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Question:
Discuss about the Hospitality and Gastronomy for Social, Private and Commercial.

 
Answer:
Introduction

Hospitality is a personal, social, and commercial (hotels and tourism) performance that involved the generousness, kindness and functional services required to meet the basic needs of a specific person of concern whether it is a guest or relative or stranger. The most basic requirements addressed in hospitality are food, drink and accommodation. The general meaning of hospitality is similar for all countries, languages, cultures and societies at the global context (Dredge, Airey & Gross, 2014). Now, in contemporary society, hospitality is more of a science and management process for its commercial utilisation in the hotel, tourism, healthcare, and co-operate socialisation industries (Chen, Sloan & Legrand, 2010).

Another most important science that runs parallel with hospitality is gastronomy. These are two different disciplines but are linked in a manner that there is no hospitality without gastronomy or no gastronomy without hospitality (Croce & Perri, 2010). According to Hemmington (2007), gastronomy can be considered as a part of hospitality that deals with food science, nutrition, safety and satisfaction whereas hospitality senses the structure of gastronomy describing the manner in which food is served, enjoyed and loved by people.  The Gastronomy from traditional times is described as “the art and science of good eating”. The word gastronomy is the collaboration of Greek words “gastro” meaning ‘stomach’ and “nomos” meaning ‘law’ that is considered as food and culture in the contemporary hospitality industry (Dredge, Airey & Gross, 2014). Hence, gastronomy and hospitality are two different sciences that run in a parallel manner initiated from education to practical implementation. Both are considered as “science of pleasure and internal satisfaction” that work in a collaborative manner at personal, social, as well as commercial level (Chen, Sloan & Legrand, 2010).

According to Hemmington (2007), the general understanding about gastronomy and hospitality remains same at the global level but the techniques and processes applied in both field are different from region to region or culture to culture. The African gastronomy and hospitality techniques are surely different from that of Japanese or visa versa. Therefore, gastronomy and hospitality studies also show variations in different locations, but the basics of both remain similar irrespective of culture and locations.

Introduction to research essay

This research essay is the application of learner’s research skills, knowledge and practice to demonstrate a clear understanding on the basics of gastronomy and hospitality from traditional to contemporary society. The research essay focuses on explaining the history, concepts and theories related to both sciences with the help of available literature sources. Further, understanding the concepts and acceptance of Korean food in terms of gastronomy and hospitality. The research includes a critical analysis of alternative hospitality paradigms and their impact on the future practices and development of Korean food.

 
Significance of research essay

This research essay is significant for understanding the basis behind gastronomy and hospitality as a science of pleasure and spiritual satisfaction. By researching on history, concepts, issues and theories a clear viewpoint about both gastronomy and hospitality is generated to further understand their relationship with each other. The critical analysis performed on the aspects of alternative hospitality paradigms helps to understand their approaches to eliminate the issues in hospitality and gastronomy as well as their future importance with reference to specific Korean food.

Aim

The research essay aims to understand the concepts of hospitality and gastronomy from traditional to contemporary society. Further, analysing the impact of alternative hospitality paradigms on future of Korean Food practices and development

Objectives
  • To understand the concepts, theories and issues related to hospitality and gastronomy
  • To understand the relationship between two interdisciplinary sciences of gastronomy and hospitality
  • To understand the basic concepts of Korean gastronomy and hospitality
  • To critically analyse the alternative hospitality paradigms and its impact on the future of Korean food
  • To conclude about the impact of alternative hospitality paradigms on the future of hospitality practices and development in Korea
Literature review
Hospitality (History, concepts and theories)

Hospitality is a phenomenon that exists as social behaviour since the civilisation dwelled in mankind. In traditional scenario hospitality was considered as means of socialisation derived from Latin word “hospes” that means “guest” or “host”. Bob Luitweiler provided the first noticeable hospitality service in 1949 in the form of Servas Open Doors, a non-profit organisation helping in International peace development. Further, John Wilcock made travel directory in 1965 describing the desire of his friends while travelling to host each other (Dredge, Airey & Gross, 2014). According to Lashley (2015), since ancient times, global concepts of hospitality vary from region to region. In Indian culture hospitality means to address guest as God, in Greece hospitality is considered as the spiritual practice, in Judaism hospitality is serving guest whereas in Pashtun culture hospitality means respecting guest without hope of any return or favour. However, hospitality in Korean culture means “serving guest means serving humanity” in best possible manner. 

