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Internal Private IP Interface and External Public IP Interface

Discuss about the Future Network Systems and Security.

Virtual Private Network or VPN is the type of private network, expanded over public network that allows users to receive and send information and data over public network just like the computing systems are directly associated to the private network. The main benefits of VPN that the application obtains are the management, security and the functionality of private network [1]. Virtual Private Networks even enable the staffs to access the office internet even when they are outside the office. Starnet is an organization with two distinct sites, situated in Sydney and Melbourne. These two sites require interfacing amongst each other and interchanging data safely. VPN is the solution for their problem. There are various ways or several types of VPN to link the two sites for example IPsec.

The report outlines a brief description about the Virtual Private Network implemented in Starnet.  A table showing all the interfaces at each site is given here. The interfaces include Internal private IP interface and External public IP interface [6]. The report also describes what type of VPN is recommended for Starnet and the differences between Site to Site and Remote Access VPN. The benefit or advantages of both the VPNs are mentioned here. The report further clarifies the security features provided by VPN to protect and secure the data and the advantages and disadvantages of Virtual Private Network.

Site A and Site B of Starnet needs to be connected using the virtual private network. The implementation plan ensures that the local area networks or LANs at the both the sites are accessible with one another.

Internal Private IP Interface

External Public IP Interface

i) An internal IP interface is the address, which is allocated by the local network router and is utilized within a private network to discover the devices or systems linked with it [4].

i) An external IP interface is the address, which is also allocated by the local network router and is utilized over the complete Internet to discover computer systems and devices [2].

ii) A private IP interface is provided by several devices of network, for example the routers by utilizing Network Address Translation or NAT

ii) Such feature is unavailable in external public IP interface.

iii) These types of IP interfaces cannot be contacted directly over the network.

iii) Public IP interfaces can be contacted over the network [7].

iv) The main advantage of this interface is that it has the ability to switch servers quickly [13].

iv) The main advantage of external public IP interface is that it can be connected to the system from any machine anywhere.

v) Another advantage of this IP interface is its security. It is extremely secured.

v) External IP interface is not as safe as the internal IP interface [16].

vi) Private interfaces do not lose internet connectivity [18].

vi) External public interfaces has the tendency to lose internet connectivity very often.

The above differences describe the differences between the Internal private IP interface and External public IP interface. For the case study of Starnet, two suitable IP addresses are assumed as A and B. the routers are R1 and R2.

There are several types of Virtual Private Network or VPN. The basic types of VPN are as follows:

  1. i) Remote Access VPN: This connection enables an individual to link from an unlikely situation to a private organization network with the help of a desktop computer or laptop that are connected to the Internet [2].
  2. ii) Site to Site VPN: This is the kind of Virtual Private Network, which is generated between the two different locations [7]. Site to site VPN helps to link two completely discrete geographical networks or locations.

iii) Internet Protocol Security or IPSec: This is a set of protocols, which gives security to the internet protocol [19]. It normally utilizes cryptography to obtain security.

  1. iv) Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol or L2TP: It is a tunneling protocol, utilized to reinforce the Virtual Private Networks [11]. The main disadvantage of this protocol is that it does not give any security by itself.
  2. v) Point to Point Tunneling Protocol or PPTP: It is an obsolete method for the implantation of VPNs [10]. It utilizes a channel of control of TCP to encrypt the point-to-point packets.
  3. vi) Secure Sockets Layer or SSL: This is a type of VPN that is utilized with the help of a norm Web browser [1]. The main advantage of this secure sockets layer is that it never requires any kind of installation of the exclusive client software on the computer of the end user.

vii) Transport Layer Security or TLS: The successor of SSL is known as the Transport Layer Security protocol or the TLS.

viii) Open VPN: This is the open source software application, which executes the virtual private network techniques for generating the secured site-to-site or point-to-point connections in bridged configurations [20].

  1. ix) Secure Shell or SSH: It is ciphered network protocol used for functioning the services of network safely over the unsafe network.

Type of VPN Implemented

The type of virtual private network implemented in Starnet is the Internet Protocol Security VPN. IPSec is a protocol suite of network, which validates and ciphers the data packets sent over the network [9]. It includes protocols for initiating mutual authentication within the agents at the starting of the session and negotiating the cryptographic keys to utilize within the session. Starnet would get the advantages of IPSec. The benefits of Internet Protocol Security are as follows:

  1. a) Origin of Data Authentication: This feature helps to identify who has sent the data to whom and thus hacking can be mitigated [8].
  2. b) Encryption: This characteristic ensures that data is not read during the time of sending or within the route.
  3. c) Connectionless Integrity: This feature ensures that data is not altered during the time of sending or within the route [12].
  4. d) Protection: IPSec helps to detect the packets and to protect them against the attacks of DoS or denial of service [19].

IPSec should be selected, as it is the most secured virtual private network. It is implemented in a router or firewall and it gives high security, whose application is to cross the perimeter. IPSec comes under the transport layer and the translucent applications [2]. The main advantage of this protocol is its high security. The applications of Starnet will be extremely secured with the help of this protocol.

