1a. The different frames of reference explaining the implications of each of the perspectives as a means for handling employment relations
Unitary frames consists the assumptions and values which state that occurrence of dispute amongst the employer and employee in the workplace is not anticipated. Though, disputes arise from the unique behavioural factors of the employees and employers of the same organization. Apart from unitary frames, pluralistic frames define that organization turns into various segments. Consequently, both these frames consist of a unique official head. As per the analysis, it is observed that both the frames are unique from each other but a pluralistic frame is adequate in terms of an organization because this also states the better employment relationships (Andersson, Curley & Formica, 2010).
Employee relations are described through both these frames i.e. unitary and pluralistic. These two explains the various ways through which relationship of employee and employer could be determined at NHS. Authority to take decision for the organizational benefits is provided under unitary frames to the employees of the organization and decisions are taken by them in relevance with the management of the organization. Hence, development of an effective and efficient relationship between employer and employee is crucial for business at NHS. Apart from unitary frames, there are other frames exists in the organization i.e. pluralistic frames and it states that various types and behaviors of people exist in the organizational workplace such as different attitude, beliefs, moral values and with unique behaviors. Under this approach, union trade plays the crucial role which helps the company to make operative decisions for the attainment of organizational goals. Apart from these functionalities and operations of these frames, it is analyzed that both of these are crucial in terms of developing employee relations within the organization. It also analyses the crucially of developing trade unions within the organization (Berman, et. al., 2012).
b. Assess how changes in trade unionism have affected employee relations in the UK.
Trade unionism is very important in terms of developing employee relations, whereas a small change in the process of trade unionism brings various changes in the relations of employees. Although, trade union helps the employees to convey their messages to the leaders and it helps them to avoid the disputes amongst them quickly and it also helps the organization to achieve common goals. Trade union memberships were declined in the 19th and 20th centuries. The main reason for declining the union membership was to protect the union assaulting as well as changes in the labor laws. It is often observed that employees demands for a good workplace and for extra benefits other than the basic salaries. Furthermore, in the 20th century, UK’s trade unions’ were regulated by the moderate new union models. Hence, it motivates the laborers to perform their activities effectively in the organization with a view to achieving adequate and efficient wages with an appropriate workplace. Besides these changes, the lot of changes were noticed in the trade unionism in coming years and its cause was also noticed on the employees’ relations in the NHS (Bianchi, 2010).
Apart from these changes, the following are some of the changes are described:
Legal and Political: Implementation and introduction of new laws, regulations, and etc. affects the employees' relationship in the NHS. For instance, an introduction of a new rule by UK government will motivate the employees to perform adequately and the rule states that every individual within the organization will get equal opportunity. Hence, this will create dispute situation between trade unions and the employers and this type of dispute may bring differences between the relationship of trade unions and the management (Bjerregaard & Lauring, 2012).
Technological: Introduction of technological factors in the workplace may lead to retrenchment of the employees because functionalities of the workers will be performed by machinery in more effective and efficient manner thus, it will develop dispute situation in the NHS. Hence, to avoid this, NHS needs to adopt some strategies through which employer-employee relationship could not get affected. In these types of situations, trade unions’ leader performs their functions which include the protector of a job of various workers and the mediator for conveying the workers’ messages to the management. Retrenchment of employees may lead to the strikes by workers and this will reduce the organizational goodwill as well as it will affect the performance of the NHS (Boxall & Purcell, 2011).
c. Explain the roles of the following key players in employment relations.
In every organization, various people play crucial role in the success of the organization. Without their talent and experience, an organization may not be able to achieve the position on which it is standing. The key people are employees, employers, government agencies, trade and the employee associations. Following is the description of these terms in respect of the organizational performance:
Employer: Employer is the person who is responsible for maintaining the effective relationship amongst the employees of the organization to avoid disturbance in the organizational performance. Apart from this, an employer is also responsible for arranging a better working environment for its employees. In the situations of disputes amongst the workers, an employer needs to interfere and determine the issue so that disputes amongst the employees of the NHS could be resolved at the earliest along without affecting the organizational performance with the dispute situations (Brewster & Hegewisch, 2017).
Employees: These are the crucial aspects of the organization because they help the organization to achieve its goals and objectives through working on the platform established by the management of the organization. In the scenario of NHS, workers need to follow all the rules and regulations established by the management to attain the adequate objectives. Through performing this function, effective relations could be developed amongst the employees and the employer as well as it will also help the organization to attain desired objectives.
