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Marzano's Method

The aim of this study is to identify the effects, both negative and positive, of Marzano’s vocabulary instructional strategies and methods on vocabulary process for students who are learning English as a second language. It is also concerned with language teacher’s performance in teaching, reading and vocabulary and the attitudes involved when performing the tasks (Wong, 2012).

The following are examples of steps in Marzano’s method: provision and availing description, vivid explanation or example of a new vocabulary, requesting students to restate the given description, explanation and description and giving examples in their own words, requesting learners to construct a picture, symbol or graphic depicting the term, regular engagement of learners in activities that assist them in improving their vocabulary and knowledge and ideas on the terms they learn from their classroom activities and notebook, periodical and consistently asking students to discuss the new learnt vocabulary with fellow classmates and finally engaging learners in games that assist them play with terms they learn in class (Robert, 2011).

The study is important as it concentrates on how to maximize each and every student learning and discourage ill motives towards learning achievements among students and learners of distinct groups. However, achievement disparities do exist mostly in the vocabulary reading, comprehending and general language learning. In addition improving literacy rates among learners highly involves teaching learners a rich academic and language vocabulary and terms which in turn increases the student’s comprehension skills and application of words (Ruby, 2014). In relation to Marzano’s teaching model, the advantage and importance of positive academic and language background knowledge not forgetting the reality that vocabulary awareness is a basic attribute towards it One of the greatest important services that educators can avail specifically for learners who are from a poorly disadvantaged upbringing is a gradual and systematic instruction in the desired language and academic vocabulary (Robert, 2013).

This study and research utilizes Marzano’s strategies and keenly analyses their exact effectiveness on English teacher’s performance in teaching reading and vocabulary development. There are particular learner responses that depict an instructional strategy is being effectively implemented. It is advisable that prior to implementing or trying strategies among students, it is necessary for the teacher to be aware of the types of learners behavior that shows that the strategy is yielding the required effects (Frasser, 2016). The general behavior that an educator might look for includes the learner’s complete personal assessments as allocated and Learners can illustrate the relationship between particular assessment and learning objects.

Importance of Vocabulary in Language Learning

Strategies describe particular actions that educators can take to enact ideas in the learning environment. Strategies can either be utilized individually or in combination to another. Each strategy must include a vivid description, list of what the teacher should perform, a combination of learners responses and suggestions for implementing the strategy to extra support. Extra effort demands teachers to take steps to facilitate implementation of the strategy effectively for all learners. Teachers who are responsible for undertaking a similar task and service to learners may decide to come up with common assessment criteria to seek feedback from students on specific topics (Brandon, 2015)

Critical and creative thinking-Critical thinking majorly involves seeking reasons behind various ideas and the precision behind it. It also demands the art of being open-minded whereas creative thinking relates to coming up with new combinations of ideas with an aim of satisfying a want (Thomas, 2014)

Thinking processes. It involves coming up with concepts and principles relating to the ideas of discussion and comprehending the formed concepts and principles. After comprehending, we proceed to the problem-solving technique where a solution to the specific challenge is formed and a decision is formed upon a future occurrence of a similar problem. A continuous and consistent research is done to improve the efficiency of solving the problem (Wilson, 2015).

Core thinking skills-It includes minor skills such as analyzing, classification, evaluation, comparison, assessment, identification, questions formulation and verifications among others (Marilee, 2014).

Connecting thinking to content knowledge- It involves the overall application of the above four dimensions to the original course of study and curricula (Harry, 2014).

Marzano’s model is a highly recognized research which has availed a model for teaching effectiveness. It elaborates strategies and avails to teachers and administrators ideas and methods to assist teachers to become more effective.

 Direction comprises of driving the student through a succession of explanations and repetitions of an issue or collection of information that expansion the student's capacity to get a handle on, change, and exchange what he is realizing. To put it plainly, the succession in which a student experiences materials inside a space of learning influences the trouble he will have in accomplishing dominance. On the off chance that beyond any doubt the typical course of scholarly advancement moves from idle through notable to the emblematic portrayal of the world, it is likely that an ideal grouping will advance a similar way.