Site to site and Remote Access Virtual Private Networks are the two best types of VPNs. However, they differ a lot in their applications and networking. A site-to-site virtual private network enables organizations located in various fixed locations to reinforce safe connections amongst each other over the public network  [3]. An example of site-to-site VPN is the internet. It extends the network of the organization so that the employees get the network from other locations as well.  There are mainly two types of site-to-site VPNS. They are as follows:

  1. a) Extranet: When a particular company is related to another company like the supplier, partner or customer, it builds an extranet VPN, which can connect to the LANs of those companies [13]. The advantage of this extranet is that it enables all the organizations to do the job in a shared and safe network by preventing any kind of utilization to the different intranets.
  2. b) Intranet: When an organization has more than one remote location that is needed to connect in one private network, the organization constructs an intranet VPN to attach every different LAN to one WAN.

A remote access VPN enables all users to reinforce safe connections with the help of a network of remote computer. These users usually access the network to obtain secured resources just like the networks are directly connected to the servers of the network. There are two elements requires for a remote access VPN [14]. The first component is a network access server or NAS. This is also known as the media gateway or a remote access server or RAS. A NAS is a committed server and it can be claimed as one of the multiple software applications that are running on the shared server. A NAS is something that links the Internet with a user to give authenticated credentials to register in to the virtual private network. To validate the credentials of the user, the network access server utilizes its own process of authentication or a different server of authentication running on the network [17].  The other element of VPN is the client software. The staffs, who wish to utilize the virtual private network from their own systems need software on the systems, which can reinforce and maintain a link with the VPN. Most of the operating systems have software automatically installed in them which links to remote access VPNs, since some of the VPNs may need users to establish a distinct application. This second element sets a tunneled linkage to the NAS that the end user demonstrates by the internet address [5]. This client software further controls the encryption to secure the connection. The main difference between site-to-site and remote access VPNs is that site to site VPN is server-to-server connection, whereas remote access VPN is a client to server. The site-to-site VPN is an ASA to ASA connection but remote access VPN example is PC to ASA [11]. Another difference is that in site-to-site the keys and networks should match for the link to reinforce. However, in remote access VPN, the server validates the client and informs the client which is the route towards tunnels and which one are not.

Site to Site and Remote Access VPN Difference

  1. a) High Security: It permits high security
  2. b) Managed Service: It can be installed by a particular enterprise or can be offered as the managed service.
  3. c) Enables network in Multi locations: It enables network in multiple locations at a single time even after locating outside the internet premises [12].

The main advantages of remote access VPN are as follows:

  1. a) The moment a firewall is acquired, it involves many licenses for the remote access VPN connections [4].
  2. b) It is extremely cost effective.
  3. c) An established and recognized technology and at the same time is extremely simple.

A virtual private network is a private network that is utilized to access the network virtually over the public network [14]. It has several features. The characteristics of VPN are as follows:

  1. i) VPN filters the traffic in network and it helps to understand which traffic should be allowed.
  2. ii) VPN configures the traffic filters. Configuration is extremely important for any network.

iii) VPN keeps the systems connected [20].

  1. iv) VPN helps in strong encryption.
  2. v) VPN helps to forward the secrecy.
  3. vi) VPN helps to secure the protocols strongly.

The above mentioned statements clearly describe the security features of virtual private network.

IPSec is a protocol suite of network, which validates and ciphers the data packets sent over the network. It includes protocols for initiating mutual authentication within the agents at the starting of the session and negotiating the cryptographic keys to utilize within the session [13]. IPSec protects the flow of data within the pair of hosts that means the host-to-host between the host and the security gateway that means the network to host. It utilizes various cryptographic security services to secure the communications over the networks of Internet Protocols.  IPSec reinforces the replay protection, data integrity. It also helps in data origin authentication, network level peer authentication, and data confidentiality (encryption). It is an end-to-end scheme of security that is operating in the Internet Layer of the Internet Protocol Suite, whereas some of the other security systems of internet are also in use, such as the Secure Shell or SSH and Transport Layer Security (TLS) [7]. These function in the top layers at the Application Layer or SSH and the Transport Layer or TLS. IPSec can secure the applications in the Internet Protocol layer automatically.

  1. a) Authentication Header: The Authentication Header or AH is a component of the protocol suite of Internet Protocol Security [5]. This Authentication Header guarantees the data origin authentication and connectionless integrity of all the IP packets.
  2. b) Encapsulating Security: The Encapsulation Security Payload or ESP gives confidentiality, integrity and authentication that protect against the data tampering and provide protection to the content of the message [16]. It even gives a framework for the implementation of standard algorithms like the SHA and MD5.
  3. c) Internet Key Exchange: the Internet Key Exchange is a protocol in the IPSec protocol suite that is utilized to put up a SA or security association. Internet Key Exchange constructs on the ISAKMP and the protocol of Oakley [6].

