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A business research topic

Describe about the Final Research Proposal for Gambling Industry in Australia.

The research proposal investigates the gambling industry within Australia and its nature. It also investigates the people and the industry that benefit and the ones that lose because of this industry.  The result is obtained by investing the gambling industry within Australia. Gambling industry has its own benefit and consequences in Australia. Gambling is use of money for an event that is uncertain and whose outcome is not known. Many Australians are indulged in gambling activity. The research is based on individuals and groups that are attached with gambling sector. The highest rate of gambling is recorded in Australia. Approximately eighty percent of the Australians are indulged in some kind of gambling or the other. Four percent of the population in Australia spends sixty-two percent of the income in gambling annually. Very few people and agencies benefit from gambling while major part of the population faces negative consequences because of gambling (Barratt et al. 2014).  Various types of gambling are casino activities, pokers, lotteries, horseracing, internet gambling, match fixing and many more. Most of the Australians are indulged in gambling by playing poker. Gambling has both social and economic impact. The social impact of gambling includes crime, employment, heath issues, social capital issues and socioeconomic activity. The economic impacts of gambling include government revenue, personal income, business revenue and failure and infrastructure and regulator cost. The disadvantages of gambling are greater than benefits. Gambling is beneficial to government as it earns revenue in form of taxes charged on money earned from gambling. It is also beneficial to the hotels and bar owners as people who visit clubs to play gambling stay in hotels and purchase drinks that brings revenue to the hospitality industry.

The number of casinos and gambling industry is growing in Australia. According to Canale et al. (2015), Gambling has both social and economic cost in society. Eighty percent of the Australians are engaged in gambling which accounts for highest rate of gambling in the world. According to Posner (2013), the economic cost of gambling is higher than the social cost. Gambling as an impact on retail, tourism, and entertainment industry. It also has an impact on the commonwealth state and territory budget.

The gambling industries

According to Miller et al. (2016), Gambling is an activity of staking money in uncertain events that is driven by chance. It is more of consumption expenditure rather than investment because people are not certain about earning money by investing in gambling. Gambling has a high chance of losing money. The activities are speculative in nature. As said by Thomas et al. (2012), Gambling industries are the organizations that support the activities and services of gambling such as casinos, clubs, hotels, sports enterprises and lottery organizations. Most of the people are engaged in illegal gambling that is not registered.

A brief literature review

Key features of gambling industry

As opined by Markham and Young (2015), some of the key features of gambling industries and its recent expansion are as follows:

The expansion of gambling industries began with the spread of casinos and poker machines in clubs and hotels. The lottery products became more diverse which led to the expansion of sports betting due to the introduction of internet gambling.

Gambling has become more accessible and convenient, due to which the gambling industry is growing and expanding.

The introduction of electronic machines and an increase in tempo of gambling has led to a more frequent use of race meetings and lottery draws.

The involvement of large corporations and privatization of traditional gambling and lottery services has led to the expansion of gambling industries.

Promotion and advertisement of gambling has led to the expansion of gambling industries (Thomas and Thomas 2015).

Evolution of gambling industry in Australia

Australia has a long history of gambling industry. The country has made great contributions in the development of gambling industry. The ‘totalisator’ used in racing was invented in Australia. The country is also indulged in many legal manufacturing of gambling machines and occupies the top position in the world of technologies. In addition, the first internet regulated casino site was established in the Northern territory that was government regulated. However, legal gambling is only confined to lotteries and racing in most states. The gaming machines have been established only in New South Wales clubs. Legalization and technological development has led to the rapid transformation of gambling industry (Spurrier and Blaszczynski 2014). Gambling industries contribution to Gross domestic product of Australia is one and a half percent. Gambling industries has led to an increase in employment with restaurants, bars and hotels employing more of people. The percentage of female employees and part time employees is higher in gambling industries than male.

Benefits of gambling

According to Loh et al. (2015), the gambling industries also seek to satisfy the needs and the demands of the consumers visiting gambling houses. The benefits of gambling can be divided into two parts. The first part relates to consumers side while the second part relates to production side of gambling industries.

Benefits of gambling to consumers

The benefit of gambling to consumers is not measured in quantity or economic gain. It is measured in terms of pleasure and satisfaction that they derive from the activities of gambling. According to Harvey et al. (2015), many people gamble because of enjoyment that they gain from visiting clubs, risks, thrill experience and the social interaction. Many people gamble to seek entertainment win a hope of gaining some money in return. However, gambling is addiction to the gamblers. The benefit can be measured by recognizing the extent to which the consumers are better off.