Marzano's Dimensions of Thinking

Ideal successions: can't be indicated freely of the rule regarding which last learning is to be judged. An arrangement of such criteria will incorporate in any event the accompanying: speed of learning; protection from overlooking; transferability of what has been figured out how to new examples; type of portrayal as far as which what has been realized as far as intellectual strain forced; compelling energy of what has been realized regarding its generativeness of new speculations and mixes.

The direction is a temporary express that has as its protest made the student of issue solver independent. The mentor must right the student in a manner that in the end makes it workable for the student to assume control over the remedial capacity himself. Generally, the consequence of direction is to make a type of authority that is dependent upon the ceaseless nearness of the educator.

Marzano’s model also includes use of games and simulations in motivating student’s interests. It promotes physical activity of students in improving their understanding in class. Regular practice of academic-related vocabulary always helps students in expanding their learning. Use of technology instructions may also assist students to compare information to physical lives and form connections and relations to the previous learning. Coming up with rules, procedures and regulations at the start of an academic year help in creating a conducive classroom environment that encourages learning. Enabling effective and appropriate friendly relationship with students may also form a key to effective teaching. Communicating high expectations helps in making sure majority of the students participates hence encouraging learning in the classroom. A teacher who relates their lessons to the real happenings of the real world promotes the effectiveness of the lesson (Robert, 2014).

Presence of attitudes and perceptions among students facilitates efficient learning. There exist two natures of attitudes and perceptions that influence learning. The two categories majorly influence the learning climate and classroom tasks. Efficient learning involves reinforcement of this attitudes and perceptions by teachers continuously and consistently during the learning period. Teachers should equip themselves with techniques and strategies for implementing these attitudes and perceptions to yield a transparent and positive outcome among students and they are part of it (Thomas, 2013).

Perceptions and attitude about learning climate highly entail terms and factors external to the learner for example, quality, and quantity of available learning resources and the physical environment of learning rooms. Learning climates either form positive mental learning attitude or unconducive mental learning perception. Student’s comfortability and order also performs a major role in building students classroom confidence and composure (Katie, 2014).

Theoretical Framework

Teachers always use specific classroom techniques to achieve classroom task beliefs. Learners must ensure that tasks that they are required to perform have value, they have a clear understanding of the tasks they are required to perform and finally, they are in a position to access the necessary resources to achieve the success of the same tasks (Addison, 2014).

There are two distinct of knowledge which includes declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge. Declarative knowledge entails what students or learners are aware of or understand in relation to topic of discussion e.g. punctuation rules, what is a denominator and so on while procedural knowledge is the capability of learners and their efficiency in doing it e.g. multiplication and addition of numbers and fractions, arranging a text in paragraphs and so on (Thomas, 2014). Most tasks for learners frequently involves both types of knowledge concurrently when solving problems making it more important for learners to equip themselves with both pieces of knowledge (Isabel, 2014).

The experimental inquiry is a special type of problem-solving that is controlled by rules and regulations of processes and proves. It is also a criterion for coming up and testing hypotheses with an aim of understanding physical or psychological ideas. The Scientific method is the most well-known type of experimental inquiry. It is majorly away answering questions about nature and it entails the following six steps;

  1. identifying a question or a problem
  2. inquire and collect information related to the problem or question
  3. generate a hypothesis that elaborates the problem
  4. Conduct an experiment and gather more information to test the validity of the hypothesis.
  5. Get rid of or adjust the hypothesis to fit with the outcome of the experiment.
  6. Generate, support or cast a doubt on a scientific theory if the hypothesis is found to be true or false (Robert, 2014)

A learner may hypothesize those students who start schooling later in the day achieve better results compared to those who begin early. She/he can conduct a research and gather related evidence of which learners begin school early, which ones commence school late, and what their outcome is. These forms facts and no one should disagree with the outcome and her/his findings (James, 2015).

Teachers educate and reinforce productive habits of mind through modeling self-regulated, critical and creative nature of thinking. The following improves and results to productive habits of mind;

  1. The primacy of self-discovery: Learning is well achieved with emotions, challenge, and relevant support. Learners discover their abilities, values, responsibility, and passions, in occasions that deliver adventure. A teacher’s primary role and the task are to assist and make sure students overcome their fears and realize they can pass they think they can (Robert, 2014).
  2. The responsibility of learning; Learning is a personal procedure of discovery and social activity. Al individuals learn through groups or individually. Every aspect of learning should encourage learners and adults to adopt increasingly the art of being their own personal and collective learning habits (John, 2015).
  3. Possession of wonderful ideas; Teaching in the modern world focuses on curiosity about the world through forming situations which provide an idea necessary to think about, time to experiment and the time to generate sense and reason of what is observed (Eric, 2014)
  4. Empathy and caring; Learning is best achieved in an environment where both teachers and learners’ ideas and trust are respected by all concerned parties. This ensures emotional safety (Robert, 2012).
  5. Success and failure; Success frequently build on student’s confidence and courage to take a risk and attain difficult challenges. It again important for students and teachers to learn from their failures (Donna, 2012).