Trade Union: Union provides the workers equal power for contributing their ideas for the performance of the particular task. Apart from this, union helps the workers to resolve their conflicts with the management of the organization. Under trade union leader focuses on maintaining and developing the relationship between employer and employee in order to reduce the disputes chances. Under this process, employees convey their issues to the trade union’s leader and they raise their voice against the employer. Following are the issues generally faced by employees:
- Collective Bargaining: Under this right, employees have the right to speak upon the work time and the payment given to them against the particular task. Hence, trade union helps those employees to put their terms in front of the employer so that appropriate payment can be taken in relevance with the task performed.
- Unfair practices: If any employee faces unfair practices performed or conducted with them then they could consult with the trade union to get resolved their issues.
Employer Association: It is an association consist of manufacturers, retailers, distributors and all other parties which are involved in the trading activities. This association takes care of the interest of all these parties and if any party feels assaulting, they can raise their complaint with the employers’ association to get it resolved (Bryant, 2010).
Government: This is the body which creates laws and regulations for organizations and expects them to follow in their workplace. These are issued with the perception to avoid unethical trade practices in the organization. For instance, an organization is providing some kinds of services to its users thus, all the rules need to be followed in relevance with the service provided by the organization.
2a. Explain the procedures an organization such as the NHS should follow when dealing with different conflict situations.
There are numerous types of techniques are available which can be adopted by the NHS at the time of resolving the organizational conflicts such as strikes. Impact of these conflicts will directly affect the organizational performance and to avoid these kinds of conflicts, an organization needs to implement some effective strategies through which these issues and conflicts could be resolved. Numerous issues have been facing by the NHS in relevance with the proving better services to its patients to cope with their requirements. Hence, it is the duty of the management of the NHS to allocate the available resources of the NHS in the appropriate manner to satisfy their patients' demands. Apart from this, a budget of the organization should be adequately allocated in all the areas of the organization to maintain the balance between the organizational activities. Combine disputes occur when the organization fails to allocate the resources amongst the different areas. Furthermore, appropriate training and counseling sessions could be conducted with the employees in order to provide adequate services to the patients. Apart from this, an organization may ask the employees to share their views to solve the organizational issues to maintain the consistency as well as to attain the organizational goals in an effective manner. Further, management needs to concentrate on the allocation of the work to the adequate one because the inappropriate manner of allocation may lead to inefficient results (Campa, 2015).
There are a number of conflicts situations that arises between an employer and an employee. Latent conflict is the first stage through which can be converted into the potential conflicts. The second stage is perceived conflict and under this stage, conflict reasons are absence and due to frustration between employee and the employer, this type of conflict arises. The other stage of the conflict is felt conflict and under this a serious argument may result in the conflict situation. Apart from this, manifest conflict situation also exists and under this type of conflict, one of the party stops responding and a frustrated situation may arise and it could be resulted into a conflict situation. The last stage of the conflict is conflict aftermath and under this stage, one of the parties is not satisfied with the compromise made between them and then latent conflict situation arise which results in the dispute situation again.
NHS needs to adopt some effective techniques through reviewing the workplace environment so that set of resolutions could be invented in order to resolve the conflicts as soon as possible. If the resolutions would not be implemented in the organizational workplace quickly, it may lead to the situations like strikes as labor will be disappointed and it will affect the overall performance of the organization. If organization's top level management fails to solve the conflicts, an alternative dispute resolving technique must be implemented in the organization which can reduce the impact of the conflicts. Although, NHS requires implementing some strategies which could create an effective workplace and NHS fulfills the needs and requirement of its employees as well as of its clients (Cole, et. al., 2014).
b. Explain the key features of employee relations with reference to this conflict situation.
Key features of the employee relations are of various types and to resolve the conflict situations, these features will be discussed below. In the NHS, disputes are arising due to improper allocation of the tasks to the workers and this is the major reason for conflicts arising. Due to this, an organization is not able to perform its activities adequately and due to this management needs to outsource the work or it is being performed by them only. It is wasting the time of the management as well as it is also raising various types of issues. This is affecting the organizational performance as well as it is also creating a negative environment within the organization (Covin & Wales, 2012).
Improper allocation of work: Conflict situations are arising due to improper allocation of a task and due to this, an organization is not able to perform up to the mark set up by the management of the organization. This is the main reason through conflicts situations are arising and due to this clients’ requirements are not being fulfilled (Zolin & Schlosser, 2013).
The disappointment of employees with NHS: It is occurring due to an implication of unique rules and regulations in the workplace. Along with this, allocation of the work is the major source of occurrence of the conflicts. Hence, it is affecting the organizational environment as it directly affecting the relationship between employers and employees. The basic requirement of the NHS is to resolve the conflicts for improving the organizational efficiency as well as to develop the appropriate workplace for employees (Ferguson, 2012).
c. Evaluate the effectiveness of the procedures followed in resolving this conflict.
