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Learning Outcomes:

This task relates to Learning Outcome 1: Critically review models of youth development from a M?ori perspective.

This assessment is designed to assist you to develop in-depth knowledge of youth development models from a M?ori perspective, and demonstrate your ability to critically review models and consider their potential for application.

Transferable skills:

You will gain experience in:

- researching for the purpose of achieving the aims and objectives of your practice.

- writing succinct, well-structured, informative reports suitable for public and private sector workplaces.

  1. Choose TWO models of development from a Maori perspective e.g E Tipu Rea, or M?UI (one youth development).
  2. Identify the features of each model.
  3. Identify examples where the model has been put into practice in particular contexts (a minimum of one example per model).
  4. On the basis of Steps 1-3, compare and contrast the two models.
  5. Make your own judgments of the models and their applicability to youth development/health.
  6. Present steps 1-6 in a written report. NOTE the Executive Summary should be written when you have completed the task.
  7. Write and format your report according to the Written Report structure below.

Models of Development from a Māori Perspective

The basic approach towards healthcare has been evaluated time and again. However, there has been limited study executed on the basis of Maori perspective. Additionally, it can also be stated that the health perspective of Maori individually has not been provided with critical apprehension. Thus, the research report aims to understand the importance of instilling well being within the Maori community. A study conducted by Thayer & Kuzawa (2015), stated that the Maori perspective on health and development is not dependent on sole model, rather a holistic approach is implemented in order to ensure a steady growth. As per Maori the significant insufficiency in the present wellbeing is a spiritual measurement. Due to difference in perspective, a greater portion of young Maoris have developed a negative perception that further stunts their social and economic conditions. Hence, the current research report identifies two most commonly used models based on Maori perspective and works on evaluating the models. The models are compared and contrasted and finally a suitable one is selected and recommendations are made for further improvement with justifications.

The mentioned model was developed by Mason Durie and worked on explaining the Maori perspective in a better way in terms of health and development. As influenced by Curtis  et al. (2015), it would be fair enough to state that health and well being among the Maoris are viewed as a collective entity. Thus, the importance of the currently evaluated model lies in the four pillars that work on looking over the holistic approach in healthcare. Additionally, Te Whare Tapa Wha can be applied to any health issue affecting Maori from physical to psychological well-being. The major components of the mentioned model are as follows:

Wairau (spirituality) is considered to be one of the most important requisite for well being. As stated by Hayman, Reid & King (2015), without the existence of spiritual awareness an individual may be prone to illness. Additionally, Wairau also explores the relationship of an individual with environment, with heritage and between two individuals. Thus, in case of confrontation Maori do not seek to analyse separate components but seeks to understand the context of well being on a larger issue.

Hinengaro or mental entity states that feelings, behaviour and thoughts are imperative within the Maori community. As observed by Shepherd et al. (2015), Maori may be impressed with the usage of unspoken signals that may extending up to gestures and often emerge out to be demeaning. Thus, it could be fairly stated that healthy thinking for a Maori individual is about relationships. Hence, altruistic behaviour has immense importance among the Maori. Thus, it can be stated communication is the main attribute that can be carried out through emotional expression that is often regarded to be healthy.

 Tinana or physical well being is the well known concept, in regards to health it is a common attribute. As stated by Wepa (2015), Maori individual sees body as a temple and spirit as the deity. The head is regarded as sacred component and must be respected. Thus, it can be perceived that good health is important for ensuring optimal development.

Te Whare Tapa Whā

is often observed as support system. Alternatively, it can also be stated family can be deemed Whanau or family as prime support system in providing care. As stated by NiaNia et al. (2016) Maori believe in extending relationships. The main reason for implementing this attribute is to be gleaned by asking about the whereabouts in order to make each and every individual to be tied into a sense of belongingness. This sense creates an aspect of being included with a broad society.

The above mentioned model can work on ensuring community based healthcare. Alternatively, Te Pae Mahutonga ensures that important aspects in regards health protection and promotions are addressed in community based health care that is as follows:

Mauriora or Cultural identity, as per the traditional Maori culture, Mauriora rests on the pillar of cultural identity. The model as observed by Wikaire  et al.(2017), states that strong culture is a necessity of good health. On the other hand, Ng? Manukura or leadership can work on promoting healthcare through community role models and among peer groups. Thus, the model states that social interaction and communication among the leaders can work on enhancing the group health. Similarly, Te Mana Whakahaere or autonomy is considered important that stresses on the objective of taking responsibility of their own well being and health. Moreover, Te Oranga stresses on the relation between health and socio-economic conditions. Thus, as influenced by Siricharoen (2015), health is impacted in such an extent that individual feel the requisite to participate in society. The participation includes services and goods on which people can rely on and access it with confidence. Toiora or healthy lifestyles states that well being and health is dependent on the lifestyle and how one spends their leisure time. For example, risky indulgence among the youth such as consumption of tobacco can have severe impact on their health. As stated by Wilson, Jackson & Herd (2016), youthful populations is marked with risk-taking behaviour which is the norm within a community or wh?nau. Hence proper evaluation can work on development of youth by assessing their lifestyle. Waiora or Environmental protection, states the importance of protecting the environment and its effect on health and well being. The difference between Mauriora and Waiora are insignificant. Whereas Mauriora stresses on attributes such as inner strength, vitality and a secure identity, Waiora is linked to the external world and spiritual element connecting human wellness with cosmic environments.

