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Produce a conceptual design Report, which should consider the terminology, functional requirements and design selection criteria for different elements of typical commercial building. (Scenario provided). It should take into account of the following for the given scenario, within a sustainable context in construction and the built environment.

Task 1 Introduction

  • Describe the differences between residential, commercial and industrial buildings.
  • Discuss the ways in which sustainability can be promoted in building projects.
  • Apply the terminology used in construction technology to a given building construction project.

Task 2 Substructures

This should consider the following.

  • Pre-design studies to be carried out and the type of information to be collated in order to design the most suitable foundation type for different types of structures.
  • The construction of different types of foundations and their suitability for use with different types of structures.
  • How site information impact on foundation design

Task 3 Superstructures

This report should consider the following elements of the superstructure:

  • Walls
  • Roofs
  • Floors – ground and intermediate
  • Windows and doors
  • Staircases
  • Finishes

The report should consider the

  • Description of the functional characteristics of each of the above elements and the design selection criteria for their use.
  • Describe the pre-design studies carried out and types of information collected for a given construction site.
  • Illustrate how the component parts of an element allow it to fulfil its function.
  • Compare different types of structural frame used to carry the primary and secondary elements of the superstructure.

Task 4 Civil Engineering Infrastructure

The report should address the Civil Engineering Infrastructure required for the current scenario. It should

  • Describe the techniques used for remediating the site prior to construction commencing.
  • Discuss the types of substructure works required for the infrastructures.
  • Identify superstructure, substructure and civil engineering structures necessary for a given building construction project.

LO1 Discuss the terminology used in construction technology.

LO2 Describe the different techniques used to construct a range of substructures and superstructures, including their function and design selection criteria.

LO3 Identify the different types of civil engineering infrastructure technology used in support of buildings.

LO4 Illustrate the supply and distribution of a range of building services and how they are accommodated within the building.

Substructures

  • Describe the differences between residential, commercial and industrial buildings

From the practical point of view, the residential buildings may refer to the single-family homes, apartments, duplexes or just the condominiums in which people live. These are by definition the residences. The commercial buildings are the offices, stores, workplaces and other structure that are considered distinctive and are used in and for commerce or business purposes. The industrial buildings, on the other hand, refer to that structure that is used as the factories that are to say for storing industries, warehouses or where other stuff is made.

Also from a different perspective, residential buildings have specific or just certain requirements that may not be found in other types of the building and some of these requirements include bedrooms, bathrooms, kitchen, and the likes. They are considered to be the multifamily structures or the houses that are simple (Zhang, Xia and Zhang 2012).

Commercial building is normally built or laid out according to the intended purpose or use. As a result, some of the commercial buildings may have offices, meeting rooms, loading docks, space for storage and other features. There exist a different kind of the building codes for the use of the commercial house which determines the limit of the occupancy and the bathrooms with the handicapped accessibility provided, fire extinguisher installations, requirements for the lightning among other things that may not be required for the case of the residential buildings.

The industrial building as are normally large with very much open spaces like the warehouse structures. The structure of the warehouses has factory floors where the works of the machinery are carried out. Similar general requirements for the protection against the fire and life safety are normally needed.

  • Discuss the ways in which sustainability can be promoted in building projects.

Addition of the green section to the newsletter is considered very important

 Coordinating supportability tips in your interchanges plan can encourage start and fortify green conduct. Recommendations for waste decrease bring down vitality use and reusing projects can be a straightforward yet successful expansion to office-wide declarations.

Discuss sustainability goals and specific objectives

Have discussions with inhabitants and tenants to help maintainability on an individual dimension. Discover approaches to encourage what they are as of now doing and want to do later on.

Sharing of the sustainability success

On the off chance that you can discover approaches to enhance vitality use, lessen waste or win any feasible acknowledgment, share these victories. Doing as such sends a positive message to building inhabitants about keeping up an effective situation(Zhang, Xia and Zhang 2012).

Hosting of a recycling event

An occasion that connects with building tenants and whatever remains of the network can give an effective way to lessen squander, particularly if individuals can drop off things that are progressively hard to reuse, for example, batteries, LED lights and old PCs and printers, as per BOMA.

Utilizing top-notch fills, making utilization of inexhaustible choices where conceivable and guaranteeing right hardware grease are for the most part key approaches to accomplishing this.

In any case, picking the correct kind of gear for your site needs is similarly as vital in any case. At the point when an on-location generator is required, for instance, ensure that the privilege estimated generator is utilized to cover the required vitality utilization. Consider utilizing littler generators for times of lower vitality request(Serranti, Gargiulo and Bonifazi 2012). This may mean employing multiple, however, can help ensure you're not over-utilizing vitality pointlessly.