The gambling industries

Benefits of gambling to producers

Gambling industry is beneficial to the producers both directly and indirectly. The benefits of gambling to the producers are in terms of income, jobs, expenditures and trade associations. Gambling leads to the generation of employment and the utilization of resources that could have been utilized elsewhere in other industries such as entertainment industry. The revenue generated from gambling is a taxable income and hence adds to the revenue of the economy that the government can use for the betterment of the country.

According to Gainsbury et al. (2015), the cost or loses of gambling is higher than the benefits. It has both the social as well as economic cost. The major impact of gambling is on the health and well-being of people. Gambling leads to loss of personal income. The social cost of Australia of problem gambling was estimated to be at least 4.7 billion dollars each year. The social costs of gambling according to Hing et al. (2016) are:

  • treatment cost and cost of curing illness
  • legal cost
  • psychological cost
  • family and friends physical and psychological cost

Gambling also leads to rise in crime and social and family tensions. People become addicted to gambling due to which they lose money. In some of the situations, they even do not have money to feed their families due to which crime rate rises. Gambling also often leads to decline in health and leads to rise in suicide.

Hence, gambling has more of a negative impact and is counted as a cost to society as well as economy. One percent of the adults in Australia experience significant health problems due to gambling.

The aim of the research is to investigate the gambling Industry within Australia and find out its benefit and losses in the Australian market. The research questions are explained in a descriptive approach that is based on the research conducted by the researcher. The research is done on the individuals and groups attached with gambling industry to find its nature and the impact of the industry. The investigation is based on the research questions that are as follows:

  • How did gambling industry evolve in Australia and what impact does it have on economy?
  • Which stakeholders benefit from gambling industry?
  • What are the consequences of gambling industry?

Research hypothesis

The null and alternate hypothesis defines the research hypothesis.

Null hypothesis H (0): The gambling industry has a negative impact within the Australian economy, which is greater than the benefits.

Alternate hypothesis H (1): The gambling industry has a positive impact within the Australian economy, which is greater than the negative impact.

To conduct the research and find the answers to the questions there are various methods available. The researcher has used descriptive approach for this particular research as all the answers are described descriptively. The researcher also uses exploratory study and analysis for this research. The researcher uses interpretivism research philosophy in order to test the validity of the assumptions taken to explain the research. The research is done on Australian gambling industry to find its nature and the impact of gambling industry. The research is done to find out the social and economic impacts of gambling in Australia. Two types of research method include qualitative and quantitative strategies. For this particular research, the researcher used quantitative study and analysis where the information for the research was collected from the consultative process (Field 2015). The research was also done through an online survey where the researcher prepared unstructured questions for the professionals involved with gambling in Australia. Inductive approach is used following quantitative strategy by preparing questionnaire that is investigated through consultative process and online survey.

Key features of gambling industry

Literature Review is due on Week 6.

Data Collection and Analysis Report are due on Week 10.

Final Research Thesis due on Week 14.

 Gantt chart

Figure: Gantt chart

(Source: created by author)

The research process highlights the research outline mentioning the research method and the outcome of the research. The entire research is conducted step by step from the beginning till the end of investigation. The first step is to identify the research topic and get it approved. The research topic in this case is investigation of gambling industry within Australia to find out the nature of the industry and its benefits and loses as a consequence of the industry.

The second step after research topic is literature review where the researcher presents the theoretical views of various authors. The third step is to decide the method of the research approach. In this case, the researcher uses quantitative strategy for the research. The research approach is descriptive and inductive in approach. It presents an exploratory study where the assumptions are formed to test its validity.

The researcher has used the secondary sources for data collection. The secondary sources include various Australian websites and research papers and journal articles. The data that is collected is analyzed using primarily interactive system and SPSS tool to test the validity of hypothesis. The population sample survey includes professionals of Australia that is involved with the gambling industry. The step by step procedure is followed according to the fundamental paradigm.

The two types of data collection method include primary and secondary sources. For this particular research the data is collected using the secondary sources. The research included secondary sources where the data was collected from various Australian official websites, government official websites, journals, articles, books, and previous research papers. Collecting data from secondary sources is more cost effective and less time-consuming (Creswell 2013). The researcher collected the data from the websites of the clubs that provide gambling services to the customers. Previous research papers were also studies to know the impact of gambling on  the people of Australia.