Similarity:

The first point of similarity between the evaluated models is the strong influence on Maori culture. In addition to that, it can also be stated both the models work on articulating strong complexity of Maori philosophical thinking. Each and every component in mentioned model is individualistic and self explanatory; hence take into consideration as human complexities. As stated by Harfield et al. (2015), the interdependence of various parts of evaluated models are important. Hence, it can also be stated this interdependence is implicit is both the mentioned models. However, certain facts should not be overlooked that includes the goal of mentioned models. The primary aim of both the models is to ensure better health outcomes among the Maori members. Alternatively, it should also be taken into consideration the prime endeavor of the mentioned models was to implement holistic approach by making use of social inclusion too.

Te Pae Mahutonga

Differences:

The crucial difference between both the models is that an amplification of M?ori concepts of well being. In addition to that, it can also be stated that the first model stress on self development by stating the ways an individual can evolve and bring benefit to both themselves and society. On the other hand, the second model works on a different approach as opposed to the first one. Alternatively, one of the prime difference that has been observed during the course of study is the first modern is traditional in nature, whereas the second approach is based on modern thoughts.

Firstly, the model of Te Whare Tapa Wh? focuses on self assessment and correction amidst the wrong doings of the society. However, the second model, Te Pae Mahutonga stresses on the fact self assessment has negligible importance if the social structure is not stable. Hence, as influenced by Brewer & Andrews (2016), the social structure plays a wide role in implementing both the stated models. Hence, Te Whare Tapa Wh? framework is used for the Health Studies curriculum for nursing due to its simple nature. Thus, it can be clearly concluded, while the former model considers enhancing the well being through psychology, mentality, spiritually and family dimensions. The second model fins it imperative that change in cultural perspective can work on ensuring better health outcomes.

Assessment of models:

On getting to the model one can unmistakably observe that the main model, Te whare tapa wha is constructing its data in light of the advancement of youth. It bases contention that human depends on the advancement being physically, rationally and furthermore mentally. One is viewed as sound on the off chance that he is physically fit, sincerely steady, and rationally dynamic and furthermore the family supporter. One should. Family support is basic part in the advancement of the human wellbeing. Great nourishment given to the relatives by the providers helps a considerable measure in one having great wellbeing.

From the second model, the way of life is a necessary part has been suggested. For instance, on the chance that somebody trusts that the genealogical spirits can recuperate one would effortlessly get mended. Through that confidence of precursors, recuperating can be so effective to the general population of Maori Reid et al. (2015). In the main model, there is a notice of confidence which is something imperative amid improvement. The primary model additionally expresses that for the improvement one should be physically fit with the goal that he can shield himself or herself from adverse situations by keeping healthy mind. The first model likewise calls attention to that the intention of sharing is a critical thing since the less special individuals will have something to eat and that their wellbeing will be steady to perform public employments Pitama (2015). Sharing likewise empowers individuals to approach the wellbeing administrations notwithstanding when she has no financial strength or support. This will enhance the mutual wellbeing on a longer period of time.

Poor condition likewise influences a great deal the wellbeing of the young people of Maori. For the wellbeing advancement, nature ought to be perfect which will mean it would be free from the infections. The perfect condition is realized by the collective participation to save condition (Harfield et al. 2015). The Maori individuals accept it as their duties to keep the Earth clean. The first model discusses the feeling of having a place whereby one needs to acknowledge him or herself for the entire improvement as long as wellbeing is concerned (Wilson et al. 2016). On the off chance that one absolutely trusts that he can achieve a specific undertaking, certainly he was dependably be upbeat and that his or her wellbeing will be sufficient.

Evaluation of Models

The second model discusses the expansionism impacts which came about to the decay of the way of life (Shepherd et al. 2015). The general population of Maori was not permitted to visit the expansionism wellbeing focuses and calls attention to how the colonizers meddled with the way of life that was accepted to be the recuperating power. The second model discusses the embodiment of the initiative in the wellbeing area. The administration association in initiative is vital since each wellbeing specialist would work with the laid strategies and controls. The pioneers of Maori people group are hence should meet up and make the wellbeing division best and available for everybody.

