Organisational behaviour can be defined as the study of both individual behaviour and group behaviour in context to social and organisational level that helps in creating a great workplace where people are happy to work. Therefore organisational behaviour is related with the study of company and the workforce operating in them (Greenberg, & Baron, 2008). It deals with study of individual human behaviour in the workplace environment, the interface between individual human behaviour and the company and interaction between team members. The four key concepts related with organisation behaviour are the organisation structure, organisation culture, leadership theory and motivation. This four concepts influence the three perspectives namely individual, social and organisational level to create a great workplace where people are happy to work (Greenberg, & Baron, 2008).
Individuals in organisations
Organisation comprises of different individual who join together to achieve the organisational goal. Human behaviour is complex and it differs from one individual to another and the challenge of an organisation in the process of achieving goal is matching efficiently the task to done, the manager who assigns the task and the employees who execute the job (Robbins et al., 2013). The general process in the workplace is manager analyze the task and decide the manpower requirement based on skill required and the team assembled needs to complement the skills of each other. It leads to creating a competent team that can work without conflict creating a great workplace where people are happy to work. In the practical situation the manager needs to use the available resources in the company to execute the task at hand (Robbins et al., 2013). In this process the manager needs to possess the insight to evaluate the differences in the behaviour of individual at the workplace and indulge them judiciously to enhance the synergy and achieve the goal. The various factors that influence individual behaviour in organisation include
Abilities – Ability can be defined as natural or learnt quality in a person. It can be divided into mental ability and physical ability and various task in the workplace need various level of the ability. Mental abilities signify the intellects, deductive reasoning, analytical and verbal comprehension, and memory (Ivancevich, & Matteson, 2011). Physical abilities signify stamina, muscular strength, body coordination and motor skills. An individual’s self awareness with regard to own abilities decide his reaction towards the task while the perception of manager with regards the abilities of employee decides the task assignment to the employee (Ivancevich, & Matteson, 2011).
Gender – The research state there is no difference between men and women with respect to mental abilities and job performances while the society state difference between the two (Bock et al., 2005). However in context to factor of absenteeism there is a marked difference as women are primary caretaker in the home.
Race – When workplace and society exhibit significant diversity then race and culture play a role in influencing and stereotyping and attributing behaviour related with race and culture are general mistakes that impact individual behaviour (Bock et al., 2005).
Perception – Perception is guided by sensory stimuli and people develop different perception about similar situation and leads to conflict in the workplace. It needs to be understood by manager with respect to individual behaviour (Adler,& Gundersen, 2007).
Attribution – Attribution is the process whereby manager observes behaviour and decide it cause with reference to the personality and situation of an individual .It uses consensus, distinctiveness and consistency (Adler,& Gundersen, 2007).
Attitude – It signify the learnt response of an individual and his total cognitive experience for a course of time. It influences the behaviour of individual in the workplace.
Personality – It is stable psychological attribute that makes one individual differ from the other and it develops in a person over a period of time (Adler,& Gundersen, 2007).
Work group (Social) in organisation
The social perspective in the workplace in related with work group in the organisation. In the organisation most of the work done is team work and the manager identify a team based on the skill and knowledge and job requirement. Work group or work team exist in the workplace in diversity of types and size, it exhibit different context, function, department, internal processes of the company and external linkages to the environment (Podsakoff et al., 2009). Work groups are
- Can be association of two or more individuals in the workplace.
- Are present to deliver tasks relevant to the organisation.
- Can have one or more shared goals.
- Indulge in social interaction in the workplace (Podsakoff et al., 2009).
- Tend to show interdependence related with task in terms of goals, workflow and result.
- Responsible for managing and maintaining boundaries.
- Are an integral part of the organisational context and set limit, control the team and interact with other groups in the larger entity.
The work group in the workplace exhibit defining characteristics and they are interaction with members in the group and work group leader, goals to be achieved by the group, interdependence on the member for achieving the goal, structure defining the roles and responsibility of member and unity (Podsakoff et al., 2009). The organisation structure, organisational culture, leadership and motivation play crucial role in the behaviour, work culture, performance and achieving the goal set for the work group in the workplace. A well managed work group create a great workplace where people are happy to work.
The organisational behaviour can be defined as the sum total of individual behaviour and group behaviour and how they interact and react in the workplace in the process of achieving the organisational goal (Bakker,& Schaufeli, 2008). Organizational behaviour is area of study that examines the influence exhibited by individual employees, manager, groups and structure and its implication on behavioural aspect within the workplace with the objective of implementing such information to enhance the performance of the organisation.