Mand, & Cilliers (2013) indicated that previously hospitality was a service related to personal and social interest. But, in contemporary society hospitality has adopted a commercial structure of hotel and tourism industry. The collaboration of hospitality management, gastronomy, food services & safety, tourism management, hospitality and tourism marketing together forms the contemporary hospitality.

Collaborative presentation of hospitality and tourism industry

Figure 1: Collaborative presentation of hospitality and tourism industry

(Source: Dredge, Airey & Gross, 2014, p.45)

In traditional concepts studied by Muller (2010) hospitality was considered as experience and behaviour, which leads to the development of characteristics like kindness, generosity, friendship and relationship. The psychological theory of social exchange and cognitive development theory explains this traditional concept of hospitality. As per social exchange theory, hospitality is a manner to establish social relationships between guest and host that help in the positive social development in cognitive behaviour. Further, cognitive theory indicates that hospitality flourishes generosity, kindness, and patients in the behaviour of a human being.

According to Symons (2013), hospitality adopts the concept of equity, where all the guests are treated with equality to meet the principles of hospitality. Further, Lashley (2015) indicated that concept of hospitality in various regions is “strangers security” where hospitality is a sanctuary. But, the commercial hospitality industry involves the collaboration of all basic concepts of traditional hospitality with Maslow’s Hierarchy Theory of needs. The pyramid of Maslow’s theory indicates that if hospitality services do not meet the need of people than it is difficult to reach the upper level of the pyramid. The basic needs covered in Maslow’s pyramid involves all needs like food, drink, shelter, security, sleep etc.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs in the Hospitality Industry

Figure 2: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs in the Hospitality Industry

(Source: Lashley, 2015, p. 370)

Gastronomy (History, concepts and theories)

Sloan, Legrand & Simons-Kaufmann (2014) indicated that food depends on the art and creativity of cooking that is one of the most important aspects of human survival and existence. Any kind of wrong cooking can lead to extinction; therefore, gastronomy is a science that works for providing food, art, hygiene, safety and nutrition with an experimental and innovative approach. Sarioglan & Cevizkaya (2015) studied that identification of gastronomy concept was first observed in Greek culture where daily meals had their own specific importance. Further, Normans in England reintroduced the cookery art with innovation. Firstly in Paris, the sea and freshwater fishes were introduced followed by discovering of different spices in the thirteenth century.

Further, Richards (2014) studied that fifteenth century was the time of crockery invention where wooden, gold, silver and copper instruments were replaced by glasses. In the eighteenth century, George IV introduced the pleasures and problems of dining methodology. Gastronomy emerged as a science around the end of the eighteenth century with the effect of all previously done research in food science.

Visual representation of gastronomy as food science

Figure 3: Visual representation of gastronomy as food science

(Source: Sarioglan & Cevizkaya, 2015, p.100)

Hjalager (2010) opine that decades ago tourism, hospitality and gastronomy were considered as different functioning industries. But, the concept of gastronomic tourism and industry modified the meaning of hospitality by adding gastronomy as one most important part. According to Mulcahy (2015), the “foodscapes” concept is the collaboration of creativity, local cultures and food that is widely accepted in hospitality. The gastronomy of any particular location describes its culture in tourism industry because every culture possesses a special kind of food pleasure. Richards (2014) studied the “city food system” concept where a specific location carries a specific food governance system that includes food safety, environment, economic development, health and culture.

Further, Robinson, Breakey, & Craig-Smith (2010) studied the concept of “molecular gastronomy” that represents the gastronomy of contemporary society. Molecular gastronomy deals with food science at the molecular and atomic level to improve the food pleasures with experimental approaches. Hospitality industry provides a huge support to molecular gastronomy that works to enhance the profitable industrial aspects. Molecular gastronomy is above the cultural aspects of traditional gastronomy. Mulcahy (2015) indicated that gastronomy and hospitality industry shares a parallel relationship where both work together parallel and closely related to each other but never mix or collaborate. Both are always the different form of science and studies.