Conclusion  

Based on the above discussed models with their associated characteristics, it would be fair enough to state that every model can be implemented in each case scenario just as it had been previously successful. However, the prime concern of both the models can be concluded to be improved care. Improvement in terms of health conditions is a systematic process and requires time as health development and promotion starts at an early age and continues to develop through the life. Hence, it can be concluded that care at all levels of human life is important.

Hence, it can be recommended a holistic approach can work on ensuring better health outcomes. However, it can also be recommended rather than implementing community based care approach it would be fair enough to implement individualistic care approach (Wikaire et al. 2017). Alternatively, the first model is easy to comprehend and understand that makes it easy to be used again by number of individuals. The simplicity of the first model makes it a better choice to be implemented in both professional healthcare frameworks and also at individual level.  

Reference list

Brewer, K. M., & Andrews, W. (2016). Foundations of equitable speech-language therapy for all: The Treaty of Waitangi and M?ori health. Speech, Language and Hearing, 19(2), 87-95.

Curtis, E., Wikaire, E., Kool, B., Honey, M., Kelly, F., Poole, P., ... & Reid, P. (2015). What helps and hinders indigenous student success in higher education health programmes: a qualitative study using the Critical Incident Technique. Higher Education Research & Development, 34(3), 486-500.

Gifford, H., Cvitanovic, L., Boulton, A., & Batten, L. (2017). Constructing prevention programmes with a M?ori health service provider view. K?tuitui: New Zealand Journal of Social Sciences Online, 12(2), 165-178.

Harfield, S., Davy, C., Kite, E., McArthur, A., Munn, Z., Brown, N., & Brown, A. (2015). Characteristics of Indigenous primary health care models of service delivery: a scoping review protocol. JBI database of systematic reviews and implementation reports, 13(11), 43-51.

Hayman, N., Reid, P. M., & King, M. (2015). Improving health outcomes for Indigenous peoples: what are the challenges?. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, (8).

NiaNia, W., Bush, A., & Epston, D. (2016). Collaborative and Indigenous Mental Health Therapy: T?taihono–Stories of M?ori Healing and Psychiatry. Routledge.

Pitama, S., Huria, T., & Lacey, C. (2014). Improving Maori health through clinical assessment: Waikare o te Waka o Meihana. The New Zealand Medical Journal (Online), 127(1393).

Rata, E., & Zubaran, C. (2016, February). Ethnic classification in the New Zealand health care system. In The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy: A Forum for Bioethics and Philosophy of Medicine (Vol. 41, No. 2, pp. 192-209). Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc..

Reid, J., Taylor-Moore, K., & Varona, G. (2014). Towards a social-structural model for understanding current disparities in Maori health and well-being. Journal of Loss and Trauma, 19(6), 514-536.

Shepherd, M., Fleming, T., Lucassen, M., Stasiak, K., Lambie, I., & Merry, S. N. (2015). The design and relevance of a computerized gamified depression therapy program for indigenous M?ori adolescents. JMIR serious games, 3(1).

Siricharoen, W. V. (2015). Infographic role in helping communication for promoting health and well-being. In Conference: proceedings of the second international conference on computer science, computer engineering, and education technologies (CSCEET2015). Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Thayer, Z. M., & Kuzawa, C. W. (2015). Ethnic discrimination predicts poor self-rated health and cortisol in pregnancy: Insights from New Zealand. Social Science & Medicine, 128, 36-42.

Warbrick, I., Dickson, A., Prince, R., & Heke, I. (2016). The biopolitics of M?ori biomass: towards a new epistemology for M?ori health in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Critical Public Health, 26(4), 394-404.

Wepa, D. (Ed.). (2015). Cultural safety in Aotearoa New Zealand. Cambridge University Press.

Wikaire, E., Curtis, E., Cormack, D., Jiang, Y., McMillan, L., Loto, R., & Reid, P. (2017). Predictors of academic success for M?ori, Pacific and non-M?ori non-Pacific students in health professional education: a quantitative analysis. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 22(2), 299-326.

Wilson, D., Jackson, D., & Herd, R. (2016). Confidence and connectedness: Indigenous M?ori women's views on personal safety in the context of intimate partner violence. Health care for women international, 37(7), 707-720.

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My Assignment Help (2021) Critical Review Of Māori Youth Development Models: A Concise Essay. [Online]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/hsdv7347-health-and-social-development/health-care-for-women-international.html
[Accessed 14 July 2024].

My Assignment Help. 'Critical Review Of Māori Youth Development Models: A Concise Essay.' (My Assignment Help, 2021) <https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/hsdv7347-health-and-social-development/health-care-for-women-international.html> accessed 14 July 2024.

My Assignment Help. Critical Review Of Māori Youth Development Models: A Concise Essay. [Internet]. My Assignment Help. 2021 [cited 14 July 2024]. Available from: https://myassignmenthelp.com/free-samples/hsdv7347-health-and-social-development/health-care-for-women-international.html.

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