It is mainly concerned with three main distinct topics and their role in promoting learning;

Integrated instruction- It involves two types i.e. integration of content and language and integrated curriculum. Integration of content and language aims at teaching language and school subject taught in that language while integrated curriculum integrates all areas of development in all physical, emotional, social and cognitive fields (Kadhir, 2014).

Developmentally appropriate practice- It is majorly an educational practice that entails a difference in age, the growth patterns of individuals and cultural alignments (Larry, 2014).

Bruner's Theory

Assessment-This method must reflect the ideologies on which an academic background for the syllabus is based (David, 2013).

There are five strategies that influence learner’s ability to comprehend text which include Clarification of what is significant, explain to learners  various edition structures, assist students to identify layers, encourage explicit representations, evaluate essential terms and finally make sense of the text   

A highly effective teacher always has an inspiring impact on the daily educational life of a learner and dream career. Spoken capability, knowledge on content, academic knowledge, accreditation status, awareness on how to apply various teaching strategies skillfully and interest on the subject symbolizes a more successful teacher (Robert, 2016).

The following are some of the abilities of an effective teacher:

  1. Have been on teaching field for a minimum of three years
  2. Is equipped with an official teacher preparation training session
  3. In possession of certification and is recognized within the teaching field
  4. Should be caring, fair and respectful to all learning stakeholders
  5. Hold high moral possession and expectations for themselves, students and entire education fraternity
  6. Allocate extra time on instructional preparation and consideration
  7. Major on instructional time through classroom administration and organization
  8. Encourages instruction by differentiating strategies, accomplishments, and tasks
  9. Avail content to students in a clear manner that triggers understanding.
  10. Supervises students learning criteria by making sure application of pre and post assessments, providing timely educational feedback and re-teaching material to learners who did not understand various concepts
  11. Explain effectiveness in consideration of divergent student capabilities in their learning environments not considering specific academic capability of individual student

 Instructional strategies when implemented perfectly can result in a positive gain in achieving student understanding of concepts such as identification of similarities and differences, note taking and summarization of concepts and effort reinforcement. As teaching will always remain an art, teachers should always apply scientific aspects of it to trigger easy understanding among students (Areas, 2014).

To promote teacher effectiveness, teachers need feedback not strictly on act teaching but also on the outcome of teaching. The timely feedback is vital for quality improvements. Educators are always responsible for student learning but the field, in general, has maintained their lack of support through assessments. The solution, however, is to develop fair and reasonable ways of conducting teachers assessment on service delivery (Donna, 2015).

Vocabulary knowledge is the most important factor resulting in reading and understanding a comprehension. In addition, many research-based strategies and instructional procedures are availed to increase the vocabulary development of students with learning difficulties categorically in reading a comprehension (Vckii, 2013).

It is a technique of obtaining new word to apply in the daily life and more categorically, the common ground on learning a new language. It assists learners to learn the meaning of different words and terminologies and concepts in various contexts and across academic fields. It also assists students to understand the meaning of words and how they are used independently. It is important for both spoken and non-verbal vocabulary development for learners to increase their understanding capabilities of complicated and complex texts (Nancy, 2013).

There always exists a strong correlation between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Learners need to understand the meaning of all words in an extract so as to be able to comprehend the message in the text. Vocabulary knowledge and background knowledge will often assist students to understand whatever they read. Students who don’t read frequently will possess poor reading skills and disabilities compared to their peers who read frequently (Jim, 2015)

Marzano's Model and Effective Teaching

They include the following:

It helps students in activating and building background knowledge to contemplate texts and possessing vocabulary knowledge also increases reading comprehension and fluency during reading (Hererra, 2015). It also increases and improves writing skills and speed. Vocabulary instruction also creates knowledge of other more words meaning through known roots and prefixes (Jim, 2014). Subject areas such as mathematics, science, geography, and language arts always require content specific vocabularies, I.e in geography, a learner must be aware of vocabulary such as longitudes and latitudes, maps and topography to grasp a full understanding of the text (Robert, 2015).