  • Apply the terminology used in construction technology to a given building construction project.

Superstructures

In building a house, one will hear a portion of certain words. There is no reason their importance ought to get lost on. In development, there are numerous terms utilized that make it simple for specialized individuals to do their work. Becoming more acquainted with a few or a large portion of the development terms will empower you to comprehend your task exceptionally well and this thus would most likely empower you to have a significant contribution to your venture. It would be ideal if you take note of that the terms exhibited here have been haphazardly picked and don't speak to all the regular terms utilized. Continuously get legitimate understanding from your specialist. A portion of the definitions are cited from the Concise Oxford Dictionary (eleventh version), and the word reference of Architecture and Building development.

In the construction of the house, the following terms are normally used:

Floorplan:

It is also called the floor layout

It refers to drawing of the horizontal section of a structure that is used to illustrate the relationship between different spaces.

Section: It refers to a representation of the internal composition of a building or the structure of the building. The sections normally show the nature of the construction of the building starting from the foundation to the roof.

Elevation: This term refers to a two-dimensional representation of the side of a building from any direction

Dimensions: It refers to the measure between two specific points. The construction of the building will utilize several measurements.

Cantilever

This refers to the horizontal protruding part of the building structure that normally gets support just from one end. The building that the client has proposed to have will have the balconies that have pillars supporting them.

Cladding

This normally refers to the material that is used in the process of facing the building. It can be used as the exterior or the interior finishing. Cladding can be of concrete, wood or just masonry.

Concrete

This normally refers to a building material that is made by mixing the given proportion of the sand, cement, water, and the gravel. The result is normally a hard material that is used in the making of the slab.

Task2 (Substructures)

(a)

Truth be told, the land and geotechnical conditions impact establishment structure. As to the land conditions, the primordial factor will be the profundity of the bedrock. As indicated by this profundity, the establishment structure qualities may change, depending if the bedrock lies at the ground surface or so shut that the building can be established upon it(Viswanathan et al 2014). The bedrock may likewise happen at a profundity beneath the ground surface that still makes conceivable the exchange of burdens to it.

Then again the bedrock might be so distant from the surface that the building should be established in flimsier topographical material. In the first and third cases shallow establishments might be utilized yet while in the main it isn't important to have an enormous worry with the structure, in the third, establishments in the soil, satisfactory subsurface examinations are basic, being essential an exploratory work until a profundity somewhere around double the width of the structure. These establishments in the soil, in which the geotechnical conditions are of extraordinary significance, are the most well-known in Engineering.

Civil Engineering Infrastructure

(b)  Construction of different types of foundations and their suitability for use with different types of structures.

Individual footing

This is one of the shallow footings that are constructed for a single column. It is also called the pad foundation. This kind of the footing system is used in the cases of the structure whose loads are to be carried by the columns. The size is normally calculated depending on the load and the safe bearing capacity of the soil.

Combined footing

It is also used in the cases where the load of the structure is carried by the columns. In most of the cases, the footings of the structure are overlapping although they have different designs.

Spread Footing

This is a type of the building in which the base is wider than the vertical wall of the structure. This wider base helps in the spreading of the weight of the structure that is under the construction hence stability.

They are used for the cases where there is the possibility of the groundwater above the bearing layer of the soil that leads to the process of the liquefaction.

Pile foundation

Are used to transfer the load deep into the strata of the rocks. They are used to achieve the stability of the structures that are in the risk of experiencing tilting due to the earthquake.

Drilled shaft foundations

They are used where the deep deposits of the soft clay which is also loose are found. In such cases, the water-bearing granular soil exists.

How site information impact the design of the footing system

The information regarding the site has a direct impact on the design of the footing system as it determines what type of the soil the foundation will be resting on.

In the places where the soil is very soft and has the low load-bearing capacity, the most type of the recommended foundation is called the wide strip foundations. The footing will be reinforced with the steel so that the loading per square meter is reduced.

A reinforced concrete raft may be used on the expansive soil that is very weak such as peat or clay. They allow the building to actually float on the soil

The site information will also affect the depth of the foundation. Areas that are prone to the earthquake need deeper (pile type) foundations

Task 3(Superstructures)

Wall System

The wall system of the structure should be as strong as possible to resist the effects of the forces such as wind. The wall is therefore required to be very strong and very stable one that is resistant to the effects of the moisture. The walls should, therefore, be resistance to the fire cases and also the effects of the heat passage into the house. Prior to the construction of the wall system of the house, there is a need to know the kind of the environment of the place including the moisture since this will determine the stability. The walls that are made of the bricks and the blocks allow the walls to be fire resistant. Other than bricks and blocks, the walls can be made from the fibers and the composites. The use of the mortar alongside the concrete and the bricks may be considered a secondary material. Considering that this particular house is to be built next to the river bank, the walls should be made of the fire bricks that are resistant to the moisture.