What is organizational behaviour?
Organisations are defined as social systems and it is a combination of diverse resources like human resources, physical resources, financial resources and technological resources. Organisational behaviour (OB) is the process of understanding and applying the knowledge and skill of people to use the other resources and create value for the shareholders (Bakker,& Schaufeli, 2008). It deals with human resources with the aim for creating benefit for human. The nature of organisation in the modern time is influenced by a complex set of forces and they people, structure, technology and environment. When people are recruited by the company to achieve the defined goals and objectives, it demands proper structure and culture (Robbins et al., 2013). They use the tools, machinery, gadgets and technology to perform in work groups and achieve the organizational goals. This entire process in influenced by the external environment. The nature of organisational behaviour is exhibited in the below diagram.
Models of organisational behaviour
There are five models of organizational behaviour and they are autocratic model, custodial model, supportive model, collegial model and system model. The rationale behind the OB Model is the power and managerial orientation of the manger in the workplace (Robbins et al., 2013).
In an autocratic model the manager entrusted with the management of the employees have formal authority and controlling power and takes all the decision (Ivancevich, & Matteson, 2011). It is based on rationale that managers are expertise and employees are people needing direction and guide.
The model work with the objective of taking care of the economic security of employees in the workplace by providing fair wages and benefits and it will help to motivate the employees and make him loyal to the company (Ivancevich, & Matteson, 2011).
This model is inspired by the aspiring leadership unlike other two model discussed above. It promotes the concept of manager –employee relationship and how manager motivate the employees in the daily task (Robbins et al., 2013).
This model promotes the concept of team work where all employees works as colleagues as implied by the name of the model. The manager creates positive work culture where all employees participate actively (Robbins et al., 2013).
This is the most contemporary model and promotes the concept of overall structure and team environment in the workplace based on the fact that every employee is different from other employee in terms of potential, talent, skill and ability (Lambert, Hogan, & Jiang, 2010).
An organisational structure can be defined as the process of allocating the task to employees and supervising and directing them to achieve the organisational goal. It exhibits the hierarchy in the organisation where the roles and responsibility of people are defined and the lines of authority, delegation, communication and control process is explained (Lambert, Hogan, & Jiang, 2010). The common organisational structure practiced by company is hierarchical or tall structure, horizontal structure and matrix structure and they explained in detail (Abdullah, & Ahmad, 2009).
Hierarchical or tall structure
This is an organizational structure where the company is organised in hierarchy structure and the top of the hierarchy signify higher authority and it decreases as it comes down. The major benefit of hierarchy structure is it has well defined roles and responsibility (Pleshko, 2007). The decision are made instantly at the top of the hierarchy but the communication process is slow as it needs to cross several layer. This sis more applicable in the traditional organisation indulged in manufacturing business.
Horizontal or flat structure
This is an organizational structure where the company has few layer in the hierarchy making the organisational structure flat. In this type of organizational structure the process of decision making needs to consider different group within a particular layer (Pleshko, 2007). The main advantage of flat structure is communication is fast and more effective as there are few layers. It is more popular in the skilled sectors like IT industry.
This is the most contemporary structure and it is based on fact that business use diverse human resource with a range of skills and they are sourced from different parts of function of the company (Boyle, 2007). The most common function include operation, production, human resource, finance, marketing and sales and they are classified into different teams to achieve the goals of the organisation. The major advantage of matrix structure is that it promotes specialization that is based on enhanced depth of knowledge and provides for selection of employees based on the need of the project (Boyle, 2007). The major disadvantage of matrix structure is related with chain of command that is increased due to different functional and project manager.
The organisation in the process of deciding the organisational structure needs to evaluate the operational efficiency of the chosen organisational structure (Abdullah, & Ahmad, 2009). It should also explore the human resource of the company in the best possible manner so that it helps to create a great workplace where people are happy to work.
Organization culture is the second key concept that plays significant part in the organizational behaviour. It is system of shared belief and value, and it governs the employee behaviour in the workplace. These shared value practiced by the employees have strong impact on the work culture, dress code and behavioural norms (Mosley, 2007). Organisational culture is related with the way employee interacts with other employee in workplace and outside and it differentiate one organization from other. Organizational culture can help the organization strategy or it can hinder. There are various culture defined by researcher in the field of organizational culture and the organizational culture examined in this essay is one that has link with the organisational structure and it explains four types of culture (Mosley, 2007).
According to this organizational culture the power and authority is managed by small groups or central senior authority and the control is represented by centre as depicted in the web. The advantage of power culture it helps in fast decision making process and it needs few rules and bureaucracy in the organisation structure (Bititci et al., 2006).