General issues related to gastronomy and hospitality in contemporary society

The most general issues in the establishment of effective gastronomy and hospitality as per studies of Muller (2010) include food safety, food access, food waste, hygiene, go green food, and unhealthy consumptions. These issues are minor but still require proper resolution techniques. Mand, & Cilliers (2013) indicated that hospitality is speedily moving towards technical implementation and Internet based functionality this creates the issue in the cultural aspects of gastronomy. The traditional gastronomic techniques generally don’t work as per use of new technologies. According to Mak et al. (2012), food safety is another major concern that leads to customer dissatisfaction in this industry. Some of the theoretical and conceptual issues of the hospitality industry are management systems, tourist motivation, stakeholder functionality, cultural competency, strategic management, information technology and relationship disciplines like location, marketing, public, culture, urban planning etc.

Introduction and characteristics of Korean food
Korean serving and dining food

Figure 4: Korean serving and dining food

(Source: Heitmann, Robinson & Povey (2011, p. 45)

Heitmann, Robinson & Povey (2011) studied a detailed description on Korean cuisine indicating that within the complexity of different cultural environment and trends the Korean cuisine remained under the state of evolution for centuries. Korean food and culture are highly influenced by its neighbouring cultures of Japan and China. Kim, Kim & Goh (2011) studied that Korean food persists a stand-alone identity for its seafood. The Korean food is exotic, special and specific due to its different climatic conditions. The most individual feature of Korean food is its spiciness because different spices coming from food of other culture highly modified the Korean food. Further, Lee & Lee (2011) indicated that Korean cuisine has a special feature of various side dishes. The Korean royal court cuisine is a very famous cuisine bought for a royal family highly represent Korean cultural propriety.

Kim, Wang & Ahn (2013) studies that grains, legumes, meat, beef, pork, chicken, seafood and vegetables are main components of Korean food. The Korean diet is full of proteins and fibres with low fat and moderate calories providing a healthy balanced diet. Further, Long (2010) indicated that no Korean food is prepared without the involvement of fermentation. The fermentation process was discovered as a spiritual practice by ancient Korean to get benefits from food. Therefore, highly processed fermentation is another major characteristic of the Korean meal. Richards (2012) indicated that Korean food is gaining huge popularity to control the obesity condition in the population of United States.

Further, Heitmann, Robinson & Povey (2011) studied that as per Korean traditional culture dog meat and ginseng chicken soups are considered as medical food. Korean table setting is another important characteristic of Korean gastronomy that includes 3-chop, 5-cho, 7-chop, 9-chop and 12-chop settings that are named as per the number of side dishes served in cuisine. Kim, Wang & Ahn (2013) indicated that Korean food is highly stuck with its cultural specification where seafood, seasoning, spices, grains etc. still represents the Korean cultural gastronomy.

 
Basic concepts and acceptance of traditional Korean hospitality and food

The basic concept of hospitality and gastronomy in Korea is committed for following its traditional and cultural values. Generally, people from other cultures visit Korea only to adore its tradition, dance, songs and food (Sarioglan, 2014). However, there are changes in lifestyle and eating habits at Korea after the emergence of European trade in the country. Kimchi is National dish of Korea paired with steamed rice bowl and vegetable delights. Kimchi is a culture in Korea and it is still a basic part of Korean hospitality. However, Lee & Lee (2011) stated that Western populations sometimes consider the Korean ways of hospitality harsh and disrespectful, they precept Korean hospitality as aggressive as a business making context. Further, Sarioglan (2014) indicated that Korean follow their traditional rules and regulations in terms of dining, meal serving, sleep timing and eating habits with kindness and generosity. This makes Korean hospitality satisfactory by more than 90% of visitors and tourist.

Limitations and gaps in literature

The literature related to hospitality and gastronomy lacks information about their theoretical aspects. There are no theories that directly describe the aspects of hospitality and gastronomy. Further, there is a lack of literature sources that describe the Korean hospitality. There is no detailed information about modifications in Korean hospitality as per emerging changes in the hospitality industry. This makes it difficult to critically analyse the impact of emerging hospitality and gastronomy trends on Korean foods and culture.