A VPN or Virtual Private Network is a private network over the public network and allows the users to receive and send data over the public and shared networks as if their systems are directly linked to the private network [14]. The main benefits that the applications get from VPN are the security, management and functionality of the private network. VPN even enables the staffs of an organization to access the intranet safely even when they are present outside the office [1]. There are various advantages and disadvantages of VPN. The advantages of VPN are as follows:

  1. i) With the help of a VPN, the users are able to access a network or a computer system from any place, which has any type of internet connection.
  2. ii) VPN is extremely secured and it provides high security to the network [18].

iii) VPN is extremely cost effective and it makes it very popular for all organizations.

  1. iv) VPN has the advantage to work within the public network such as a private network or a WiFi hotspot.
  2. v) VPN is extremely flexible and scalable.
  3. vi) It can open the blocked sites and can encapsulate the IP address with the replacement of public IP VPN [12].

vii) It uses cryptography and thus can be claimed as secured.

In spite of having so many advantages, VPN do have various disadvantages. The disadvantages of VPN are as follows:

  1. i) Data sometimes get lost during the journey.
  2. ii) VPN needs extra attention to set up the security system completely to mitigate the cyber crime acts [3].

iii) Public access is prohibited in virtual private network.

  1. iv) Most of the connections are long distanced in VPN.
  2. v) Sharing of files sometimes creates problem for VPN [6].

These are the advantages and the disadvantages of Virtual Private Network.

Advantages of Site-to-Site VPN

Conclusion

Therefore, from the above discussion it can be concluded that, Virtual Private Network is a secured network that provides a highly secured virtual network.  The above report clearly describes the difference between the interfaces and what type of virtual private network should be implemented for the case study of Starnet. The report also explains the differences between the Site to Site VPN and the Remote Access VPN and also the advantages of both of them. The security features of VPN are also explained in this report. The report also covers the three important protocols of IPSec and also the advantages and disadvantages of VPN to the network.

References

[1]L. Qu, X. Cui and X. Liu, "IPv6 in IPv4 Virtual Private Network Based on Virtual Devices in Vehicle Information System", Applied Mechanics and Materials, vol. 321-324, pp. 2910-2913, 2013.

[2]F. Gharehchopogh, R. Aliverdiloo and V. Banayi, "A New Communication Platform for Data Transmission in Virtual Private Network", International Journal of Mobile Network Communications & Telematics, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 1-9, 2013.

[3]M. Liyanage and A. Gurtov, "Securing virtual private LAN service by efficient key management", Security and Communication Networks, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1-13, 2013.

[4]M. Sathyan.K, "Security Enhancement of Firewall Policies in Virtual Private Network", IOSR Journal of Engineering, vol. 02, no. 02, pp. 197-202, 2012.

[5]H. Lian and A. Faragó, "Optimizing Virtual Private Network Design Using a New Heuristic Optimization Method", ISRN Communications and Networking, vol. 2012, pp. 1-9, 2012.

[6]F. Ibikunle, S. Oloja and E. Philip O., "Campus Network Virtualization using Multiprotocol Label Switching Virtual Private Networks (MPLS-VPNs)", International Journal of Applied Information Systems, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 1-9, 2013.

[7]J. Guichard, MPLS and VPN architectures. Cisco Press, 2012.

[8]H. Hooper, CCNP security VPN 642-647 official cert guide. Indianapolis, Ind.: Cisco Press, 2012.

[9]K. Grewal and R. Dangi, "Comparative Analysis of QoS VPN Provisioning Algorithm on Traditional IP based VPN and MPLS VPN using NS-2", International Journal of Computer Applications, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 43-46, 2012.

[10]V. Perta, M. Barbera, G. Tyson, H. Haddadi and A. Mei, "A Glance through the VPN Looking Glass: IPv6 Leakage and DNS Hijacking in Commercial VPN clients", Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies, vol. 2015, no. 1, 2015.

[11]B. B?NU??, "Security Technologies Implemented in MPLS VPN Networks", International Journal of Information Security and Cybercrime, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 9-16, 2012.

[12]W. Stallings, Cryptography and network security. Boston: Pearson, 2017.

[13]"Cyber-security", Network Security, vol. 2014, no. 1, p. 4, 2014.

[14]"Introduction to Computer and Network Security", Network Security, vol. 2013, no. 11, p. 4, 2013.

[15]A. Patel, "Network performance without compromising security", Network Security, vol. 2015, no. 1, pp. 9-12, 2015.

[16]"DNS Security", Network Security, vol. 2016, no. 11, p. 4, 2016.

[17]S. Foresti and G. Persiano, Cryptology and Network Security. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016.

[18]R. Doss, S. Piramuthu and W. ZHOU, Future Network Systems and Security. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.

[19]S. Saraswathi, "Mitigating Strategy to Shield the VPN Service from DoS Attack", International Journal on Cryptography and Information Security, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 53-63, 2012.

[20]J. Chu, "Designing and Implementation of High Concurrent SSL VPN Server", Applied Mechanics and Materials, vol. 241-244, pp. 2424-2429, 2012.

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