The next step after data collection is data analysis. The data that was collected was analyzed using various approach. The data from different sources were analyzed separately and the compared.  Primarily narrative  was used to analyze the data. The responses of the people were analyzed using SPSS software that was categorized and analyzed from a scale of one to ten. The analysis was further plotted in an excel sheet to obtain pie charts and bar diagram to compare and contrast the result and answer the questions. The entire research is based on identification of problem, conducting surveys, providing theoretical framework, and finally providing the solution.

Evolution of gambling industry in Australia

From the entire study and research, it is expected that the null hypothesis will be accepted while the alternate hypothesis will be rejected. This is so because the negative social and economic cost of gambling is higher than the economic and social benefits. Gambling has its major impact on the health of the people of Australia. The Australian government relies heavily on the tax for revenue generated from the gambling industry. This is expected to be the reason for the Australian economy to go backwards. Many people in Australia is involved in gambling, It is expected that the gambling industry is well developed in Australia both technologically and socially. Australia is advanced in the use of electronic machines and internet in the gambling industry. Government in Australia is trying to make changes in the trend of use of poker machine to make life easier and remove the ill effects of gambling. Poker is the most played game in Australia in the gambling industry while few people play it for entertainment and leisure while few are addicted and play it to satisfy their need for money. Gambling has its impact on tourism, and entertainment industry. Gambling leads to improvement of tourism sector as people who are addicted to gambling start visiting that place often. The revenue generated from tourism industry also increases. 

References

Barratt, M.J., Livingston, M., Matthews, S. and Clemens, S.L., 2014. Gaming machine density is correlated with rates of help-seeking for problem gambling: a local area analysis in Victoria, Australia. Journal of Gambling Issues, pp.1-21.

Canale, N., Vieno, A., Griffiths, M.D., Rubaltelli, E. and Santinello, M., 2015. How do impulsivity traits influence problem gambling through gambling motives? The role of perceived gambling risk/benefits. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 29(3), p.813.

Creswell, J.W., 2013. Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage publications.

Field, T., 2015. The benefits and limitations of quantitative data collection to the literature review data collection.

Gainsbury, S.M., King, D.L., Hing, N. and Delfabbro, P., 2015. Social media marketing and gambling: An interview study of gambling operators in Australia. International Gambling Studies, 15(3), pp.377-393.

Gainsbury, S.M., Russell, A., Hing, N., Wood, R., Lubman, D. and Blaszczynski, A., 2015. How the Internet is changing gambling: Findings from an Australian prevalence survey. Journal of Gambling Studies, 31(1), pp.1-15.

Harvey, P., Smith, D. and Bertossa, S., 2015. Gambling, society and the evolution of risk-taking.

Hing, N., Russell, A.M., Gainsbury, S.M. and Blaszczynski, A., 2016. A case of mistaken identity? A comparison of professional and amateur problem gamblers. Journal of Gambling Studies, 32(1), pp.277-289.

Loh, C.M., Deegan, C. and Inglis, R., 2015. The changing trends of corporate social and environmental disclosure within the Australian gambling industry. Accounting & Finance, 55(3), pp.783-823.

Markham, F. and Young, M., 2015. “Big Gambling”: The rise of the global industry-state gambling complex. Addiction Research & Theory, 23(1), pp.1-4.

McManus, P. and Graham, R., 2014. Horse racing and gambling: Comparing attitudes and preferences of racetrack patrons and residents of Sydney, Australia. Leisure Studies, 33(4), pp.400-417.

Miller, H.E., Thomas, S.L., Smith, K.M. and Robinson, P., 2016. Surveillance, responsibility and control: an analysis of government and industry discourses about “problem” and “responsible” gambling. Addiction Research & Theory, 24(2), pp.163-176.

Posner, E., 2013. Benefit-cost analysis for financial regulation. The American Economic Review, 103(3), pp.393-397.

Spurrier, M. and Blaszczynski, A., 2014. Risk perception in gambling: A systematic review. Journal of Gambling Studies, 30(2), pp.253-276.

Thomas, S.L. and Thomas, S.D., 2015. The Big gamble: the need for a comprehensive research approach to understanding the causes and consequences of gambling harm in Australia. Australasian Epidemiologist, 22(1), p.39.

Thomas, S.L., Lewis, S., McLeod, C. and Haycock, J., 2012. ‘They are working every angle’. A qualitative study of Australian adults' attitudes towards, and interactions with, gambling industry marketing strategies. International Gambling Studies, 12(1), pp.111-127.

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