Critical Analysis
Analysing the alternative hospitality paradigms and its impact on the future of Korean food
Linking the characteristics of Korean food and the culture with its tourism

Food considered as the core of cultural presentation is helpful for developing a National Brand Image in tourism and hospitality industry. Through food, dance, songs and ambience of any place, the visitors gain experience about their culture as per the tourism profile. Therefore, tourism of every country follows cultural gastronomy as per their geographical profile (land, climate, soil, weather, wind, rainfall, landscape). Lee & Lee (2011) in their studies describe that Korean cuisine is considered to be unique and tasty when compared to other Asian cuisine culture in the tourism industry. This is because Korean food is still prepared using its traditional methods and cultural beliefs even in the tourism gastronomy.

Horng & Tsai (2012) indicated that in Korean serving culture all dishes are served at one time on dining which is different from Western and Chinese cuisine culture. But still, even in tourism, this cultural practice of serving is followed in Korea. However, this cultural practiced was not lied by western tourist who have a habit of 3 coarse or 5 coarse meal served one after another. Lee & Lee (2011) studied a survey conducted by Korean Tourism Organisation (2010) where 300 Chinese tourists provided rating for Korean tourism. The survey results indicated only 76% tourist satisfactions where food satisfaction was only 68%. Therefore, Korean tourism field to satisfy Chinese tourist and the major complaint issues were related to “unsatisfactory food” “lack of service” and “poor guides”.  According to Horng & Tsai (2012), Korea is having 32nd position out of 139 tourism destinations globally indicating a lack of effective tourism. The reason for this low standardisation and developed tourism facilities in Korea. The Korean gastronomy is also loosing its characteristics and identity due to influence from neighbouring regions.

This makes Korean government realise the essentiality to encourage growth and development in tourism industry due to the high level of interest generated China, Japan and Taiwan in future Korean tourism. There are new hospitality services, festivals, regional growth, commercial techniques and gastronomy paradigm introduced in Country to encourage tourism (Richards, 2012). There are many strategies in gastronomy that are introduced to modify Korean tourism and hospitality. In this research, the impact of different strategies on Korean tourism is critically analysed by the learner. 

 
Korean hospitality and gastronomy

Stringfellow et al. (2013) studied that Korea persists a strong cultural cuisine but lacks global recognition. However, the neighbouring regions of Korea that are China, Japan and Thailand have widely explored their cuisine and food at the global level. Therefore, potential tourism is attached towards these regions rather than Korea. This develops an effective need for Korean to focus on its tourism techniques especially exploring its food and cuisine industry.

Hansik globalisation

For developing effective tourism at the global level the government of Korea tries to implement different hospitality, tourism and gastronomy process basically to overcome the drawbacks of its tourism. One such innovative approach was Hansik (Korean cuisine) globalisation, as per studies of Heitmann, Robinson & Povey (2011) the Korean government worked to globalise the Korean cuisine with this hospitality technique in 2012, but till the end of 2013, the technique failed to achieve its expectations. This Hansik program aimed to develop food culture industries, enhance the cultural content in gastronomy and develop the cultural image in tourism. However, this program bought a great media attention towards Korean cultural gastronomy, which is now considered as most health and best diet worldwide.

Richards (2012) studied the reviews of the Health Magazine (U.S), which stated Korean National dish Kimchi as one of the top five healthiest diets worldwide. Further, New York Times reported Sundubu as best vegetarian food in Korea. But, the management and marginal issue are the reason for the struggling phase in Hansik globalisation. However, Hansik globalisation still persists a promising success of Korean cuisine.

Culinary Tourism

 Harrington & Ottenbacher (2010) studied that “Culinary Tourism” is another hospitality paradigm that is adopted in Korean tourism to attain globalisation in future. The Culinary tourism or gastronomy tourism of food tourism is related to food where it is considered that people travel a specific place to explore their cuisine and food. The basic principles of culinary tourism practice are linking culture and tourism, establishing meal experience, supporting local culture and preparing distinctive foods to attract tourist. The hospitality paradigm of culinary tourism provides an implementation of food experience to tourist needs, food globalisation, local and cultural development, product development, innovative gastronomy in future of hospitality (Long, 2010).