LO1 Discuss the terminology used in construction technology.

Roofs

The roofing system of the house should be fire resistance, provide adequate protection against heat, be soundproof have lots of strength nag stability. The information regarding the weather pattern is very crucial in the determination of the kind of the material to be used in the construction of the roofs. The roofs that are made of the clay allow for the proper insulation against the heat and also being sound and fireproof. Most of the roofs are made of the iron sheets, clay and fiber materials like the asbestos that have been faced off and grass. The scenario under investigation should exploit the benefits of the clay roofing system

Floors

The functional requirements of the floor system include the following

High strength and the stability, proper resistance to the ground moisture and weather, durable and free from the maintenance, resistance to fire, the passage of heat and also resistance to sound. Concerning soundness of floors, the firmness of floor ought to be sufficient to make the floor remain steady and level under its self-weight and expected dead and live loads. Besides, the floors need to help and oblige ventilation, water, electrical, warming administrations without causing an adverse impact on the dependability of the floor. The diversion of the floor must be enough confined and kept little to avoid breaking of unbending wrapping up. At long last, Basement and strong ground floors, steadiness depend on properties of cement under them. For little household building concrete without support may be sufficient yet for huge burdens like overwhelming gear or apparatus strengthened solid section is required(Fernández, Torrens, Morales and Martínez  2012). Furthermore, suspension strengthened solid chunks are essential on shrinkable soil against soil differential compression of extension, explicitly in circumstances where profoundly attached trees are near the site.

The functional requirements of the window and the door system include the following.

Doors, windows, and equipment ought to be structured and organized so that potential damage to people is wiped out;

Door gatherings ought to be effortlessly operable in a risky or unintentional circumstance;

Doors ought to have a reasonable opening of something like 750 mm width and 2050 mm stature; Ways to lodge washrooms, toilets, and entryways that do not escape courses for more than one individual may have a width of under 750 mm; Frenzy bars ought to be given on entryways in territories where there is a danger of clog or frenzy; Edge specifying and entryway course of action should prevent all entrance of water from decks; Programmed opening gadgets ought to be introduced on entryways utilized much of the time for transport and treatment of products; On the off chance that a sheltered entryway is required for the establishment, it ought to be satisfactorily dimensioned with respect to quality, fire rating and presentation to utilize(Zhang, Xia and Zhang 2012).

Meeting these functions need materials like the carbon steel, stainless steel and even aluminum materials. In order to enhance the security of the property that is yet to be constructed, suggestion is to make use of the steel doors.

LO2 Describe the different techniques used to construct a range of substructures and superstructures, including their function and design selection criteria.

Staircases

The functional requirements of the staircases vary.

Fire Safety:

Stairs are the guideline ways to get out to the outside in the event of flames in structures. In this way staircase ought to be built of materials that are equipped for keeping up soundness and quality for a timeframe, adequate to escape outside the building. The measure of steps (i.e. riser and track) and the width of the adequate stairway ought to be sufficient for the protected break of those in the building.

Sound Insulation:

Sound protection is important for any staircase so as to diminish sound transmission from one story to other. The fundamental type of sound transmission is the effect sound. The compelling protection against this is to give sound retaining completions to the track of stairs. Other requirements may include stability and strength. Achieving some of these requirements is by the use of the wood, concrete blocks among others.

The staircases are provided with the rails as the secondary products for extra protection.

Finishes

The finishing of the floors will be achieved using terrazzo while the roofs will be done for finishing using plaster boards. The walls will be plastered.

Task 4 Civil Engineering Infrastructure

Remediation

There are several techniques of the site remediation. The methods of the remediation are categorized s chemical, biological and the physical means. The lion's share of procedures is sorted as physical medicines with just a single procedure, biodegradation, falling under the organic treatment class. Synthetic medications include the use of specialists to advance extraction of the unsafe substance, and physical medications include expulsion of the danger through physical means. The overall advantage of the different remediation strategies has a reliance on vast scale appropriateness and additionally in general expense. Systems, for example, in-situ verification can be connected just too limited regions in every application, in any case, on the grounds that of the related cost, numerous applications in various territories of a similar waste site increment the technique's cost-adequacy

Discuss the types of substructure works required for the infrastructures.

