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Literature Review

Discuss about the Hotels and the Guest Experience Management.

From the last some decades, customer services and customer satisfaction has become a main field for the attention of management of the corporations. Both these perception have led a very strong impact on the company performances and customer behaviors. An accurate and effective customer service can led to customer satisfaction and can also create the way for higher profitability for the companies. Numerous studies have been conducted on the concept of customer services and its effect on increasing the company’s revenues. Service sector has been the fastest growing sector across the globe from the last decades. The influences of service quality of the world’s economy have been noteworthy and also widely recognized. Companies are now offering services as the integrated solutions for the products to the customers. They are providing services as add-ons for the tangible goods. A service involves two parts, namely, the first being the service provider and the second is the consumer that seek to take service from that service provider.

The major objective of this study is to review the academic literature on the stated problems and issues to measure the understanding productivity in the field of services. The purpose of this literature review is to have study on the research conducted on the service productivity. The literature review wills also categories the current the situation of services and its effect on global economies.

Customer satisfaction has become a major area of commencement in the management practices also in academic research. Though many studies have been conducted to understand the perception of customer satisfaction, but still nothing can be stated as correctly to summarize the customer satisfaction level. Customer satisfaction can be defined as the review after the consumption of the specific product or service. And for customer satisfaction, services that are offered to them are the most influential one. Services are the growing part of economy and have become a major sector for employment in many countries. The development and innovation in services are now an in-going process in many service providing firms. New types of services have emerged in the service firms as it has led the corporations to meet their respective objectives. While services can be distinguished in many characters, they have a number of characteristics that diversified them from traditional products and which also creates some challenges for the development of new offerings.      

Role of Services in Global Value Chains

There has been a noteworthy influence of services in trade markets through the mode of global value chains. Services are now accounted and responsible for 70% of the world’s total GDP but have only 20% percent contribution has been made by the services in the world trade in balance of payment terms. Though, the global supplies of services are not represented in the cross-border transactions as in value added terms, the services offered by the corporations’ accounts for 40% of the world trade. Labour and capital are two other forms in which the services are also traded. These two are essential form of services as the capital is accountable for the GDP of domestic countries. The character of services in the manufacturing unit of the companies is also termed as the servicification of the manufacturing units. The accountability of services is almost as third part in developed countries and in developing countries it is accountable for 26% of the economies. Services are now increasingly produced in the network of fragmented arrangements. In relation to the goods value chain, the network of services is less fragmented in the trade of value added statistics and its relative evidence.       

Services are now appeared in the production cycle of the companies in a much diversified manners (Barclay, 2000). Services can be accountable for the production of goods and can also be termed as the outputs of networked production systems. Current services provided by the corporation bodies can be defined into the value chains just like possessions and they can be automatically conveyed via satellite and other telecom systems or any other mode of communication (Avelini Holjevac & Gajs?t, n.d.). Due to rapid growth in the sectors of information technology, globalization and customer preferences, the operative administration of the service schemes addresses the efficiency and the superiority issues in the approaching years. The administration of the promoting systems are still lacking from the lack of adequate systemization. The main feature of services that distinguishes it from the products is the imperceptibility, heterogeneity, and inseparability of making and depletion (Avelini Holjevac & Gajs?t, n.d.). However, some fundamentals and techniques established in the industrial unit can be transformed to assistance the service administrations.

The measurements on worldwide dealings in the trade of amenities are strained from the balance of payments. It also reflects the dealings amongst the citizens and the non-residents (Blossfeld, Buchholz, & Kurz, 2011). It has been found in a survey that the portion of amenities in the world line of work has been fluctuating around 20% since the 1990s. It has been found that the domestic services value additional is conducting more higher significance globally and also accounting for 70% global GDP. In comparison to service area trading, the part of service area value added in global GDP has enhanced by 10% from the year 1990. The main aspect of clarifying this inconsistency is that various service areas are operated that are being ramblingly personified in commodities (Bryson & Daniels, 2007). Balance of Payments (BOP) figures evaluates the uncultured value of straight international trade but yet not the service area worth added contains in commodities operated around the borders.  Value added services exporters comprise of the content services of the direct services exports as well as indirect services exports. However, with a percentage of 40, the segment of services in the subject of trades is still inferior that its portion of 70% in the world’s GDP (Elliott & Emmanuel, 2000).

Servicification of Manufacturing

A very serious question arises from this statement that why the portion of services in trades is still inferior than the services portion in GDP even when the international value only helps in adding trade. This can be clarified by the circumstance that amenities are not only transported straight and indirectly through the mode of commodities and services but also over and done with the undertaking of work and wealth (Gupta, 2012). The concepts of General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) also have provisions for this point. GATS has summaries four different approaches of transnational services, namely, the first being the customary nations border supplies, second as the consumption in cross border commodities, third being the commercial presence among nations and the fourth as the presence of natural persons among trading countries (Karoly & Panis, 2004). The first, second and fourth mode of trade are calculated within BOP, while the third approach is examined by the Foreign Affiliates Statistics (FATS) outline.