Bottyan (2015) studied the Korean Food Tourism Festival of 2010, which was an effective program to promote culinary tourism in Korea. The five culinary tourism sense were implemented in this festival that involved smell, see, listen, taste and touch. Visitors enjoyed the Korean food with historical Korean music in this festival. Further, programs like Jeonju International Fermented Food, Musical B-bap, Rural cuisine concerts; Chunhyang and Suunjapbang (Korean cuisine books) were the successful implementation of culinary tourism in Korea. Therefore, this alternative hospitality strategy promises a successful future for gaining Korean cuisine popularity.

Gastronomic branding

Horng et al. (2012) study another hospitality or tourism technique known as “Regional and Country branding” which is a very popular technique of marketing food products and experiences. This technique is a gastronomic marketing technique to develop networks in tourism. Horng & Tsai (2010) indicated that Korean government implements gastronomic marketing strategy by introducing traditional food on its tourism website, food events by celebrities, and TV shows introducing gastronomic cultures that promise to build an effectual Korean branding image in future.

Korean food as medicine

The one of the most important characteristics of Korean food is it potential as a medicine since ancient times. This potential of Korean gastronomy is used as a form of hospitality paradigm technique to gain tourist attention towards Korea tourism. People generally prefer Korea for their medical surveillance, peace of mind and harmony. The Korean gastronomic culture considered ‘mind and body as one’ which is implemented in its food preparations strategies. This medicinal value of Korean gastronomy promises an effective wisdom of nutritional balance in Korean hospitality (Stringfellow et al. 2013).

Emerging trends in hospitality and gastronomy with their impact on the future of Korean cuisine and tourism
Korean cuisine and Molecular gastronomy

Vartiainen, Aksela & Hopia (2012) studied about Molecular gastronomy as a revolution or gastronomic movement in hospitality. This molecular gastronomy is a part of culinary changes in tourism where new concepts of food, dining, eating and satisfying are adopted to restructure the future of hospitality. Molecular gastronomy involves culinology and experimental cuisine at the molecular level. This gastronomic study involves experiments to modify food for developing potential health, taste, pleasure and satisfaction. Molecular gastronomy is considered as future of gastronomy in the hospitality industry to attain customer satisfaction being a part of the culinary movement.

Sarioglan (2014) studied that molecular gastronomy was the part of Korean food culture where fermentation was practised to ferment various different types of foods. The traditional ways of cooking in Korea involved molecular gastronomy. The fermentation is a technique in molecular science used to develop effective materials of interest. From more than 100 years fermentation is practised in Korean gastronomy. Further, the Korean spices and seasoning were studied at the molecular level before implementing them in food. Therefore, the futuristic approach of molecular gastronomy is the part of Korean food culture that provided considerable importance to Korean food in hospitality future. Horng & Tsai (2012) studied that Chef Jung Sik Yim, first time implemented Molecular gastronomy in Korean food in his restaurant naming it as ‘new Korean cuisine’. The traditional Korean ingredients were served in an ultra modern way at his restaurant. This was the first restaurant where molecular gastronomy was applied on Korean food.

The anthropological perspective

The anthropological perspective works as a pattern to modify the gastronomic and hospitality techniques in future. According to Son & Xu (2013) anthropological perspective indicates that human eats what they are, table and dining manners are the universal personality of individual, conspicuous eating defines status, food is a fashion and seduction. These anthropological perspective forms the future of hospitality services where the strategies and technique are designed keeping this perspective under consideration.

Williams, Williams & Omar (2014) indicated that anthropological hospitality perspective promises a future that clearly defines the importance of food. However, Korean hospitality culture has not implemented anthropological perspective because their hospitality and gastronomy are still following traditional viewpoints. But, these anthropological perspectives are considered to be future of hospitality and tourism.

 
Healthification of food paradigm in Korean gastronomy

Richards (2012) studied that “healthification” of food is a new trend or philosophy or paradigm in hospitality and gastronomy that deals with manners to make food healthy. Healthification is a part of molecular gastronomy. This process is widely practised in Korean gastronomy since traditional times. Korean food already holds the identity as healthy and unique food globally. Therefore, the futuristic approach of food healthification provides a great importance to Korean food. Wan & Chan (2013) indicated that Korean food is already gaining importance as a health diet in many regions like United States, Australia, and Asian countries.