The following steps should be considered by educators in teaching new vocabulary:

It is a necessity for teachers to make sure that their students:

  • Listen to their teacher fluently give a student-friendly definition of a word and sees the teacher uses the vocabulary
  • Take advantage of using the new vocabulary while the teacher is there to help with the complicated parts and is maintaining contact with the students in the classroom to make sure the words are used correctly and avail corrective feedback
  • Are provided with opportunities to explain and refine meaning and how to use words in the company of peers i.e. students teaching other students how to correctly use a vocabulary or oral language.
  • Regular practice of usage of a term in independent reading, writing, discussions, and assessment.

The vocabulary teaching steps can be summarized into; explain, restate, show, discuss, refine and reflect, apply in learning games (Felder, 2015).

Teachers should discourage learners from looking up a word in the dictionary as it is not useful in teaching new vocabulary but rather avail student friendly description, clarification, or example of a new term, and restate. Then request the students to construct pictures, symbols or drawings representing the word. Finally, engage them in activities that periodically assist them to add to their knowledge of vocabulary through identifying synonym and antonyms (Linda, 2014)

Effectiveness of training teachers on how to employ Marzano's Research-Based instructional strategies on their performance of teaching reading comprehension and vocabulary

English language learners are the large and fast-growing population in the entire world and physical education is supportive as it has features to facilitate education for new English language learners. These features include physical interaction with the English language, the use various and different multiple mediums to present information and ideas, utilization of opportunities to elaborate language comprehension via physical expression and easy to understand methods, a less distractive learning environment for language performance and a wide and large intensity of interactions and involvement in group learning with other students.

These include the following:

  1. Metacognitive development: This entails providing learners with skills and vocabulary relating to their learning. It includes; self-examinations, taking notes, techniques for studying and assignments on vocabulary and terminologies (Kelly, 2014).
  2. Bridging: It involves reducing the gap between learner’s prior knowledge and the material, i.e. quick writes (Douglas, 2014).
  3. Contextualization:  This is the art of awareness of unknown concepts through direct and physical experience. Examples include demonstrations and illustrations, media, repetitions and manipulative (Sam, 2014).
  4. Text performance: This relates to inviting students to adjust understanding of the text and use them in another new form. Examples include, games, videos, and learner created drawings.
  5. Molding: It is the art of speaking slowly, softly and clearly. Molding the language you intend learners to use and not forgetting provision of samples of work (McKeown, 2013).
  6. Schema formation Involves assisting learners to actualize interrelation between concepts.  Examples include, compare and contrast of ideas, peer and group teaching, jigsaw learning and projects (Gail, 2013).
  7. According to literature, it is adamant that supporting learners use original language assist them to comprehend and easily learn English. It facilitates faster growth of brain in areas related to language, attention, and memory (John, 2011)
  1. Get informed of your English language learners and their capability in English. This can be obtained from social workers, guidance counselor or school administration.
  2. Set high expectations for all students or learners.
  3. Promote multicultural education throughout the entire curriculum as opposed to holidays.
  4. Conduct frequent assessments and utilize the background knowledge of learners and use already learned students as helpers (Rosemary, 2015).
  5. Always learn to pronounce names of students correctly to help develop a relationship, in situations you are in a doubt, ask in private if necessary.
  6. Implement use technology such as class and school websites, videos and blogs
  7. Always avoid testing completely in English as this may make students not be able to exercise their learning in a second language.
  8. Frequently utilize classroom timetable and routine and play music and videos if necessary
  9. Apply structured note-taking formats such as teaching and viewing comprehension strategies (Robert, 2011).
  1. Avoid longer sentences and taking your speech slow, avail tenses of words, synonyms, examples, symbols, and gestures.
  2. Always prevent expressions, slung and sayings used geographical destinations, for example, united states
  3. Implement use as many mediums to portray and convey information. Examples include, written, verbal, videos and drawings.
  4. Use metaphors and imagery for cues (Miller, 2015).
  1. Adopt use of visual displays, easy to carry billboards and posters during instructions give.
  2. Create displays of high transmitted words for a specific unit arranged alphabetically (Robert, 2012).