The substructure work will require materials that are in line with the demands of the construction. Following concession to a temporary rundown of recipients, definite development appraisals can be done. A composed extent of works in addition to a draw plan showing the rooms to be fixed ought to be concurred for each house, in view of the house types, the circumstance on location, and the explicit needs of every family. Substructure includes steel sheet piling, concrete diaphragm walls and basement construction(Beck,  Kondziella, Huard and Bruckner 2017). Superstructure includes formwork, fabrication and the concrete steel working. Every extent of works ought to be approved by the CWG. In spite of the fact that the development appraisals ought to in a perfect world be completed in-house, given the remaining task at hand, it is suggested that this work is contracted out under tight supervision. An open delicate process ought to along these lines be held for the arrangement of this administration; both state divisions and private people or organizations might be intrigued, however, to keep up consistency and to limit CRS the board oversight it is suggested that one organization be granted the work per each Cluster Area. A standard appraisal frame has been produced that requires just minor change(Dongellini, Naldi and Morini 2017). This can be given on a plate to disentangle the checking procedure by CRS and to allow the utilization of every evaluation as a major aspect of the database for the following work done and getting ready valuations. These structures can be at first finished by hand, to anticipate the foundation of the database and the fitting staff. The drainages should be served with culverts to direct floodwater.

LO3 Identify the different types of civil engineering infrastructure technology used in support of buildings.

Identify superstructure, substructure and civil engineering structures necessary for a given building construction project.

Superstructures include

Roofs, walls, staircases, finishes, and floors

Civil engineering structures

The remediation of the site and dewatering

Substructure works

Construction of the basement

Culverts

Concrete diaphragm walls

Steel sheet piling

Superstructure

Reinforcement

Fabrication

Reinforced concrete work

Task 5 Building Services

Supply arrangement: A supply arrangement is a technique for supply utilized by Public Works and Government Services to secure merchandise and ventures. Like standing offers, it's anything but an agreement and neither one of the parties are legitimately bound because of marking a supply game plan alone. Supply courses of action incorporate a lot of foreordained conditions that will apply to offer to request and to come about contracts(Serranti, Gargiulo and Bonifazi 2012). They enable customer divisions to request offers from a pool of pre-qualified providers for explicit prerequisites. This varies from standing offers that just enable customer divisions to acknowledge a segment of a necessity officially characterized and valued. Many supply courses of action incorporate maximum costs which enable customer offices to arrange the cost descending dependent on the explicit necessity. The arrangement for this particular task will work on the reliability, cost, and efficiency of the contractors.

The location of the primary services like the water point will place in easily accessible places. The toiles and the bathrooms will be placed in areas that are considered open to allow for the circulation of the fresh air. Safety equipment like the fire extinguishers will be placed at the corridors,

Elements of the superstructure used to facilitate the primary services

The wall system will be used for the anchorage of the fire extinguishers. The water tanks will be placed on the constructed basement.

How the distribution of the primary services impact on the overall design of the building

Considering that the water tanks will be placed on the roof, the rigid design which is compact has been recommended. The design will include the use of the gutter for the collection of stormwater.

References

Beck, T., Kondziella, H., Huard, G. and Bruckner, T., 2017. The optimal operation, configuration and sizing of generation and storage technologies for residential heat pump systems in the spotlight of self-consumption of photovoltaic electricity. Applied energy, 188, pp.604-619.

Rossellini, M., Naldi, C. and Morini, G.L., 2017. Sizing effects on the energy performance of reversible air-source heat pumps for office buildings. Applied Thermal Engineering, 114, pp.1073-1081.

Fernández Carrasco, L., Torrens Martín, D., Morales, L.M. and Martínez Ramírez, S., 2012. Infrared spectroscopy in the analysis of building and construction materials (pp. 357-372). InTech.

Serranti, S., Gargiulo, A. and Bonifazi, G., 2012. Classification of polyolefins from building and construction waste using NIR hyperspectral imaging system. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 61, pp.52-58.

Viswanathan, V., Crawford, A., Stephenson, D., Kim, S., Wang, W., Li, B., Coffey, G., Thomsen, E., Graff, G., Balducci, P. and Kintner-Meyer, M., 2014. Cost and performance model for redox flow batteries. Journal of Power Sources, 247, pp.1040-1051.

Zhang, H., Xia, X. and Zhang, J., 2012. Optimal sizing and operation of pumping systems to achieve energy efficiency and load shifting. Electric Power Systems Research, 86, pp.41-50.

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