Root to stem dining in Korean hospitality

The root to stem dining is another innovative approach to hospitality with the aim to technically minimise the wastage of food because future belongs to food scarcity and a control is needed towards this future. Therefore, root to stem dining applies to gastronomic techniques where manipulations are made to use the complete part of one vegetable as the food ingredient in the best possible manner (Long, 2010). According to Williams, Williams & Omar (2014) root to stem dining is a part of environmental ethics in hospitality as an approach to minimise wastage of food. This technique can revert the assumed future of food scarcity. Shin (2010) indicated that Korean hospitality services honestly practice this dining strategy to minimise its food waste. This technique has reduced 20% hotel food waste in Korea. Although this technique is a small part of hospitality services yet establishes its own importance as innovative and effective approach to environmental hospitality service.

Conclusion

The research study performed aimed to understand the basics of hospitality and gastronomy from traditional as well as contemporary society perspectives. The critical analysis was performed to understand the impact of Korean food and culture on the hospitality and tourism of this country as well as impact of alternative hospitality paradigms on future of Korean hospitality and gastronomy. The research study was performed using literature sources like research journals, books, papers, magazines, articles, news and blogs. Initially, the basic concepts, theories and issues in hospitality and gastronomy were studied to understand their basic importance in the social, personal and commercial zone of performance. The basics of hospitality and gastronomy form the structure of contemporary tourism industry. However, issues in gastronomy and hospitality studied in research try to harm this basic structure indicating the importance of alternative hospitality paradigms in this industry.

Further, literature involves a general introduction to basic characteristics of Korean food, culture, dining, concepts and their importance in Korean hospitality and tourism industry. This literature study helped to get the general idea about Korean gastronomy as well as their hospitality scenario to perform critical analysis in research.

The critical analysis was performed to analyse the impact of alternative hospitality paradigms on Korean tourism. These alternative hospitality paradigms involved changes in gastronomy as one of the major components. The Hansik globalisation, culinary tourism, gastronomic branding, and medical approach to Korean food are some of the accepted hospitality paradigms that has attained success in manipulation the Korean tourism and hospitality providing successful future to this industry. Hansik globalisation have developed healthy eating practices, culinary tourism indicated that future of hospitality belongs to gastronomic approaches and gastronomic branding indicated that hospitality future depends on food and culture of any region. Korean food traditionally believed to be effective medicine provides a specific importance to Korean food as medical practice in future of hospitality.

The emerging trends like molecular gastronomy; anthropological perspective, healthification and root to stem dining are some other alternative hospitality paradigm that works to positively enhance the future of hospitality and tourism industry. These paradigms are now practised in Korea as well to improve its future outcomes in tourism and hospitality industry.

 
References

Books

Chen, J., Sloan, P., & Legrand, W. (2010). Sustainability in the hospitality industry. Routledge.

Croce, E., & Perri, G. (2010). Food and wine tourism: Integrating food, travel and territory. Cabi.

Dredge, D., Airey, D., & Gross, M. J. (2014). The routledge handbook of tourism and hospitality education. Routledge

Long, L. M. (Ed.). (2010). Culinary tourism. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.

Journals

Bottyan, I. (2015). The Impact of Domestic Gastronomic Festivals on the Local Accomodations. Deturope, 7(2), 188-205.

Harrington, R. J., & Ottenbacher, M. C. (2010). Culinary tourism—A case study of the gastronomic capital. Journal of Culinary Science & Technology,8(1), 14-32.

Heitmann, S., Robinson, P., & Povey, G. (2011). 9 Slow Food, Slow Cities and Slow Tourism. Research Themes f or Tourism, 114.

Hemmington, N. (2007). From service to experience: Understanding and defining the hospitality business. The Service Industries Journal, 27(6), 747-755.

Hjalager, A. M. (2010). A review of innovation research in tourism. Tourism management, 31(1), 1-12.

Horng, J. S., & Tsai, C. T. S. (2010). Government websites for promoting East Asian culinary tourism: A cross-national analysis. Tourism Management,31(1), 74-85.

Horng, J. S., & Tsai, C. T. S. (2012). Culinary tourism strategic development: An Asia‐Pacific perspective. International Journal of Tourism Research,14(1), 40-55.