The term attitude logically refers to an activity subjective to mental preparation to perform a specific action. It identifies what an individual will hear, see or think. Generally, teachers should possess a good and positive attitude towards learning process so as to build on student’s confidence and composure. Attitude can both produce negative and positive aspects depending on the attitude depicted by the teacher or English learner (Richard, 2016).

Promoting Positive Attitude towards Learning

Whatever words that come out from a teachers mouth plays a major role in the learning process than the ideas the might be teaching. In addition, it might also have crucial impacts on the learner’s feelings towards learning English as a language and the rate at which he or she learns the language (Millie, 2013). At times teachers find themselves doing or speaking about issues that destroy learner’s progress in learning without knowing. Examples include:

  1. Separating a English language student in a separate room to silently work on a comprehension for hours or assigning the student work that is highly below his or her level with an aim that the student will be kept busy since she or  he can’t do the work that the rest of the class might be doing (David, 2015).
  2. Positive strategy; make attempts of ensuring the student feels she or he is part of the class by allocating her or him a similar assignment that the rest of the class are doing (Frank, 2011).
  3. Shouting at a student when you feel she or he might be dozing off or losing the attention of the class by not responding immediately (Smith, 2011).
  4. Positive response; make the English student get seated next to you so that you can gently tap his arm or shoulder to attain his or her attention.
  5. Jokingly saying demeaning and or inappropriate statements in presence of English students, for example, telling other teachers that the student cannot perform a simple task or understand a concept.
  6. Positive response; to avoid the tendency of problems and challenges arising and to raise the self-esteem of a student to allocate students tasks that can make them feel important and show them that they can do something (Arthur, 2012).
  7. Intentionally failing to call on or excluding the English language student in class sessions.
  8. Positive response; every student in the class should be involved in class sessions and discussions regardless of skills in the language (Weller, 2013).
  9. Actions of an educator or teacher do not only assist the English learner but also encourages the other students present in the class to be informed how to pass information with fellow English language students hence improving the relationship between the students and making strong the feeling of group and joint learning. In addition, it will eventually transform the classroom into a jovial and productive learning environment for learners (Nashion, 2013).

An approach is regarded as a theory describing language learning. It can also be regarded as a viewpoint of how people generally learn in an educational environment. It can be psychologically focused, for example, behaviorism and cognates (Pauline, 2013). Some are also based on idealism and realism. Most approaches are complicated and hard to define since they are broad in scope. An example of an approach that results in a method would likely be an idea of scholasticism in the field of psychology. Each of these ideas encourages the development of the mind in a manner of a muscle (Robert, 2015).

 Brain training enables a learner capable of doing several things. A method is an application of an approach in the idea of language learning. Grammar translation is a relevant example of a method. This method implements the memorization of different grammar rules and the translation of a second language article to the learner’s original language. Students become aware of the language through continuous criteria of obtaining the rules of the language. This idea not to criticize the method but to elaborate how it was generated from the approach that mind requires being consistently trained through intellectual exercises to be able to achieve a task (Norbert, 2014).

Where else, procedures are steps by step regulations to perform a method. These step by step regulations in language learning include students remembers grammar rules, learners mistakes are corrected by provision of correct answers, the class reads an article provided in the second language, learners translate the text from the second language to their original language and Grammar rules are provided to the learner from which they apply it to new vocabulary (Michael, 2014)

Conclusion

The teaching of a language entails approaches that result to methods; methods are further broken down into procedures, and procedures that include collections of techniques. Educators should understand how these concepts and ideas correlate and can assist to know the logic behind the choices on why and how they decide to teach. In addition, teachers should adopt positive teaching attitudes regularly during provision of their teaching service to learner’s specifically new language students since it assists students to build on self-confidence and self-esteem. Teachers must also conduct a regular assessment to students to check on their understanding about ideas, new vocabulary in relation to what has been learned in classrooms and motivate group learning and practice at the individual level. Students must also observe and always adhere to language learning rules and regulations so as to facilitate and make it easy to learn a language efficiently. Stakeholders in language learning should also facilitate the learning process by enabling favorable learning environment and availing adequate resources that encourage learning of a language.

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