd.

Hassan, A. B. and Bahtiar, M. (2009) Relationship between Superior-Subordinate Communication and Working Relationship: A gender Analysis.

Jackson, S. L. (2009) Research methods: a modular approach, 7th ed. Bedford, London: Thomson Learning.

Jacquie, L. E. (2008) Public Relations Concepts, Practice, Critique, London: Sage Publications

Kliem, R.L. (2008) Effective communication for project management, Florida: Auerbach Publications

Lyn, S. and Pamela, M. (2008) Effective Internal Communication. 2nd Edition, London: Cogan Page Limited

Northouse, P. (2013). Leadership Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc.

O'Kane, P., Hargie, O., and Tourish, D. (2006). Communication without Frontiers: The Impact of Technology Upon Organizations. London: Routledge.

Saunders, M. N., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. (2009) Research methods for business students, Page 52, 5th ed. Harlow: Prentice Hall

Shahrina, M. N., Mohammed H. and Zulkipli, G. (2011) Strengthening Internal Communication: A Case of Communication Satisfaction in an Organization

Tharenou, P., Donohue R, and Cooper, B. (2007) Management research methods, New York: Cambridge University Press

Toth, L. E. (2007) The Future of Excellence in Public Relations and Communication Management, New Jersey: LEA Publishers

Wilson, A. M. (2012) Marketing Research, 3rd Ed. London: Prentice Hall

Journals

Ali, A. (2012) “The Role of Leadership in Human Resource Management – Proposing Conceptual Framework of Advanced Leadership Model”, Interdisciplinary Journal of contemporary research in business, 4(6), pp. 979-989.

Argenti, P. (2007) “How Technology Has Influenced the Field of Corporate Communication”. Journal of Business and Technical Communication, 20 (3), pp. 357-370.

Berry, G. (2007) “Can Computer-Mediated Asynchronous Communication Improve Team Processes and Decision Making?” Journal of Business Communication, 43 (4), pp. 344-366.

Bledow, R., Schmitt, A., Frese, M., and Kuhnel, J. (2011) “The Affective Shift Model of Work Engagement,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 96, pp. 1246–1257.

Brannen, J. (2009) “Prologue, mixed methods for novice researchers: reflections and themes”, International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches, 3(1), pp. 8–12.

Briggs, D. (2008) “Finding the Right Channel for your CEO”. Strategic Communication Management, 11 (3), pp. 13.

Cameron, R. (2009) “A sequential mixed model research design: design, analytical and display issues”, International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches, 3(2), pp. 140-152.

Chen, H. and Hung, S. (2010) “Systematic linking of organizational strategy, HR strategy and training strategy across OLC”, International Journal of Business Strategy, 10(1), pp. 104-115.

Christensen, M and Knudsen, T. (2010) “Design of decision making-organizations”. Management Science 56(1), pp. 71–89.

Christian, M.S., Garza, A.S., and Slaughter, J.E. (2011) “Work Engagement: A Quantitative Review and Test of Its Relations With Task and Contextual Performance,” Personnel Psychology, 64, pp. 89–136.

Dewhurst, S. (2007) “Key Findings from the Pulse Survey”. Strategic Communication Management, 11 (1), pp. 6-7.

Droppers, K. (2006) “Engage Employees with Effective Communications”. Rural Telecommunications, 25 (2), pp. 62-64.

Fu, P. P., Tsui, A. S., Liu, J., and Li, L. (2010) “Pursuit of Whose Happiness? Executive Leaders’ Transformational Behaviors and Personal Values”, Administrative Science Quarterly, 55(2), pp. 222-254.

Hamm, J. (2007) “The Five Messages Leaders Must Manage”. Harvard Business Review, 84 (5), pp. 114-123.

Holtz, S. (2006) “The Impact of New Technologies on Internal Communication”. Strategic Communication Management, 10 (1), pp. 22-25.

Kalla, H. (2007) “Integrated internal communications in the multinational corporation”. Helsinki School of Economics. ISBN-10, pp. 952-488.

Karatepe, O.M., and Aga, M. (2012) “Work Engagement as a Mediator of the Effects of Personality Traits on Job Outcomes: A Study of Frontline Employees,” Services Marketing Quarterly, 33, pp. 343– 362.

Mudor, H. and Tooksoon, P. (2011) “Conceptual framework on the relationship between human resource management practices, job satisfaction, and turnover”, Journal of Economics and Behavioural Studies, 2(2), pp. 41-49.

Nance, M. (2007) “The Role of Public Relations with Internal Activists”, Journal of Public Relations Research, 19(1), pp. 47–68.

Ralston, D. A., Egri, C. P., Reynaud, E., Srinivasan, N., Furrer et al. (2011) “A Twenty-First Century Assessment of Values Across the Global Workforce”, Journal of business ethics, 104(1), pp. 1-31.

Trahant B, (2008) “Six Communication Secrets of Top-Performing Organizations”, The Public Manager, pp. 68-75.

Weigelt, C. (2012) “Leveraging supplier capabilities: The role of locus of capability deployment” Strategic Management Journal, 34(1), pp. 1–21.

Welch, M., and Jackson, P. (2007) “Rethinking Internal Communication: A Stakeholder Approach”. Corporate Communications: An International Journal, 12 (2), pp. 177-198.

Zulfqar, A., Liaqat, A., Nazir, A., Zafar, A., Ishfaq, A. and Muhammad, M. N. (2010) “Satisfaction as an outcome of communication and organizational structures: An outcome based approach”, Interdisciplinary Journal of Contemporary Research in Business, 2(5), pp. 249-257.

Websites

Ijsrp.org, (2014) Impact of Internal Communication on Employee Engagement, Available from: https://www.ijsrp.org/research-paper-0813/ijsrp-p2059 [Accessed on 11th October 2014]

Instituteforpr.org, (2014) Internal Communication, Information Satisfaction and Sense of Community, Available from: https://www.instituteforpr.org/wp-content/uploads/White_Vanc_Stafford.pdf [Accessed on: 7th October 2014]

Managementhelp.org, (2014) Organisational Communications (Internal and External), Available from: https://www.managementhelp.org/organizationalcommunications/ [Accessed on: 9th October 2014]

Neoninc.org, (2014) Internal Communication Specialist (Employee Engagement), Available from: https://www.neoninc.org/jobs/InternalCommunicationSpecialist [Accessed on 10th October 2014]

Uaf.edu, (2014) Marketing and Communications, Available from: https://www.uaf.edu/marketing/internal/ [Accessed on 8th October 2014]

https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/32327/12-923-leadership-management-key-to-sustainable-growth-evidence.pdf

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