Analysis of the effectiveness of the methods adopted by the NHS to resolve the conflict situations would be performed by the top level management of the organization. Adaptation of dispute handling procedures is the major sources through which conflicts could be resolved instantly. Apart from this, NHS is suggested to adopt some effective conflict resolution theories to develop an effective workplace along with the attainment of the organizational objectives. The management of the NHS has retrenched some effective techniques through which conflicts situations could be avoided in order to achieve the targets. Along with the allocation of the work to the right person, the adaptation of effective procedures will improve the performance of the NHS, as well as employee's relationship, will also be maintained. The organization needs to develop some policies in order to avoid this kind of situation which leads to the disturbance in the organizational performance. Hence, time to time reviews should be taken by the management from the employees as well as from the clients for the attainment of the objectives as well as to maintain the good relationship between the employer and employee. It is the duty of the top level management especially in the scenario of NHS to adopt effective policies for the betterment of the organization. The policies should be designed in such a manner which could be molded as per the dynamic environment of the organization. This will help the organization to attain its set targets constantly without facing any type of conflict situations (Hilliard, 2012).
The basic policy is being adopted by the NHS' management i.e. satisfaction of the employees' needs so that they could perform according to their adequate capability. This acts as the motivational techniques because it creates a positive image in the employees' mindset and they will start delivering their best performance. Collective disputes arise due to various reasons and the non-fulfillment of the employees' needs is majorly responsible for arising of these kinds of conflicts. The policies adopted by the NHS in order to attain the objectives are effective for both manners i.e. for solving the employer-employee conflicts as well as the collective conflicts situations (Hunziker, et. al., 2011).
3a. Explain the role negotiation plays when collectively bargaining as in this conflict.
Collective bargaining power to the employees creates various term and conditions in relevance with the pay and the work and they use this power in a negative manner sometimes to implement their unethical demands in the workplace. This is the activity performed by the employees is also included in the negotiation. Apart from this, the group of employee’s stands against the employers in order to keep their point of views in regards to the holidays, payment, work shift, etc. The same procedure had been followed in the workplace of the NHS where a collective barging tool is being used in the discussion along with the manager. Collective bargaining process requires a selection of a leader who can represent the employees and can put the collectively demands in front of the top level management. The process of selection of a leader is effective because all employees' could not put their demands in front of the employees. NHS employers are represented through NHS staff council and under these various health departments of UK exists. Hence, fulfillment of the employees' needs helps the organization to achieve its targets. Employees should be provided with adequate solutions to resolve their issues and it also helps the NHS employees to negotiate with the conflicts (Jonas, 2010).
It helps to reach to an adequate resolution: Representative of the worker union i.e. the leader selected by the workers will negotiate with the employers on employees’ behalf to reach to an effective solution to resolve the conflict situation. Maintaining effective relationship between employers and the employees, it is very important to sacrifice from both the ends otherwise it will create conflicts in the organizational workplace. Appropriate ways could also be created with a view to attaining the goals of the organization (Kail, 2010).
The effectiveness of collective bargaining process: Collective bargaining process plays the vital role in solving issues of the employees and employers and it also helps to maintain good relations between them in NHS. Employers could use the negotiation process and through this process, they can explain to employees about the practice adopted for the accomplishment of the goals. Hence, NHS has adopted the adequate allocation of the work and it is resulting in a positive manner for the NHS.
b. Identify various negotiation strategies and assess the impact of each strategy in light of this conflict.
As per the situation at NHS, it is analyzed that negotiation strategy has a huge impact on the conflict situations. All the conflict situations occurred in the business environment could be managed with the help of negotiation strategies. Various negotiation strategies are available in the business environment to resolve the conflict situation of numerous types. Compromising, forcing and smoothing are the terms which form the negotiation strategy (Kautonen, Van Gelderen & Tornikoski, 2013).
Compromising strategy helps the organization to resolve the issues in relevance with the employees as management of the organization analyzed the situation and as per that, adequate resolutions are established which could be accepted by both the parties for avoiding the disturbance in the business performance. Collective bargaining process is being adopted in the collective disputes situation (Williams, Abbott & Heery, 2011).
Hence, the basic work of the NHS is to provide better resolutions of the issues in relevance with motivating the employees as well as to enhance the allocation of work. Apart from compromising strategy, forcing strategy is also used in some industries to impose the decisions over the employees. In this situation, employees' demands are neglected and they are forced to accept the decision taken by the firm. Thus, it leads to collective disputes and other types of issues within the firm. Hence, before implementing the final decision within the organization in order to resolve the issues, adequate results should be assumed to avoid the efficiency of the organization (Klingner, Nalbandian & Llorens, 2015).