Services are deliberated as the major attachment in Global Value Chains (GVCs). Servicification here is described as the manufacturing or servicizing of the increase practice of services in production department both in expressions of construction processes and trades (Kumar & Bentley, 2003). Under the servicification of manufacturing, both national sourcing and worldwide sourcing have been involved. This will have a much diversified consequences for trade outlines in GVCs that depends whether the production corporation has its services input globally or domestically. Here, in domestic sources, there will be no involvement of international or cross border trade. The servicification of industrial is considerable as the service value descript for almost a third of gross trades of manufacturing businesses (Lanz & Maurer, 2015). In distinction, the accountability of services in developing countries is only about 26%. This lower participation in the form of services in business exports in emerging countries is mainly in arrears to the inferior national content (Lee, 2010). But, in developed countries, the expansion of services in developed countries has been accounted about 4% since 1995, whereas declined in developing countries.

The major reason that the services has expand in developed countries is due to the fact that the content of services has increased in almost all sectors in these nations. This has happened due to the enhancement in the production of transport equipment, textiles, wood and paper (Machado & Diggines, 2012). While in developing countries, the services have been constant or have been declined in these certain areas. In specific terms, the portion of domestic subject has been declined and the share in cross border trade has been increased (Marks, 2009). Another reason is that the domestic forms of services reports for the popular of servicification of industrial as the intercontinental forms of services as defined by the overseas services significance is close to 12% in both developing and developed nations. In developed nations, trade in services from foreign countries add institutes, on average at nearby third of the distributed services matter, while in developing countries, international sourcing of services is even more essential (Mishra, Sedamkar, & Bharadi, 2011). For illustration, imported service accounts for 17% in developing countries that is quite higher than the 12% of domestic service matter.

Challenges in Guest Experience Management in the Hotel Industry

Numerous researches have been conducted to regulate which procedures management issues are the furthermost essential for service offering organizations. The major reason for the declining in the services is mainly due to the fact that the demands of the consumers and reduced operating cost are forcing the agencies and corporations to pursue ways to condense the functioning cost and to upgrade the effectiveness of approachability. There has been enhancement in the stress for the growing service sector (Waters, 2010). The quality of service is mainly focused on the minds of the customer and it is demarcated as the portion of how thriving the services have met the buyer expectations. It is also to note that the service quality and customer satisfaction are very different concepts, though they are very closely interconnected.  

As the part of GDP is concerned, the services exports of developing countries have been fallen from their peak values of global trade if mainly due to the inflation and crisis of the 2009-10. However, the export of the services in the shares of GDP has not really been recovered from the obstacles in the speed of growth. Trade was expected to be grown in upcoming years with the percentage of 6 to 8 which is very surprising (Waters, 2010). The entire global economy is facing challenges in the contents of slow growth and also due to the potential impact of Brexit. As the manufacturing contents continues to be decrease, as it is happening from the last few years due to the slow progress of construction.       

The study examines the starring role of services in the segment of Global value chains. The study also focuses on the investigation of worldwide trade of services construction. It identifies that the services enters into value chains in the forms of inputs or enablers in the production process. However, both domestic and internationally, services are a major area of concern and opportunities. The study identifies that services are very important in the manufacturing process. Services are accountable for practically third of the gross transfers in trade commerce of industrialized countries and for about 26% in developing countries.

References

Avelini Holjevac, I. & Gajs?t, D. Total quality management.

Barclay, L. (2000). Foreign direct investment in emerging economies. London: Routledge.

Blossfeld, H., Buchholz, S., & Kurz, K. (2011). Aging populations, globalization and the labor market. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

Bryson, J. & Daniels, P. (2007). The handbook of service industries. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

Elliott, J. & Emmanuel, C. (2000). International transfer pricing. London: CIMA.

Gupta, A. (2012). Digital library and education. New Delhi: Pearl Books.

Karoly, L. & Panis, C. (2004). The 21st century at work. Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND.

Kumar, S. & Bentley, P. (2003). On growth, form and computers. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press.

Lanz, R. & Maurer, A. (2015). Services and global value chains. Geneva: World Trade Organization, Economic Research and Statistics Div.

Lee, J. (2010). Service economies. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Machado, R. & Diggines, C. (2012). Customer service. Lansdowne, South Africa: Juta.

Marks, D. (2009). Accounting for services. Amsterdam: Aksant.

Mishra, B., Sedamkar, R., & Bharadi, V. (2011). Proceedings of the International Conference & Workshop on Emerging Trends in Technology 2011. New York: ACM.

Waters, C. (2010). Global logistics. London: Kogan Page.

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