This is an organizational culture where the delegation of authority and power is guided by the highly defined structure. The organisation practicing role culture is related with hierarchical bureaucracies and in this the power is derived from the personal level compared to expertise. Control is guided by strict procedures, authority and roles (Bititci et al., 2006). The Organization using this culture depicts consistency in system. It is practiced by functional department.
This is a culture where company forms a team to execute a particular task. In this culture power is related with team having the expertise to deliver the task. It use small team and focus highly skilled job. It is generally lined with matrix structure (Milne, 2007).
This is the culture where all employees consider themselves superiors to the company and it lead to operational issue. It is based on fact that organization work as a group with common goal. It is effective where each individual bring some expertise (Milne, 2007).
Motivation is a psychological aspect for achieving the desired goals and objectives that directs the behaviour, control and elicits the individual. Ii is basically a driving force for the cause of an action to achieve that goal. So, this could be inferred that it increases the productivity and performance by performing at a higher level. Motivation is encouraging the individual to work effectively by driving the person towards the goal (Long, 2005). It is based on two sources:
It is an external reward of the outcome of the performance in terms of promotion, fringe benefits, security, work environment etc. It is both psychological i.e. praise and tangible i.e. money in nature. It can be hike in salary, incentives, promotion, gifts and other kinds of tangible rewards. From different considerations taking place pay is a crucial factor that can motivate or de-motivate an employee.
This is an internal pleasure that provides satisfaction from inside after completing the work by engaging the employees by rewarding them personally (Thomas, 2005). It is choosing of specific activity that provides satisfaction by making the employees feel happy in their work. It is an act of self that includes:
Relationship between Motivation and Organization Behaviour
Motivation is a part of OB for increasing the performance by motivating them in a positive manner by making them engaged (Yaney, 2008). The various theories used in this concept are:
This theory was framed by John Adam’s that sated that motivation is used for testing the fairness present in work is not on the basis of rewards they get from its output but, in relative to what other are being offered (Tracy, 2013). In this negative equity could play a part in case the employee is getting less paid for the same work the other person is getting paid more. Hence, the organizations should keep in mind that to treat the employee equally by having positive equity with the triggers used in outcomes.
Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Theory
This theory was propounded by Abraham Maslow that is based on five levels of hierarchies of needs and they are discussed below:
- Psychological Needs satisfying the basic requirements such as shelter, water and food
- Safety Needs i.e. security in both workplace and home
- Social Needs is the forming of relationships with groups, having acceptance and need for love
- Esteem needs is used for recognition, self-respect and acknowledgement
- Self Actualization Needs is developing oneself to the fullest by ensuring by meeting the potential (Taormina & Gao, 2013)
In organization a employee is passing the various stages by developing the needs as per the level for example: an employee who has attain the level of acknowledgement and recognition would not be motivated by rewards but, needs career opportunities and growth to be motivated.
Herzberg Motivation Theory
This theory focuses on two factors hygiene and motivators as if hygiene factors are presents it would not be felt but, in its absence it de-motivates the employee such as working conditions, relationship with co-workers, pay, company policies etc. The latter is motivating the employees to work like praise, roles and responsibility, the job itself etc (Sachau, 2007). This states that while working in workplace some factors causes satisfaction and dissatisfaction it is important to have effective policies for effective administration.
Thus, motivation makes the employee happy by making them satisfied with job and other contents by making it a great place to work.
Leadership plays an important role in promoting effective organizational behaviour in the workplace and creating a workplace where people are happy to work. Leadership is quality of manager to lead and guide the employees in the workplace (Schein, 2010). There are various style of leadership practiced by different company and they are autocratic style of leadership, participative style of leadership and laissez faire style of leadership.
Autocratic style of leadership
This is style of leadership where the manager assigns the task and closely monitors the performance of the team. The decision making is with the manager and employees are not involved in the process (Schein, 2010). It leads to fast decision but employees can feel left out and it result in lack of motivation.
Participative style of leadership
This is style of leadership where the manager promoted participative management and involves the employees in the decision making process. It leads to high motivation but can delay the decision making process (Kouzes, & Posner, 2006).
Laissez faire style of leadership
This is style of leadership where the manager promotes free rein concept and allows the employees to take decision process and solve the problems.
The company can create a workplace where people are happy to work by understanding the individual, social and organization perspective related the company (Kouzes, & Posner, 2006). It can further sustained by proper organizational structure, culture, motivation and leadership.
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