4a. Assess the influence of the EU on industrial democracy in the UK and how it is likely to change after UK exit the EU.
The approach of providing workers to control certain types of conditions over their working lives is offered under Industrial Democracy. As per this, workers have the rights to control the industrial decisions. Analysis of UK democracy is influenced by the European Union. The workplace of the industrial democracy is controlled and ruled by the workers as all the decisions are taken by them in order to make the work more effective and efficient. Legislation' impact over these types of democracy is bit high and it is framed by the European Union. EU provides the idea of implementing the role of employees in the workplace decisions as it is the most effective technique for achieving adequate results. Hence, NHS has adopted the policies issued by the EU in the UK industrial democracy to attain the appropriate goals and objectives of the organization. Nevertheless, numerous organizations haven’t implemented these policies in their workplaces and facing the issues like collective disputes such as strikes, lock outs, etc. (Kreiser, et. al., 2010).
In the industrial democracy influences due to various differences in the national and the cultural changes in the democracy. Hence, NHS’ management needs to adopt some practices in the workplace in the practices of decision making to make them involved in. This helps the organization to build the effective relationship amongst the employees and the employers which will lead to the attainment of goals (McCarthy, Darcy & Grady, 2010).
b. Compare various methods that are used to gain employee participation and involvement in the decision making process in any organization you are familiar with.
Amongst the numerous number of methods available with NHS for implementing in the decision making a process for the organization. Suggestion scheme, consultation, and survey are some of the methods included in the decision making a process for NHS. Consultation terms of the decision-making process are being used by the firm to gather the adequate participation from the employees and it is applied in relevance with the attainment of the objectives (Moore, 2014).This helps the employees to participate in the decision-making process so that effective objectives could be achieved. NHS’ employees are getting motivated with the adaptation of these types of policies and along with this, it boosts the confidence of the employees to perform even better. For the development of the total quality management, the adaptation of quality circles, empowerment and the team working needs to be adopted in relevance with the attainment of organizational goals and objectives. It is the part of the decision-making process as well as the involvement of the employees provides better results to the organization (Naudé, 2010).
Employee participation helps the organization to achieve growth and it also motivates employees. Employees get the opportunity in order to involve in the decision-making process and along with this process, appropriate and desired goals could be achievable in relevance with performing for an organization. After analyzing all the available methods of making the process smoother and effective, the adaptation of participation of employees in the process of decision making is quite useful and relevant for NHS in order to provide superior services to its patients. Hence, implementation of this kind of process makes the work of the business smoother as well as improved and it is effective and efficient in order to attain all the desired objectives and goals (Petroni, Venturini & Verbano, 2012).
c. Assess the impact human resource management approach has had on employee relations.
HRM i.e. human resource management is the corporate body of business which is responsible for managing and directing the workforce of the organization in an adequate manner to attain the desired goals for the organization in an effective manner. People involved in the department of HRM help the management to develop the policies and the rules which could help the other employees of the organization to interact with the top level management (Rozell, et. al., 2011). With the adaptation of these policies, a relationship between employees and the employers get improved. Human resource manager and the other person involved in this team are responsible for making a path for employees to communicate with the top level management i.e. employer and this medium includes social media platforms or internal communication system. This system helps the employees to convey their message to the upper-level management without any barrier (Stam, 2015). NHS has also adopted the same strategies and the policies in order to enhance the working procedures and the cultural environment of the organization. Human Resource Management of the NHS has been improving its functionalities since these policies and the rules have been adopted within the workplace of the NHS. This also develops a healthy working environment for the organization (Stefanovic, Prokic & Rankovi?, 2010). Due to an adaptation of these policies, management gets the desired goals and objectives which set ups a unique and identical place in the dynamic business environment. Employees feel free and a trustworthy thinking is built up in the employees’ mind for the organization. Motivational techniques are also adopted, reviewed and implemented by the HRM department of the organization. They are responsible for analyzing the demand for the employees and fulfill them to get them motivated towards the organizational work. NHS’ HRM department needs to adopt some effective policies in relevance with building result oriented process for the organization (Welter & Smallbone, 2011).
Andersson, T., Curley, M. G., & Formica, P. (2010). Types of Entrepreneurs. In Knowledge-Driven Entrepreneurship (pp. 131-152). Springer New York.
Berman, E. M., Bowman, J. S., West, J. P., & Van Wart, M. R. (2012). Human resource management in public service: Paradoxes, processes, and problems. Sage.