Horng, J. S., Liu, C. H., Chiu, H. Y., & Tsai, C. Y. (2012). The role of international tourist perceptions of brand equity and travel intention in culinary tourism. The Service Industries Journal, 32(16), 2607-2621.

Kim, S. S., Wang, K. C., & Ahn, T. H. (2013). Which endorser and content are most influential in Korean restaurant promotions?. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 33, 208-218.

Kim, Y. H., Kim, M., & Goh, B. K. (2011). An examination of food tourist’s behavior: Using the modified theory of reasoned action. Tourism Management, 32(5), 1159-1165.

Lashley, C. (2015). Hospitality studies: escaping the tyranny?. Quality Assurance in Education, 23(4), 364-377.

Lee, S. J., & Lee, K. H. (2011). Understanding the perceptions and service quality of Korean foods: A comparative cross-cultural study of international tourists visiting Korea. The Journal of the Korea Contents Association,11(10), 467-478.

Long, L. M. (2010). Culinary Tourism in and the Emergence of Appalachian Cuisine: Exploring the “Foodscape” of Asheville, NC. North Carolina Folklore Journal, 57(1), 4-19.

Mak, A. H., Lumbers, M., Eves, A., & Chang, R. C. (2012). Factors influencing tourist food consumption. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(3), 928-936.

Mand, H. N., & Cilliers, S. (2013). Hospitable urban spaces and diversity. Hospitality & Society, 3(3), 211-228.

Mulcahy, J. D. (2015). Future Consumption: Gastronomy and Public Policy. The Future of Food Tourism: Foodies, Experiences, Exclusivity, Visions and Political Capital, 71, 75.

Muller, C. (2010). Hospitality technology: a review and reflection. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 2(1), 9-19.

Richards, G. (2012, February). An overview of food and tourism trends and policies. In Food and the tourism experience: The OECD-Korea workshop, (pp. 13-46).

Richards, G. (2012). Food and the tourism experience: major findings and policy orientations. Food and the tourism experience, 13-46.

Richards, G. (2014, November). The role of gastronomy in tourism development. In Fourth International Congress on Noble Houses: A Heritage for the Future.

Robinson, R. N., Breakey, N. M., & Craig-Smith, S. J. (2010). Food for thought: Investigating food and beverage curricular in Australian hospitality degree programs. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Education, 22(1), 32-42.

Sarioglan, A. P. D. M. (2014). Fusion cuisine education and its relation with molecular gastronomy education (comparative course content analysis). International Journal on New Trends in Education & their Implications (IJONTE), 5(3). 3-4

Sarioglan, M., & Cevizkaya, G. (2015). Applicability of cooperative learning model in gastronomy education. Journal of Tourism Theory and Research, 1(2), 98-103.

Shin, Y. (2010). Residents' Perceptions of the Impact of Cultural Tourism on Urban Development: The Case of Gwangju, Korea. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 15(4), 405-416.

Sloan, P., Legrand, W., & Simons-Kaufmann, C. (2014). A survey of social entrepreneurial community-based hospitality and tourism initiatives in developing economies: a new business approach for industry. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 6(1), 51-61.

Son, A., & Xu, H. (2013). Religious food as a tourism attraction: The roles of Buddhist temple food in Western tourist experience. Journal of Heritage Tourism, 8(2-3), 248-258.

Stringfellow, L., MacLaren, A., Maclean, M., & O’Gorman, K. (2013). Conceptualizing taste: Food, culture and celebrities. Tourism Management,37, 77-85.

Symons, M. (2013). The rise of the restaurant and the fate of hospitality. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 25(2), 247-263.

Vartiainen, J., Aksela, M., & Hopia, A. (2012). Introduction to molecular gastronomy and to its applications in science education. Nill: Talk at International Symposium on Science Education (ISSE).

Wan, Y. K. P., & Chan, S. H. J. (2013). Factors that affect the levels of tourists' satisfaction and loyalty towards food festivals: a case study of Macau. International journal of tourism research, 15(3), 226-240.

Williams, H. A., Williams Jr, R. L., & Omar, M. (2014). Gastro-tourism as destination branding in emerging markets. International Journal of Leisure and Tourism Marketing, 4(1), 1-18.

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