Bianchi, M. (2010). Credit constraints, entrepreneurial talent, and economic development. Small business economics, vol. 34 (1), pp. 93.
Bjerregaard, T., & Lauring, J. (2012). Entrepreneurship as institutional change: Strategies of bridging institutional contradictions. European Management Review, vol. 9 (1), pp. 31-43.
Boxall, P., & Purcell, J. (2011). Strategy and human resource management. Palgrave Macmillan.
Brewster, C., & Hegewisch, A. (Eds.). (2017). Policy and Practice in European Human Resource Management: The Price Waterhouse Cranfield Survey. Taylor & Francis.
Bryant, W. D. (2010). General equilibrium: theory and evidence. World Scientific.
Campa, D. (2015). The impact of SME’s pre-bankruptcy financial distress on earnings management tools. International Review of Financial Analysis, vol. 42, pp. 222-234.
Cole, K., Stevens-Adams, S., McNamara, L. and Ganter, J., 2014, June. Applying cognitive work analysis to a synthetic aperture radar system. In International Conference on Engineering Psychology and Cognitive Ergonomics (pp. 313-324). Springer, Cham.
Covin, J. G., & Wales, W. J. (2012). The measurement of entrepreneurial orientation. Entrepreneurship theory and practice, vol. 36 (4), pp. 677-702.
Ferguson, A. (2012). Gina Rinehart. Macmillan Publishers Aus..
Hilliard, A. 2012. Applying Work Domain Analysis to Scope Micro-or Scaled World Simulator Design: A Petrochemical Domain Case Study. In Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting (Vol. 56, No. 1, pp. 378-382). Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA: SAGE Publications.
Hunziker, S., Johansson, A. C., Tschan, F., Semmer, N. K., Rock, L., Howell, M. D., & Marsch, S. (2011). Teamwork and leadership in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 57 (24), pp. 2381-2388.
Jonas, D. (2010). Empowering project portfolio managers: How management involvement impacts project portfolio management performance. International Journal of Project Management, vol. 28 (8), pp. 818-831.
Kail, E. G. (2010). Leading in a VUCA environment: C is for complexity. Harvard Business Review. December, 3.
Kautonen, T., Van Gelderen, M., & Tornikoski, E. T. (2013). Predicting entrepreneurial behaviour: a test of the theory of planned behaviour. Applied Economics, vol. 45 (6), pp. 697-707.
Klingner, D., Nalbandian, J., & Llorens, J. J. (2015). Public personnel management. Routledge.
Kreiser, P. M., Marino, L. D., Dickson, P., & Weaver, K. M. (2010). Cultural influences on entrepreneurial orientation: The impact of national culture on risk taking and pro activeness in SMEs. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, vol. 34 (5), pp. 959-983.
McCarthy, A., Darcy, C., & Grady, G. (2010). Work-life balance policy and practice: Understanding line manager attitudes and behaviors. Human Resource Management Review, vol. 20 (2), pp. 158-167.
Moore, D. L. (2014). The Experience of Strategic Thinking in a Volatile, Uncertain, Complex, and Ambiguous (VUCA) Environment.(EdD), George Washington University.
Naudé, W. (2010). Entrepreneurship, developing countries, and development economics: new approaches and insights. Small business economics, vol. 34 (1), pp. 1.
Petroni, G., Venturini, K., & Verbano, C. (2012). Open innovation and new issues in R&D organization and personnel management. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, vol. 23 (1), pp. 147-173.
Rozell, E. J., Meyer, K. E., Scroggins, W. A., & Guo, A. (2011). Perceptions of the characteristics of successful entrepreneurs: an empirical study in China. International Journal of Management, vol. 28 (4), pp. 60.
Stam, E. (2015). Entrepreneurial ecosystems and regional policy: a sympathetic critique. European Planning Studies, vol. 23 (9), pp. 1759-1769.
Stefanovic, I., Prokic, S., & Rankovi?, L. (2010). Motivational and success factors of entrepreneurs: the evidence from a developing country.
Welter, F., & Smallbone, D. (2011). Institutional perspectives on entrepreneurial behavior in challenging environments. Journal of Small Business Management, vol. 49 (1), pp. 107-125.
Williams, S., Abbott, B., & Heery, E. (2011). Civil regulation and HRM: the impact of civil society organisations on the policies and practices of employers. Human Resource Management Journal, vol. 21 (1), pp. 45-59.
Zolin, R., & Schlosser, F. (2013). Characteristics of immigrant entrepreneurs and their involvement in international new ventures. Thunderbird International Business.